Nurse Education in Practice enables lecturers and practitioners to both share and disseminate evidence that demonstrates the actual practice of education as it is experienced in the realities of their respective work environments, that is both in the University/faculty and clinical settings. It is supportive of new authors and is at the forefront in publishing individual and collaborative papers that demonstrate the link between education and practice.
Nursing is a discipline that is grounded in its practice origins - nurse educators utilise research-based evidence to promote good practice in education in all its fields. A strength of this journal is that it seeks to promote the development of a body of evidence to underpin the foundation of nurse education practice, as well as promoting and publishing education focused papers from other health care professions which have the same underpinning philosophy.
Case studies and innovative developments that demonstrate how nursing and health care educators teach and facilitate learning, together with reflection and action that seeks to transform their professional practice will be promoted.
The opportunity to stimulate debate is encouraged as is the promotion of evidence-based nursing education internationally.New sections:
Papers which focus on nursing education in the clinical practice environment, from clinical staff involved in the education of student nurses in practice, as well as educators involved in the development of the workforce through post-qualifying education and training initiatives, are welcomed. It is essential that, as in other areas of nursing education, the evidence-base to education in the clinical environment is developed, where student nurses learn to become nurses; and professional caring practitioners develop and maintain their own knowledge and skills in order to transform the way they develop and deliver quality care to their patients and clients. One field that this is especially visible is known as Practice Development.
In keeping with the overall aims and scope of the journal Nurse Education in Practice (NEP), the midwifery section focuses upon education at an international level. The editorial team wish to encourage submission of papers that relate to midwifery which demonstrate:
• Innovation and development of education;
• Creativity in teaching and learning strategies;
• Advancement of practice-based education;
• Collaborative education initiatives between women and midwives;
• Delivery of education within the maternity services.
The journal receives a large number of articles from doctoral students worldwide. These are, at best, very innovative and demonstrate originality and new evidence underpinning education in nursing and midwifery. We also receive such papers from other health care professions. Some of these papers, focus on the actual overarching study/project itself, whilst some may focus on the actual findings and others on the literature reviews that underpin the research question and discussion of findings. We very rarely receive papers from PhD studies which describe the methodology of the study and the justification of the choice of methods used in pedagogical research because, to date, this has not been a focus of the journal.We have decided to launch a new section - Doctorate Studies Research - which looks at all three of these areas specifically.
These papers will focus on (i) articles that present the whole research study, (ii) systematic or literature reviews which commensurate with the nature of the doctorate study; and (iii) critical reviews of the research design which describe, the chosen research design of doctoral studies, to include methodologies, methods, and data analyses used in pedagogical research.
We hope the section will also provide a more focused approach to highlighting doctorate studies in general.The articles submitted to this section of the journal MUST only be from a doctorate study and will enable doctoral students, and those in the immediate post–doctoral stage of their study, to be able to justify choice of their methodology in particular, and must be underpinned by sound theoretical concepts for the use of their chosen methodology in that particular pedagogical research. Evidence must be provided in the submitted paper of the nature of the educational research that led to the choice of the methodology. Methodology papers submitted for clinical research will not be considered. By introducing this new section we hope to be able to begin to develop a body of evidence on the nature of methodologies being used in educational research.
Submit your paper online at https://www.evise.com/profile/#/NEP/login. Please refer to the journal author guidelines for the specific detail of the format of papers.From 2016 all articles published in Nurse Education in Practice will be immediately assigned to an issue upon acceptance, without having to wait in press. This will mean immediate publication for all authors, upon completion of post-acceptance publishing processes.
The Editor of Nurse Education in Practice, Karen Holland, welcomes the submission of papers for publication. Submission to this journal proceeds totally online. Use the following guidelines to prepare your article via
Types of Manuscripts
Original Research Papers should be up to 6,000 words including in-text references, abstract, keywords and the bibliographic reference.
Issues for Debate: Authors should select article type "Discussion" in the online submission system when submitting an Issue for Debate.The Editor welcomes papers which will stimulate debate and have a direct impact on nursing and midwifery education and scholarship. Issues for Debate papers should not exceed 2,500 words, including in-text references, abstract, keywords and the bibliographic reference list.
Midwifery Education papers: Original research, reviews and Issues for Debate articles that pertain specifically to midwifery education are all welcomed by the Editorial team. The usual guidelines for article length and format (as outlined in these Guide for Authors) should be followed. At point of submission, authors will be requested to select 'Midwifery Education' if their paper is to be considered for this section.Clinical Education: Original research, reviews and Issues for Debate articles which focus on nursing education in the clinical practice environment are welcomed. The usual guidelines for article length and format (as outlined in these Guide for Authors) should be followed. At point of submission, authors will be requested to select 'Clinical Education' if their paper is to be considered for this section.
Doctorate Studies Research
The new Doctorate Studies Research section provides authors with the opportunity to publish details of the chosen research design of their doctoral studies. At point of submission, authors will be requested to select 'Doctorate Studies' if their paper is to be considered for this section.
Many education organisations worldwide that are involved in the education of nurses and midwives undertake innovative developments and their evaluation that do not necessarily conform to the requirements of a major piece of research. These studies, often with a change in education outcome, are particularly important if related to curriculum in either the practice or university setting. The curriculum (as identified here) is considered as being the total learning experience that encompasses faculty, students, place and context, including most importantly any outcome or impact on student learning. This could also involve service users, including children and young people , mothers and older persons, both as subjects or collaborative participants where the impact of an education evaluation could enhance their experience of health and social care.
This new journal section is being implemented because of ongoing evaluation of article submission types and those which do not necessarily ‘fit in’ with a traditional model of a research paper but are a very valuable resource in terms of new knowledge and practice. We are particularly keen to see articles that report the implementation, evaluation and impact of an educational development, especially in relation to professional practice. All articles must be evidence -based and rigorous in the presentation of the work submitted. Some will also need to demonstrate their specific Ethical Committee approval as appropriate and all studies will require the inclusion of information of how participant involvement was ethically managed.
Word count: 4500 in total.
including in-text references, abstract, keywords and the bibliographic references.
Guest Editorials: The Editor encourages Guest Editorials to be submitted on a variety of current issues impacting and influencing nursing and healthcare education. Guest Editorials can have a national or international focus. Editorials should not exceed 1,500 words. Authors should select article type "Editorial" in the online submission system when submitting a Guest Editorial.Please check your text carefully before you submit it, both for correct content and typographic errors. It is not possible to change the content of accepted papers during production. Do not use 'he', 'his' etc where the sex of the person is unknown; say 'the nurse' etc. Avoid inelegant alternatives such as 'he/she'. Nurses should not be automatically designated as 'she', and doctors as 'he'.
You can use this list to carry out a final check of your submission before you send it to the journal for review. Please check the relevant section in this Guide for Authors for more details.
Ensure that the following items are present:One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
• E-mail address
• Full postal address
All necessary files have been uploaded:
• All figures (include relevant captions)
• All tables (including titles, description, footnotes)
• Ensure all figure and table citations in the text match the files provided
• Indicate clearly if color should be used for any figures in print
Graphical Abstracts / Highlights files (where applicable)
Supplemental files (where applicable) – these should be files that endorse your article but are to be included online only should the manuscript be accepted for publication. Such files should be submitted labelled as e-component files.
• Manuscript has been 'spell checked' and 'grammar checked'
• All references mentioned in the Reference List are cited in the text, and vice versa
• Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Internet)
• Relevant declarations of interest have been made
• Journal policies detailed in this guide have been reviewed
• One author has been designated as corresponding author
Permission to reproduce borrowed material
Written permission to reproduce borrowed material (illustrations and tables) must be obtained from the original publishers and authors, and submitted with the typescript. Borrowed material should be acknowledged in the captions in this style: Reproduced by kind permission of ... (publishers) ... from ... (reference).
Declaration of interest
All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential competing interests include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. Authors must disclose any interests in two places: 1. A summary declaration of interest statement in the title page file (if double-blind) or the manuscript file (if single-blind). If there are no interests to declare then please state this: 'Declarations of interest: none'. This summary statement will be ultimately published if the article is accepted. 2. Detailed disclosures as part of a separate Declaration of Interest form, which forms part of the journal's official records. It is important for potential interests to be declared in both places and that the information matches. More information.
A Conflict of Interest Statement should be uploaded as a separate file during submission. In the statement all authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organisations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding.
Other/multiple and parallel publications
The journal seeks to publish original papers that make a substantial and/ornovel contribution to nursing and midwifery education scholarship. All aspects of a study should be published within a single paper and the journal's generous word limits should allow for this. However we recognize that this is not always possible. In order to aid editorial decisions about distinctiveness and to avoid inadvertent duplication please make the editorial office aware of all previous, current and under review publications from the same study and/or provide copies of the papers.
All published and in press accounts of the study from which data in this paper has been obtained must be referred to in the paper and the relationship between this and other publications from the same study must be made clear. It is not sufficient to simply cite a prior publication - the text must state that results are from the same study.
Submission declaration and verification
Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract, a published lecture or academic thesis, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service Crossref Similarity Check.
- Make sure that any prior publications are both properly cited, and referred to, as being part of the same study.
- Give the fullest possible reference to 'in press' papers but not those currently under review.
- Update the citations in all papers that are being prepared if the status of a paper changes while there Is still opportunity during the publication processes.
- Submit copies of other manuscripts (including those under review or in press) so that the journal editors can assess the degree of overlap and the novel contribution.
- Identify your study in a distinctive way and refer to it in this way in all publications so that a reader can clearly and easily identify that all papers emanate from the same study.
Authors are also guided to read Duplicate publication and 'salami slicing': Ethical issues and practical solutions (Norman I & Griffiths P., 2008. International Journal of Nursing Studies 45 (9), 1257-1260.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2008.07.003)
Use of inclusive language
Inclusive language acknowledges diversity, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and promotes equal opportunities. Articles should make no assumptions about the beliefs or commitments of any reader, should contain nothing which might imply that one individual is superior to another on the grounds of race, sex, culture or any other characteristic, and should use inclusive language throughout. Authors should ensure that writing is free from bias, for instance by using 'he or she', 'his/her' instead of 'he' or 'his', and by making use of job titles that are free of stereotyping (e.g. 'chairperson' instead of 'chairman' and 'flight attendant' instead of 'stewardess').
Contributors and Acknowledgements
All authors should have made substantial contributions to all of the following: (1) the conception and design of the study, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data, (2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content, (3) final approval of the version to be submitted. In the covering letter to the editorial office, we ask you make a true statement that all authors meet the criteria for authorship, have approved the final article and that all those entitled to authorship are listed as authors.
For transparency, we encourage authors to submit an author statement file outlining their individual contributions to the paper using the relevant CRediT roles: Conceptualization; Data curation; Formal analysis; Funding acquisition; Investigation; Methodology; Project administration; Resources; Software; Supervision; Validation; Visualization; Roles/Writing - original draft; Writing - review & editing. Authorship statements should be formatted with the names of authors first and CRediT role(s) following. More details and an example
Changes to authorship
Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the journal Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed.
Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted. While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the Editor will result in a corrigendum.
Article transfer service
This journal is part of our Article Transfer Service. This means that if the Editor feels your article is more suitable in one of our other participating journals, then you may be asked to consider transferring the article to one of those. If you agree, your article will be transferred automatically on your behalf with no need to reformat. Please note that your article will be reviewed again by the new journal. More information.
Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (see more information on this). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.
Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations. If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases.For gold open access articles: Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an 'Exclusive License Agreement' (more information). Permitted third party reuse of gold open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license.
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. More information.
Elsevier supports responsible sharing
Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.
Role of the funding source
You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated. Sources of financial support should be noted in a Conflict of Interest file for original submissions. Should revisions be requested post-review, any revised manuscripts will require the Role of the Funding Source statement to be moved to the manuscript file.
Funding body agreements and policies
Elsevier has established a number of agreements with funding bodies which allow authors to comply with their funder's open access policies. Some funding bodies will reimburse the author for the gold open access publication fee. Details of existing agreements are available online.
After acceptance, open access papers will be published under a noncommercial license. For authors requiring a commercial CC BY license, you can apply after your manuscript is accepted for publication.
This journal offers authors a choice in publishing their research:
• Articles are made available to subscribers as well as developing countries and patient groups through our universal access programs.
• No open access publication fee payable by authors.
• The Author is entitled to post the accepted manuscript in their institution's repository and make this public after an embargo period (known as green Open Access). The published journal article cannot be shared publicly, for example on ResearchGate or Academia.edu, to ensure the sustainability of peer-reviewed research in journal publications. The embargo period for this journal can be found below.
Gold open access
• Articles are freely available to both subscribers and the wider public with permitted reuse.
• A gold open access publication fee is payable by authors or on their behalf, e.g. by their research funder or institution.
Regardless of how you choose to publish your article, the journal will apply the same peer review criteria and acceptance standards.For gold open access articles, permitted third party (re)use is defined by the following Creative Commons user licenses:
Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND)
For non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.
The gold open access publication fee for this journal is USD 2500, excluding taxes. Learn more about Elsevier's pricing policy: https://www.elsevier.com/openaccesspricing.
Green open access
Authors can share their research in a variety of different ways and Elsevier has a number of green open access options available. We recommend authors see our open access page for further information. Authors can also self-archive their manuscripts immediately and enable public access from their institution's repository after an embargo period. This is the version that has been accepted for publication and which typically includes author-incorporated changes suggested during submission, peer review and in editor-author communications. Embargo period: For subscription articles, an appropriate amount of time is needed for journals to deliver value to subscribing customers before an article becomes freely available to the public. This is the embargo period and it begins from the date the article is formally published online in its final and fully citable form. Find out more.
This journal has an embargo period of 12 months.
Elsevier Researcher Academy
Researcher Academy is a free e-learning platform designed to support early and mid-career researchers throughout their research journey. The "Learn" environment at Researcher Academy offers several interactive modules, webinars, downloadable guides and resources to guide you through the process of writing for research and going through peer review. Feel free to use these free resources to improve your submission and navigate the publication process with ease.
Language (usage and editing services)
Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's Author Services.
Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files (e.g., Word, LaTeX) are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.
Submit your article
Please submit your article via https://www.evise.com/profile/api/navigate/NEP.
The covering letter to the editorial office should be succinct but structured and contain the following information:
•full title of paper and the journal to which you are submitting.
•a true statement that all authors meet the criteria for authorship, have approved the final article and that all those entitled to authorship are listed as authors.
•a statement to confirm that the work is original and has not previously been published elsewhere (either partly or totally), and is not in the process of being considered for publication in another journal.
•a short statement about the importance and/or novelty of the findings
•details of any other published papers related to the manuscript (eg. same study), and/or details of other related articles currently under consideration for publication in other journals.
This journal operates a double blind review process. All contributions will be initially assessed by the editor for suitability for the journal. Papers deemed suitable are then typically sent to a minimum of two independent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor's decision is final. More information on types of peer review.
This journal uses double-blind review, which means the identities of the authors are concealed from the reviewers, and vice versa. More information is available on our website. To facilitate this, please include the following separately:
Title page (with author details): This should include the title, authors' names, affiliations, acknowledgements and any Declaration of Interest statement, and a complete address for the corresponding author including an e-mail address.
Blinded manuscript (no author details): The main body of the paper (including the references, figures, tables and any acknowledgements) should not include any identifying information, such as the authors' names or affiliations.
Manuscripts should be prepared to the word limits above. Please note that papers not formatted in this manner will be returned to the author for amendment before entering into the editorial and peer review process. In particular please take care to follow the instructions for the formatting of references. To facilitate anonymity in the peer review process, the authors' names and any reference to their addresses should only appear on the title page and not on the manuscript. Authors should also ensure that the place of origin of the work or study, and/or the organization(s) that have been involved in the study/development are not revealed in the manuscript.
Aim of Study
To avoid any misunderstanding on the part of the reader/reviewer please ensure that you make reference to the WHOLE study when referencing about a study that you are reporting on where there is more than one part, such as "this paper reflects one part of the whole study…" and not refer to it only as "this study" which implies that the study is only referring to one study in its own right.
Essential Title Page Information
The title page should be provided as a separate file.
• Title. Your title page should give the title in capital letters, below which should be the authors' names (as they are to appear) in lower-case letters.
• Author names and affiliations. Where the family name may be ambiguous (e.g., a double name), please indicate this clearly. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
• Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that phone numbers (with country and area code) are provided in addition to the e-mail address and the complete postal address. Contact details must be kept up to date by the corresponding author.
• Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.
• Acknowledgements Acknowledgments should be noted on the title page for original submissions. Should revisions be requested post-review, any revised manuscripts will require Acknowledgments to be moved to the manuscript file. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc).
• Role of the funding source A statement of declaration of financial support should be included on the title age for original submissions. Should revisions be requested post-review, any revised manuscripts will require the statement of funding support to be moved to the manuscript file.
An abstract of your paper, a maximum of 200 words summarising the content, should follow the title page. Abstracts should not contain headings, references or abbreviations.
Highlights are mandatory for this journal. They consist of a short collection of bullet points that convey the core findings of the article and should be submitted after the abstract, but before the main text in manuscript file. Highlights should include 3 to 5 bullet points (maximum 85 characters, including spaces, per bullet point). See https://www.elsevier.com/highlights for examples. Abbreviations should not be used in Highlights. Highlights should be uploaded as a separate file during the submission process.
Include three or four keywords. The purpose of these is to increase the likely accessibility of your paper to potential readers searching the literature. Therefore, ensure keywords are descriptive of the study. Refer to a recognised thesaurus of keywords (e.g. MEDLINE, CINAHL) wherever possible.
List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing Acknowledgments should be noted on the title page for original submissions. Should revisions be requested post-review, any revised manuscripts will require Acknowledgments to be moved to the manuscript file.
Highlights are optional yet highly encouraged for this journal, as they increase the discoverability of your article via search engines. They consist of a short collection of bullet points that capture the novel results of your research as well as new methods that were used during the study (if any). Please have a look at the examples here: example Highlights.
Formatting of funding sources
List funding sources in this standard way to facilitate compliance to funder's requirements:
It is not necessary to include detailed descriptions on the program or type of grants and awards. When funding is from a block grant or other resources available to a university, college, or other research institution, submit the name of the institute or organization that provided the funding.If no funding has been provided for the research, please include the following sentence:
This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.
• Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
• Provide captions to illustrations separately.
• Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the published version.
• Submit each illustration as a separate file.
• Ensure that color images are accessible to all, including those with impaired color vision.
A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available.
You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format.
Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.
Please do not:
• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
• Supply files that are too low in resolution;
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.
Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF), or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color online (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. For color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article. Please indicate your preference for color: in print or online only. Further information on the preparation of electronic artwork.
Elsevier's Author Services offers Illustration Services to authors preparing to submit a manuscript but concerned about the quality of the images accompanying their article. Elsevier's expert illustrators can produce scientific, technical and medical-style images, as well as a full range of charts, tables and graphs. Image 'polishing' is also available, where our illustrators take your image(s) and improve them to a professional standard. Please visit the website to find out more.
Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.
Please submit tables as editable text and not as images. Tables can be placed either next to the relevant text in the article, or on separate page(s) at the end. Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text and place any table notes below the table body. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in them do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article. Please avoid using vertical rules and shading in table cells.
This journal has a standard template available in the reference management package EndNote (http://www.endnote.com/support/enstyles.asp). Using plug-ins to wordprocessing packages, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article and the list of references and citations to these will be formatted according to the journal style which is described below. The accuracy of references is the responsibility of the author. The journal uses the "name and year: Harvard" This journal has a standard template available in the reference management package EndNote (http://www.endnote.com/support/enstyles.asp). Using plug-ins to wordprocessing packages, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article and the list of references and citations to these will be formatted according to the journal style which is described below.
Citation in Text
Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. . Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication. Unpublished results and personal communications are not permitted.
All citations in the text should refer to:
1. Single author: the author's name (without initials, unless there is ambiguity) and the year of publication;
2. Two authors: both author's names and the year of publication;
3. Three or more authors: first author's name followed by "et al" and the year of publication. Citations may be made directly (or parenthetically). Groups of references should be listed first alphabetically, then chronologically.
Example: 'Demonstrating is one way of modeling excellence in practice, removing extraneous distractions and allowing the students to immerse themselves in the 'ideal' learning experience (Murray et al., 2008)'.
Increased discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, CrossRef and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the DOI is highly encouraged.
A DOI is guaranteed never to change, so you can use it as a permanent link to any electronic article. An example of a citation using DOI for an article not yet in an issue is: VanDecar J.C., Russo R.M., James D.E., Ambeh W.B., Franke M. (2003). Aseismic continuation of the Lesser Antilles slab beneath northeastern Venezuela. Journal of Geophysical Research, https://doi.org/10.1029/2001JB000884. Please note the format of such citations should be in the same style as all other references in the paper.
As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.
This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in your published article.
Reference management software
Most Elsevier journals have their reference template available in many of the most popular reference management software products. These include all products that support Citation Style Language styles, such as Mendeley. Using citation plug-ins from these products, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article, after which citations and bibliographies will be automatically formatted in the journal's style. If no template is yet available for this journal, please follow the format of the sample references and citations as shown in this Guide. If you use reference management software, please ensure that you remove all field codes before submitting the electronic manuscript. More information on how to remove field codes from different reference management software.
Users of Mendeley Desktop can easily install the reference style for this journal by clicking the following link:
When preparing your manuscript, you will then be able to select this style using the Mendeley plug-ins for Microsoft Word or LibreOffice.
References should be arranged first alphabetically and then further sorted chronologically if necessary. More than one reference from the same author(s) in the same year must be identified by the letters a, b, c, etc., placed after the year of publication:
Reference to a journal article:
Borneuf, A.-M., Haigh, C., 2010. The who and where of clinical skills teaching: a review from the UK perspective. Nurse Education Today 30, 197-201.
Laurillard, D., 2002. Rethinking University Teaching: A Conversational Framework for the Effective Use of Learning Technologies, second ed. Routledge, New York.
Reference to a chapter in a book:
Mettam, G.R., Adams, L.B., 2009. How to prepare an electronic version of your article, in: Jones, B.S., Smith, R.Z. (Eds.), Introduction to the Electronic Age. E- Publishing Inc., New York, pp. 281–304.
Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. . In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the file in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 150 MB per file, 1 GB in total. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect. Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages. Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.
Include interactive data visualizations in your publication and let your readers interact and engage more closely with your research. Follow the instructions here to find out about available data visualization options and how to include them with your article.
Supplementary material can support and enhance your scientific research. Supplementary files offer the author additional possibilities to publish supporting applications, high-resolution images, background datasets, sound clips and more. Please note that such items are published online exactly as they are submitted; there is no typesetting involved (supplementary data supplied as an Excel file or as a PowerPoint slide will appear as such online). Please submit the material together with the article and supply a concise and descriptive caption for each file. If you wish to make any changes to supplementary data during any stage of the process, then please make sure to provide an updated file, and do not annotate any corrections on a previous version. Please also make sure to switch off the 'Track Changes' option in any Microsoft Office files as these will appear in the published supplementary file(s). For more detailed instructions please visit our artwork instruction pages. Authors are requested to upload Supplementary Material in separate files labelled as “e-component”.
Submission of a revised article implies that all authors are confirming that they have been involved with, and have agreed to, any revisions made.
- a separate "Response to Reviewers" file - Responses to the reviewers' and editors' comments in a table format that shows the original comments and the responses made.
- a revised blinded manuscript with changes clearly highlighted in yellow
- a "clean", blinded version of the revised manuscript without any highlights or comments.
This journal encourages and enables you to share data that supports your research publication where appropriate, and enables you to interlink the data with your published articles. Research data refers to the results of observations or experimentation that validate research findings. To facilitate reproducibility and data reuse, this journal also encourages you to share your software, code, models, algorithms, protocols, methods and other useful materials related to the project.
If you have made your research data available in a data repository, you can link your article directly to the dataset. Elsevier collaborates with a number of repositories to link articles on ScienceDirect with relevant repositories, giving readers access to underlying data that gives them a better understanding of the research described.
For supported data repositories a repository banner will automatically appear next to your published article on ScienceDirect.In addition, you can link to relevant data or entities through identifiers within the text of your manuscript, using the following format: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN).
This journal supports Mendeley Data, enabling you to deposit any research data (including raw and processed data, video, code, software, algorithms, protocols, and methods) associated with your manuscript in a free-to-use, open access repository. During the submission process, after uploading your manuscript, you will have the opportunity to upload your relevant datasets directly to Mendeley Data. The datasets will be listed and directly accessible to readers next to your published article online.
To foster transparency, we encourage you to state the availability of your data in your submission. This may be a requirement of your funding body or institution. If your data is unavailable to access or unsuitable to post, you will have the opportunity to indicate why during the submission process, for example by stating that the research data is confidential. The statement will appear with your published article on ScienceDirect. For more information, visit the Data Statement page.
Online proof correction
Corresponding authors will receive an e-mail with a link to our online proofing system, allowing annotation and correction of proofs online. The environment is similar to MS Word: in addition to editing text, you can also comment on figures/tables and answer questions from the Copy Editor. Web-based proofing provides a faster and less error-prone process by allowing you to directly type your corrections, eliminating the potential introduction of errors.
If preferred, you can still choose to annotate and upload your edits on the PDF version. All instructions for proofing will be given in the e-mail we send to authors, including alternative methods to the online version and PDF.
We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication. Please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.
The corresponding author will, at no cost, receive a customized Share Link providing 50 days free access to the final published version of the article on ScienceDirect. The Share Link can be used for sharing the article via any communication channel, including email and social media. For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's Author Services. Corresponding authors who have published their article gold open access do not receive a Share Link as their final published version of the article is available open access on ScienceDirect and can be shared through the article DOI link.
You can track your submitted article at https://service.elsevier.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/13535/c/10531/supporthub/publishing/. You can track your accepted article at https://www.elsevier.com/trackarticle. You are also welcome to contact editorial office via email@example.com