Nuclear Medicine and Biology publishes original research addressing all aspects of radiopharmaceutical science: synthesis, in vitro and ex vivo studies, in vivo biodistribution by dissection or imaging, radiopharmacology, radiopharmacy, and translational clinical studies of new targeted radiotracers. The importance of the target to an unmet clinical need should be the first consideration. If the synthesis of a new radiopharmaceutical is submitted without in vitro or in vivo data, then the uniqueness of the chemistry must be emphasized.
These multidisciplinary studies should validate the mechanism of localization whether the probe is based on binding to a receptor, enzyme, tumor antigen, or another well-defined target. The studies should be aimed at evaluating how the chemical and radiopharmaceutical properties affect pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, or therapeutic efficacy. Ideally, the study would address the sensitivity of the probe to changes in disease or treatment, although studies validating mechanism alone are acceptable. Radiopharmacy practice, addressing the issues of preparation, automation, quality control, dispensing, and regulations applicable to qualification and administration of radiopharmaceuticals to humans, is an important aspect of the developmental process, but only if the study has a significant impact on the field.
Contributions on the subject of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals also are appropriate provided that the specificity of labeled compound localization and therapeutic effect have been addressed.
Further Information on the Aims and Scope of Nuclear Medicine and BiologyIntroduction: In keeping with the goal of translating the preclinical studies to the clinic, the introduction of your manuscript should contain the potential impact of the molecular probe on a particular disease.Materials and Methods: Given that validation of new targeted radiotracers is a primary goal of the journal, all new chemical entities should have radiochemical yield (RCY), radiochemical purity (RCP), specific activity (SA) and effective specific activity (ESA) at a stated time. Optional information includes organic volatiles, apyrogenicity and sterility. If not commercially available, the precursor should have identity and purity reported for the molecule. All metrics listed above should have an associated average value, standard deviation and number of studies. Dual-modality studies should follow the same criteria for both probes. For small-animal images, the amount injected, the anesthesia used and the image duration should be included in the figure caption so comparisons can be easily made. Correlation with tissue dissection data is recommended. Manuscripts on pharmacy including those on automation that focus on the apparatus and the computer program should present substantially improved RCY, RCP, SA or ESA; shorter reaction time; or improved analytical techniques compared to the present state of the art. All new pharmacy approaches should be referenced as complying with standard government regulations, or biocompatibility data should be included. Radiation-absorbed dose studies in humans should contain the full data set published as supplementary data. A comparison with small-animal dosimetry data is encouraged. Nuclear Medicine and Biology is the official journal of the Society of Radiopharmaceutical Sciences: http://www.srsweb.org.
Nuclear Medicine and Biology uses a Web-based online manuscript submission and review system. Please visit http://www.evise.com/evise/faces/pages/navigation/NavController.jspx?JRNL_ACR=NUCMEDBIO to submityour manuscript electronically. The website guides authors stepwise through the creation and uploading of the various files. Note that original source files, not PDF files, are required. A cover letter is generally required; please save this as a separate file for upload. Authors may send queries concerning the submission process, manuscript status or journal proceduresto the Editorial Office. Once the submission files are uploaded the system automatically generates electronic (PDF) proof, which is then used for reviewing. All correspondence, including the Editor's decisionand request for revisions, will be by e-mail.
This journal operates a single blind review process. All contributions will be initially assessed by the editor for suitability for the journal. Papers deemed suitable are then sent to a minimum of one independent expert reviewer to assess the scientific quality of the paper. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor's decision is final. More information on types of peer review.Open access
This journal offers authors a choice in publishing their research:Open access
•Articles are freely available to both subscribers and the wider public with permitted reuse.
•An open access publication fee is payable by authors or on their behalf e.g. by their research funder or institution.
•Articles are made available to subscribers as well as developing countries and patient groups throughour universal access programs (http://www.elsevier.com/access).
•No open access publication fee payable by authors.Regardless of how you choose to publish your article, the journal will apply the same peer review criteria and acceptance standards.
Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY)
Lets others distribute and copy the article, create extracts, abstracts, and other revised versions, adaptations or derivative works of or from an article (such as a translation), include in a collective work (such as an anthology), text or data mine the article, even for commercial purposes, as long as they credit the author(s), do not represent the author as endorsing their adaptation of the article, and do not modify the article in such a way as to damage the author's honor or reputation.
For non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.The open access publication fee for this journal is USD 2750, excluding taxes. Learn more about Elsevier's pricing policy: http://www.elsevier.com/openaccesspricing.
Green open accessAuthors can share their research in a variety of different ways and Elsevier has a number of green open access options available. We recommend authors see our green open access page for further information (http://elsevier.com/greenopenaccess). Authors can also self-archive their manuscripts immediately and enable public access from their institution's repository after an embargo period. This is the version that has been accepted for publication and which typically includes author-incorporated changes suggested during submission, peer review and in editor-author communications. Embargo period: For subscription articles, an appropriate amount of time is needed for journals to deliver value to subscribing customers before an article becomes freely available to the public. This is the embargo period and begins from the publication date of the issue your article appears in.
StyleManuscripts must be double-spaced.
The first page should include:(a) the title, which should be concise but informative.
(b) an abbreviated title of not more than 45 letters and spaces for abstracting and indexing purposes.
(c) the authors' names and institutions including postal address in full for the corresponding author.
(d) the author to whom correspondence should be sent, including e-mail address, telephone and fax numbers.
(e) for indexing purposes, please provide up to 6 key words.
An abstract of 80 to 300 words with subdivisions of Introduction, Methods, Results, and Conclusions, Advances in Knowledge and Implications for patient Care must be supplied for all articles.Experimentation in animals.
In manuscripts describing experiments with living animals, authors should state clearly in the text that the experiments were carried out in compliance with the relevant national laws relating to the conduct of animal experimentation, or, where such laws do not exist, that the studies were performed in accordance with an internationally recognized code of practice such as the United Kingdom Biological Council's Guidelines on the Use of Living Animals in Scientific Investigations, 2nd edn.Experimentation in subjects.
Papers reporting human experimentation will be reviewed in accordance with the precepts established by the Helsinki Declaration (available at: http://www.wma.net/en/30publications/10policies/b3/. Such papers must include a statement that human investigations were performed after approval by a local Human Investigations Committee and after obtaining informed consent from a patient or other responsible individuals.Illustrations and Tables (see below) should not be placed in the body of the text, but their approximate location should be indicated in the margin. All figure captions must be typed in a list on a separate sheetat the end of the script.
NomenclaturePreferably Systeme International (SI) units should be used throughout with equivalent quantities in older usage indicated in parentheses. NBS Special Publication 330 The International System of Units (SI) orthe Systeme International d'Unites may be helpful in this respect. Chemical and biological nomenclature should conform to International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) recommendations.The IUPAC Rules can be found in the Handbook of Chemistry andPhysics, CRC Press Inc., Boca Raton, Fla. No-carrier-added compounds shouldbe written as [13N]NH3, [11C]CO2 unless proof of theocretical specific activity isgiven. Metastable (isomeric) states of nuclei are designatedby an "m" placed after the atomic-mass number, e.g.99mTc 99g.
IllustrationsComplete instructions for submission can be found at https://www.elsevier.com/authors/author-schemas/artwork-and-media-instructions (click on Information forAuthors). Color figures are welcome, and will appear in color on theweb a no extra charge; however, there is a charge for the reproductionof color illustrations in print ($650 for the color figure and $100 foreach additional color figure in the same article). Alternatively, theillustrations can be reproduced in black and white in the print edition atno extra charge.
All figures that contain images of biodistribution in vivo must containthe amount of radioactivity injected, the anesthesia used, and the lengthof the scan used to obtain that image in the figure caption. The sameinformation should also appear in the Materials and Method section.Tables
Each table should be typed, with caption, on a separate sheet at theend of the manuscript.Extensive tables should be suitable for direct photographicreproduction, and thus are to be treated as illustrations (see above).
Research DataThis journal encourages and enables you to share data that supports your research publication where appropriate, and enables you to interlink the data with your published articles. Research data refers to the results of observations or experimentation that validate research findings. To facilitate reproducibility and data reuse, this journal also encourages you to share your software, code, models, algorithms, protocols, methods and other useful materials related to the project.
Below are a number of ways in which you can associate data with your article or make a statement about the availability of your data when submitting your manuscript. If you are sharing data in one of these ways, you are encouraged to cite the data in your manuscript and reference list. Please refer to the “References” section for more information about data citation. For more information on depositing, sharing and using research data and other relevant research materials, visit the research data page.Data Linking
If you have made your research data available in a data repository, you can link your article directly to the dataset. Elsevier collaborates with a number of repositories to link articles on ScienceDirect with relevant repositories, giving readers access to underlying data that give them a better understanding of the research described.There are different ways to link your datasets to your article.
When available, you can directly link your dataset to your article by providing the relevant information in the submission system. For more information, visit the database linking page .For supported data repositories a repository banner will automatically appear next to your published article on ScienceDirect.In addition, you can link to relevant data or entities through identifiers within the text of your manuscript, using the following format: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN).
Mendeley DataThis journal supports Mendeley Data, enabling you to deposit any research data (including raw and processed data, video, code, software, algorithms, protocols, and methods) associated with your manuscript in a free-to-use, open access repository. During the submission process, after uploading your manuscript, you will have the opportunity to upload your relevant datasets directly to Mendeley Data. The datasets will be listed and directly accessible to readers next to your published article online.
For more information, visit the Mendeley Data for journals page.Data Statement
To foster transparency, we encourage you to state the availability of your data in your submission. This may be a requirement of your funding body or institution.If your data is unavailable to access or unsuitable to post, you will have the opportunity to indicate why during the submission process, for example by stating that the research data is confidential. The statement will appear with your published article on ScienceDirect. For more information, visit the Data statement page.Data References
This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. This identifier will not appear in your published article.References
Text: Indicate references by number(s), in square brackets in line withthe text. The actual authors can be referred to, but the reference number(s) must always be given. List: Number the references (numbers insquare brackets) in the order in which they appear in the text. List thefirst six authors for each reference.References to a journal publication:
 Van der Geer J, Hanraas JAJ, Lupton RA. The art of writing a scientificarticle. J Sci Commun 2000;163:51-9.
 Ravasi L, Tokugawa J, Nakayama T, Seidel J, Sokoloff L,Eckelman WC, et al. Imaging of the muscarinic acetylcholine neuroreceptor in ratswith the M2 selective agonist [18F]FP-TZTP. Nucl Med Biol 2012; 39:45-55.Reference to a book:
 Strunk Jr W, White EB. The elements of style. 3rd ed. NewYork: Macmillan, 1979.
Reference to a chapter in an edited book:
 Mettam GR, Adams LB. How to prepare an electronic version ofyour article. In: Jones BS, Smith TX, editors. Introduction to the electronicage.New York: E-Publishing Inc.; 1999, p. 281-304.
[dataset]  Oguro M, Imahiro S, Saito S, Nakashizuka T. Mortality data for Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions, Mendeley Data, v1; 2015. http://dx.doi.org/10.17632/xwj98nb39r.1.
Abbreviated journal titles should be in accordance with Chemical Abstracts Service Source Index (CASSI).Proofs
Proofs will be despatched to the first-named author, unless otherwise requested. They should be returned with the least possible delay. Corrections to the proofs must be restricted to printer's errors only. Any substantialchanges other than these will be charged to the author. Please note that authors are urged to check their proofs carefully before return, since late corrections cannot be guaranteed for inclusion in the printed journal.Offprints
Offprints and copies of the issue (at a specially reduced rate) can be ordered on the offprint order form that will accompany the proofs. This should be returned to: Elsevier Inc., 360 Park Avenue South, New York,NY 10010-1710 USA.Elsevier Supports Responsible Sharing
Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.Updated September 2017