Guide for Authors

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Neuromodulation: Technology at the Neural Interface, the official journal of the International Neuromodulation Society (INS), is a peer-reviewed, publication published 8 times per year by Elsevier. Robert M. Levy, MD, PhD, is the Editor-in-Chief. The Editorial Office is based in San Francisco, CA, U.S.A. The Section Editors and Editorial Board consist of carefully selected experts from around the world and from various disciplines reflecting the diverse nature of the field of neuromodulation.

As the preeminent journal in this field, Neuromodulation provides our readership with state of the art clinical, translational, and basic science research in the field. For clinicians, engineers, researchers, allied health professionals, educators, students, administrators, policy makers and members of the biotechnology industry alike, Neuromodulation provides timely and rigorously peer-reviewed articles on the technology, science, and clinical application of devices that interface with the nervous system to treat disease and improve function. Representing the needs of the broad neuromodulation community and beyond, the journal serves as an instrument for the exchange of high quality data aimed at improving results, and advancing science, and as a forum for debate and commentary.

Neuromodulation covers an ever expanding field including, pain, headache, movement disorders, spasticity, paralysis, psychiatric disorders, epilepsy, sensory deprivation, cardiovascular disorders, gastric dysfunction, obesity, and incontinence. In-depth reviews, clinical research, basic research, clinical letters (to include novel case reports and technical notes), topical editorials, national and international meeting abstracts, special focus editions, and web-based educational offerings help our reader to expand their knowledge and understanding of the interface between electrical and chemical modulation of the nervous system and the patient. Neuromodulation also publishes updates on past and future news of events and activities of the INS, and its membership, to keep the reader abreast of issues related to professional education and development in this dynamic field.

Submission Checklist

____1. Check all references for accuracy and completeness. Put references in proper format and in sequential numerical order, making sure each is cited in the text. Clinical Letters and Letters to the Editor (to include Case reports and Technical Notes) must not exceed 5 references.
____2. Provide a structured abstract of 300 words or less with appropriate headings. Clinical Letters and Letters to the Editor (to include Case reports and Technical Notes) do not require an abstract.
____3. Clinical Letters and Letters to the Editor (to include Case reports and Technical Notes) submissions are not to exceed 2 authors, 1,500 words, and 5 references.
____4. Include a title for each table and figure and online-only material (a brief, succinct phrase, preferably no longer than 10 to 15 words) and explanatory legend as needed. During manuscript submission, tables and can be embedded within the manuscript OR uploaded as separate files for review. It should be noted that high quality figures should be uploaded as separate files for review as these will be needed for production, if accepted for publication.
____5. Include consent documentation for patient photographs. See the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals (www.icmje.org).
____6. In studies with human or nonhuman subjects, include statement of institutional review board approval or waiver in the Materials and Methods section of the manuscript. For waiver of formal ethical approval, the journal requires documentation from the authors' institution to be uploaded with their submission.
____7. In clinical trials, indicate in which registry the trial has been registered.
____8. Include permission in writing to reproduce previously published illustrations and tables.
____9. Designate a corresponding author and provide an address, telephone number, fax number, and e-mail address.
____10. Complete the Conflict of Interest Disclosure (1 form per author), and Authorship Form (1 form per submission) for all authors and upload the forms to Editorial Manager as supplementary files, not for review. Include the conflict of interest and authorship statements on the title page of the manuscript.

____11. For revised manuscripts, track your edits within the text and document your responses to each of the reviewers' comments in a separate file. Please upload this file to the manuscript files when resubmitting the manuscript.
____12. Submit manuscript, tables, and figures online via Conflict of Interest Disclosure and Authorship Form if any information has changed from the previous iteration.
____14. If the manuscript decision is "Reject with the Opportunity to Resubmit" and the authors choose to revise and resubmit, the editorial office requires that the "new" (revised) manuscript with tracked changes, as well as a document containing the authors' responses to the original review to be uploaded as "Supplementary Files, not for review." Please also reference the previous submission number in the appropriate place on the submission form.
____15. During submission, the authors will also be asked to supply their social media handles, if desired (Twitter, Instagram, Facebook, LinkedIn). This information will be used to possibly further promote the manuscript if/when the submission is accepted for publication.

The Submission Checklist can also be downloaded here.

Ethics in publishing

Please see our information on Ethics in publishing.

Studies in humans and animals

If the work involves the use of human subjects, the author should ensure that the work described has been carried out in accordance with The Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association (Declaration of Helsinki) for experiments involving humans. The manuscript should be in line with the Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals and aim for the inclusion of representative human populations (sex, age and ethnicity) as per those recommendations. The terms sex and gender should be used correctly.

Authors should include a statement in the manuscript that informed consent was obtained for experimentation with human subjects. The privacy rights of human subjects must always be observed.

All animal experiments should comply with the ARRIVE guidelines and should be carried out in accordance with the U.K. Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act, 1986 and associated guidelines, EU Directive 2010/63/EU for animal experiments, or the National Institutes of Health guide for the care and use of Laboratory animals (NIH Publications No. 8023, revised 1978) and the authors should clearly indicate in the manuscript that such guidelines have been followed. The sex of animals must be indicated, and where appropriate, the influence (or association) of sex on the results of the study.

Informed consent and patient details

Studies on patients or volunteers require ethics committee approval and informed consent, which should be documented in the paper. Appropriate consents, permissions and releases must be obtained where an author wishes to include case details or other personal information or images of patients and any other individuals in an Elsevier publication. Written consents must be retained by the author but copies should not be provided to the journal. Only if specifically requested by the journal in exceptional circumstances (for example if a legal issue arises) the author must provide copies of the consents or evidence that such consents have been obtained. For more information, please review the Elsevier Policy on the Use of Images or Personal Information of Patients or other Individuals. Unless you have written permission from the patient (or, where applicable, the next of kin), the personal details of any patient included in any part of the article and in any supplementary materials (including all illustrations and videos) must be removed before submission.

Conflict of interest

Journal editors, editorial board members, and peer reviewers are asked to withdraw from the review or decisions about manuscripts in which any circumstances might prevent them from offering unbiased editorial decisions. For information regarding the responsibilities and rights of editors and reviewers, please refer to The Council of Science Editors' "Editorial Policy Statements" to which Neuromodulation subscribes: http://www.councilscienceeditors.org).

The International Neuromodulation Society (INS) is vigilant regarding conflicts of interest involving those responsible for the decision making processes that directly affect the INS, its programs and its peer-reviewed journal, Neuromodulation: Technology at the Neural Interface. The integrity of the INS is dependent on the avoidance of potential, assumed, or actual conflicts of interest in these relationships and, therefore, the journal strives to publish content that is fair, balanced, free from commercial influence, and supported by the best available evidence.

In alignment with the INS's Conflict of Interest Policy the INS and the Journal have established a formal disclosure and review process for resolving any real or perceived conflicts of interest. All Journal editors, editorial board members and editorial staff must disclose their financial interests through the Journal's disclosure process. Each reviewer who agrees to review a manuscript must disclose any conflicts related to said manuscript. The journal does not permit corporate employees to serve as reviewers. All corporate employees are asked to decline if they receive an invitation to review. Journal editors, editorial board members, and peer reviewers are asked to withdraw from the review or decisions about manuscripts in which any circumstances might prevent them from offering unbiased editorial decisions.

Journal Editors, Editorial Board Members, and Reviewers must not use their position with the Journal for the promotion of any company or commercial product; nor should they use knowledge of the work they are reviewing before its publication to further their own interests. Guest editors should follow these same procedures. If a conflict pertains to the Journal's Editor-in-Chief in relation to a manuscript submitted to the journal due to bias, the Editor will recuse himself/herself from making a decision on said manuscript and ask one of the associate editors to oversee that specific work. If the conflict applies to a Section Editor, then another Section Editor without conflicts will oversee the manuscript. The Editor will submit editorials with potential bias to the INS Executive Committee members for review prior to publication.

For information regarding the responsibilities and rights of editors and reviewers, please refer to The Council of Science Editors' "Editorial Policy Statements" to which Neuromodulation subscribes: http://www.councilscienceeditors.org.

Improper Disclosure

Negligence on the part of an affected party to properly disclose a relevant financial relationship may lead to sanctions or other actions by the governing body of the INS and Journal including but not limited to:

  • Replacement of the individual in the Journal activity.
  • Revocation of duties or removal of an Editor, Editorial Board Member, or reviewer.
  • Barring of the individual from any future Journal activities.
  • Suspension of all membership benefits in the INS and removal from all boards, committees, and other membership bodies.


The INS is committed to providing education, review and response to questions or comments regarding disclosure. It is not the intent of the INS to unduly punish or reprimand an affected party. Questions regarding improper disclosure will be addressed by due process. A 30-day period to review and resolve the conflict will be afforded the affected party and, if corrected, will result in no further action on behalf of the INS. Future disclosures by the member will be reviewed by a minimum of 2 board members annually for a 3-year period after the failure to disclose is resolved. Members, who feel an improper disclosure has been reported by an individual, may discuss the perceived concern with members of the INS board by sending an email to ins@neuromodulation.com.

Review and Resolution of Conflicts of Interests

The International Neuromodulation Society (INS) Executive Officers will individually vet every concern or complaint pertaining to real or perceived conflicts of interest that are brought to their attention, and will ensure that any decisions made are consistent with the policies of the INS. A 30-day period to review and resolve any identified conflicts will be afforded the affected party and, if corrected, will result in no further action on behalf of the INS.

To communicate a complaint to the INS, the person(s) with the concern should submit it in writing to the INS Executive Office (ins@neuromodulation.com, Subject: Neuromodulation Journal Conflict of Interest Inquiry) for the Executive Officers to determine if it is a reasonable complaint and resolve it. All complaints will be resolved internally within the INS Board and in a diplomatic manner. The Executive Board can appoint the Emeritus Director-at-Large or a member of the INS Directors at Large to serve on the investigating committee if required.

Inquiries and complaints about the recusal process should be directed to the INS Executive Office, who will provide advice in consultation with the INS Executive Officers and Editor-in-Chief, as appropriate.

Submission declaration and verification

Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract, a published lecture or academic thesis, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service Crossref Similarity Check.

Use of inclusive language

Inclusive language acknowledges diversity, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and promotes equal opportunities. Content should make no assumptions about the beliefs or commitments of any reader; contain nothing which might imply that one individual is superior to another on the grounds of age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition; and use inclusive language throughout. Authors should ensure that writing is free from bias, stereotypes, slang, reference to dominant culture and/or cultural assumptions. We advise to seek gender neutrality by using plural nouns ("clinicians, patients/clients") as default/wherever possible to avoid using "he, she," or "he/she." We recommend avoiding the use of descriptors that refer to personal attributes such as age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition unless they are relevant and valid. These guidelines are meant as a point of reference to help identify appropriate language but are by no means exhaustive or definitive.

Contributors

Each author is required to declare his or her individual contribution to the article: all authors must have materially participated in the research and/or article preparation, so roles for all authors should be described. The statement that all authors have approved the final article should be true and included in the disclosure.

Authorship

Neuromodulation: Technology at the Neural Interface bases its authorship criteria on those outlined by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors' (ICMJE) Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Publications (http://www.icmje.org/ethical_1author.html). The corresponding author must submit the manuscript, related files, and all required data and information. From the point of submission until publication, all communication related to the manuscript will be directed to and received from the designated corresponding author only.

Authorship credit should be based on:

  1. Substantial contribution to conception and design, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data;
  2. Drafting the article or reviewing it critically for important intellectual content;
  3. Final approval of the version to be published.
    Corresponding authors are required to complete an Authorship and Contributorship Form upon submission of their manuscripts. Authorship statements will be published with each article.

Changes to authorship

Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the journal Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed.
Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted. While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the Editor will result in a corrigendum.

Clinical trial results

In line with the position of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, the journal will not consider results posted in the same clinical trials registry in which primary registration resides to be prior publication if the results posted are presented in the form of a brief structured (less than 500 words) abstract or table. However, divulging results in other circumstances (e.g., investors' meetings) is discouraged and may jeopardise consideration of the manuscript. Authors should fully disclose all posting in registries of results of the same or closely related work.

Registration of clinical trials
Registration in a public trials registry is a condition for publication of clinical trials in this journal in accordance with International Committee of Medical Journal Editors recommendations. Trials must register at or before the onset of patient enrolment. The clinical trial registration number should be included at the end of the abstract of the article. A clinical trial is defined as any research study that prospectively assigns human participants or groups of humans to one or more health-related interventions to evaluate the effects of health outcomes. Health-related interventions include any intervention used to modify a biomedical or health-related outcome (for example drugs, surgical procedures, devices, behavioural treatments, dietary interventions, and process-of-care changes). Health outcomes include any biomedical or health-related measures obtained in patients or participants, including pharmacokinetic measures and adverse events. Purely observational studies (those in which the assignment of the medical intervention is not at the discretion of the investigator) will not require registration.

Copyright

Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (see more information on this). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.

Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations. If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases.

For gold open access articles: Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'License Agreement' (more information). Permitted third party reuse of gold open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license.

Author rights
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. More information.

Elsevier supports responsible sharing
Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.

Role of the funding source

You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.

Funding body agreements and policies
Elsevier has established a number of agreements with funding bodies which allow authors to comply with their funder's open access policies. Some funding bodies will reimburse the author for the gold open access publication fee. Details of existing agreements are available online.

After acceptance, open access papers will be published under a noncommercial license. For authors requiring a commercial CC BY license, you can apply after your manuscript is accepted for publication.

Open access

This journal offers authors a choice in publishing their research:

Subscription
• Articles are made available to subscribers as well as developing countries and patient groups through our universal access programs.
• No open access publication fee payable by authors.
• The Author is entitled to post the accepted manuscript in their institution's repository and make this public after an embargo period (known as green Open Access). The published journal article cannot be shared publicly, for example on ResearchGate or Academia.edu, to ensure the sustainability of peer-reviewed research in journal publications. The embargo period for this journal can be found below.

Gold open access
• Articles are freely available to both subscribers and the wider public with permitted reuse.
• A gold open access publication fee is payable by authors or on their behalf, e.g. by their research funder or institution.

Regardless of how you choose to publish your article, the journal will apply the same peer review criteria and acceptance standards.

For gold open access articles, permitted third party (re)use is defined by the following: Creative Commons user licenses.

Please visit our Open Access page from the Journal Homepage for more information.

Submission

Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. All manuscripts must be submitted in English. Manuscripts must be typed, double-spaced, and in US Letter format. All manuscripts must be uploaded to Editorial Manager in an editable format (eg, Word). Pages should be numbered consecutively in the upper right-hand corner beginning with the Title Page and Structured Abstract, followed in order by Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, and Conclusion. Manuscripts should be approximately 1,000 to 4,000 words, dependent upon the type of report. Clinical Letters (Case Reports, Letters to the Editor and Technical Notes) do not include an abstract, are not to exceed 1,500 words, 2 authors, and a maximum of 5 references. Any Clinical Letters (Case Report, Letter to the Editor or Technical Note) that do not meet the above stated criteria will be returned to the authors for revision.

Language (usage and editing services)
Please write your text in American English (not British English). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's Author Services.



Manuscripts submitted to Neuromodulation must conform to the guidelines set by the American Medical Association Manual of Style, 11th ed., 2019. Requirements for publication are consistent with the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, which are published in: Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals, Annals of Internal Medicine 1997;126:36-47.

Neuromodulation invites comment and dissenting opinion on any and all Editorials and manuscripts that it publishes. All opinions and comments regarding published material in Neuromodulation will be published as "Letters to the Editor." All "Letters to the Editor" regarding a published article or Editorial will be sent to the original author of the article or Editorial for rebuttal and published with the letter. Please submit Editorial "Letters to the Editor" via Editorial Manager. All letters to the editor are not to exceed 1,500 words, 2 authors, and 5 references. The submitting author will be asked to complete an Authorship and Contributorship Form and a Conflict of Interest Disclosure Form.

Peer Review

Neuromodulation: Technology at the Neural Interface is a rigorously peer-reviewed journal. Upon submission, each manuscript undergoes a preliminary review by the Editor-in-Chief and, if the submission is felt to be appropriate for Neuromodulation, the Editor assigns the manuscript to a Section Editor, based upon subject matter.

The Section Editors are responsible for determining if the submission presents new or novel information, selecting at least 3 reviewers for each manuscript, for refereeing the peer review process, and for giving their informed recommendations to the Editor-in-Chief. The Editor-in-Chief then makes the final decision on the manuscript. All manuscripts are peer reviewed for appropriateness for Neuromodulation, originality of content, scientific merit and significance, clarity of presentation, and methods, when appropriate. Selected reviewers remain anonymous to the author(s) of the submission.

The possible recommendations of the reviewers include "publish without revision," "minor revision," "major revision," "reject," and "reject with the opportunity to resubmit" (for submissions exceeding the manuscript revision allowance or submissions requiring substantial revision), on the grounds recommended by the reviewers and Section Editor. All manuscripts that are not accepted for publication are returned to the authors with the reviewers' and editors' recommendations for revising or rewriting the manuscript. Authors are instructed to address and respond in detail to each review and to track their edits within their revised manuscript. Upon receipt of the revised manuscript, the Editorial Office sends it to the original Section Editor and reviewers for review.

Manuscripts are accepted for publication only when the authors satisfy the concerns and suggestions of reviewers and the Editors and meet the scientific and editorial standards of Neuromodulation.

For more information on types of peer review, please see https://www.elsevier.com/reviewers/what-is-peer-review.

Public Commentary: On the reviewer form, all reviewers are given the opportunity to submit a public commentary that will be included at the end of all published articles (with the exception of Clinical Letters [Case Reports or Technical Notes]). For examples of previously published commentaries, please see Sample Commentaries. NOTE: If submitting a public comment, please include the reviewer's name, academic degree(s) and location (City, State, Country). This information will not be made available to the author(s) until the manuscript is eventually accepted/published.

Use of word processing software
It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier). Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork.
To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.

Article Structure

Manuscripts should be prepared in an editable format and written in the active voice with the following sections: Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, and Conclusion. Manuscripts should be approximately 1,000 to 4,000 words, dependent upon the type of report. Clinical Letters (Case Reports, Letters to the Editor and Technical Notes) do not include an abstract, are not to exceed 1,500 words, 2 authors, and a maximum of 5 references. Any Clinical Letters (Case Report, Letter to the Editor or Technical Note) that do not meet the above stated criteria will be returned to the authors for revision. Ideas should be expressed briefly, clearly, and concisely. Reports claiming to be a "first of a kind" must be verified as such with the source(s) of the literature searched and the years included in the search. Direct quotations should be enclosed with quotation marks and attributed in full to the author and source, including the exact page numbers. Closely paraphrased material should be referenced within the text, so as to leave no doubt as to the source of the original information.

Drug/device names
For drugs, devices, or patented procedures, the generic or common name should be followed in parentheses by the trade name, city, and country of manufacture. Trade name drug, device or patented procedures should not appear in the title or abstract of the manuscript and must be limited to one reference per drug/device/company in the "Materials and Methods" section only.

Introduction
State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results.

Material and methods
Provide sufficient details to allow the work to be reproduced by an independent researcher. Methods that are already published should be summarized, and indicated by a reference. If quoting directly from a previously published method, use quotation marks and also cite the source. Any modifications to existing methods should also be described.

This section should include confirmation of ethical approval (or waiver) and should be the only section that mentions trade names (one use per device/company).

Statistical methods
Statistical analysis should specify the tests used and to which portions of the data they were applied, rather than simply listed. If a statistical computer program was used, the program should be identified.

Randomized controlled trials should specifically state the method for randomization.

Results
Results should be clear and concise.

Discussion
This should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. A combined Results and Discussion section is often appropriate. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature.

Conclusions
The main conclusions of the study may be presented in a short Conclusions section, which may stand alone or form a subsection of a Discussion or Results and Discussion section.

Title Page

The title page should include in order (1) the title; (2) the running title, a short version of the title (40 characters or less); (3) authors' names as they wish them to appear with the first name, middle name, and last name of each author, in that order, followed by each author's highest academic degree(s); (4) institutional affiliation, city, state, and country in which the study was carried out; (5) source(s) of financial support; (6) authorship statement; (7) Conflict of Interest Statement; and (8) name, address, business and mobile telephone numbers, fax number, and email address, of the corresponding author.

Disclaimer
Statements and opinions expressed in manuscripts, editorials and podcasts are those of the author(s) and not necessarily those of the other editor(s), publisher or the International Neuromodulation Society (INS). The editor(s) or publisher or INS disclaim any responsibility or liability for such information. The author(s), editor(s), nor publisher guarantee, warrant, nor endorse any product or service advertised in the publication, nor do they guarantee any claim made by the manufacturer of said product or service. Please make every effort to comply with the previously stated requirements. Failure to do so may delay review and subsequent publication in the Journal.

Abstract

Immediately following the title page, the manuscript, the title, and a structured abstract should appear. Beneath the abstract, 5 key words or short phrases should be listed for indexing purposes. A structured abstract of 300 words or less should accompany full-length articles. The structured abstract should contain 4 paragraphs with the following headlines: (1) Objectives, stating the hypothesis of the study; (2) Materials and Methods, including the means for problem solving, the subjects (number and relevant characteristics), the intervention studied, and briefly, the statistical analysis; (3) Results, including the outcome of the study and statistical significance; and (4) Conclusions, stating the outcome importance. Authors are encouraged to customize the headlines of the structured abstract to best suit their submitted manuscript. Abstracts are not necessary for letters to the editor, clinical letters, editorials, commentaries, correspondence, opinion pieces, book reviews, or abstracts from meetings.

Keywords
Keywords should appear immediately beneath the abstract and consist of at least 5 words or terms used for indexing. It is recommended to use the terms from the medical subject headings of Index Medicus but can be tailored to suit the manuscript.

Abbreviations
Define abbreviations that are not standard in this field in a footnote to be placed on the first page of the article. Such abbreviations that are unavoidable in the abstract must be defined at their first mention there, as well as in the footnote. Ensure consistency of abbreviations throughout the article.

Acknowledgements
Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.).

Formatting of funding sources
List funding sources in this standard way to facilitate compliance to funder's requirements:

Funding: This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health [grant numbers xxxx, yyyy]; the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, WA [grant number zzzz]; and the United States Institutes of Peace [grant number aaaa].

It is not necessary to include detailed descriptions on the program or type of grants and awards. When funding is from a block grant or other resources available to a university, college, or other research institution, submit the name of the institute or organization that provided the funding.

If no funding has been provided for the research, please include the following sentence:

This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Units
Follow internationally accepted rules and conventions: use the international system of units (SI). If other units are mentioned, please give their equivalent in SI.

Artwork

Color artwork
All illustrations should be numbered sequentially with Arabic numerals, in the order cited in the text. Legends should be labeled by figure number and briefly describe the illustration. All figures should be accompanied by a corresponding legend. Figure legends should appear within the figure file, if possible. Figures can be embedded within the text of the main document, but it should be noted that high quality figures will be required if the manuscript is accepted for publication. Authors are welcome to upload the high quality figures during the submission process. There are three preferred formats for digital artwork submission: Encapsulated PostScript (EPS), Portable Document Format (PDF), and Tagged Image Format (TIFF). We suggest that line art be saved as EPS files. Alternately, these may be saved as PDF files at 600 dots per inch (dpi) or better at final size. Tone art, or photographic images, should be saved as TIFF files with a resolution of 300 dpi at final size. For combination figures, or artwork that contains both photographs and labeling, we recommend saving figures as EPS files, or as PDF files with a resolution of 600 dpi or better at final size. More detailed information on the submission of electronic artwork can be found at https://www.elsevier.com/authors/author-schemas/artwork-and-media-instructions.

Photomicrographs must have internal scale markers (linear scale).

If a figure has been published previously, permission must be received in writing for its use regardless of authorship or publisher. Acknowledgment of the original source must be included at the end of the legend.

If you would like the Editors to consider one of your figures for publication on the journal cover, please indicate this in the appropriate section in the online manuscript submission form.

Color Figures/Illustrations
Color figures may be published online free of charge; however, the journal charges for publishing figures in color, in print. If the author supplies color figures with their accepted manuscript, when the article is logged into the Elsevier production tracking system, they will be invited to complete a color charge agreement. If the author chooses not to purchase color printing, the figures will be converted to black and white for the print issue of the journal.

Line Drawings
Line drawings may be submitted when of professional quality.

Photographs
Patient identity must be protected or written permission from the patient must accompany the print. Letters, arrows, and markings on the prints must be of professional quality.

Reproduced Figures
Figures reproduced from another publication require accompanying written permissions from the author(s) of the work and the holder of the to the work. Credits detailing the authorship and source of the materials must be included in the legend.

Illustration services
Elsevier's Author Services offers Illustration Services to authors preparing to submit a manuscript but concerned about the quality of the images accompanying their article. Elsevier's expert illustrators can produce scientific, technical and medical-style images, as well as a full range of charts, tables and graphs. Image 'polishing' is also available, where our illustrators take your image(s) and improve them to a professional standard. Please visit the website to find out more.

Figure captions
Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.

Tables

Please submit tables as editable text and not as images. Tables can be placed either next to the relevant text in the article, or on separate page(s) at the end. Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text and place any table notes below the table body. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in them do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article. Please avoid using vertical rules and shading in table cells.

References

Citation in text
Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.

Reference links
Increased discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, CrossRef and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the DOI is highly encouraged.

A DOI is guaranteed never to change, so you can use it as a permanent link to any electronic article. An example of a citation using DOI for an article not yet in an issue is: VanDecar J.C., Russo R.M., James D.E., Ambeh W.B., Franke M. (2003). Aseismic continuation of the Lesser Antilles slab beneath northeastern Venezuela. Journal of Geophysical Research, https://doi.org/10.1029/2001JB000884. Please note the format of such citations should be in the same style as all other references in the paper.

Web references
As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.

Reference management software
Most Elsevier journals have their reference template available in many of the most popular reference management software products. These include all products that support Citation Style Language styles, such as Mendeley. Using citation plug-ins from these products, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article, after which citations and bibliographies will be automatically formatted in the journal's style. If no template is yet available for this journal, please follow the format of the sample references and citations as shown in this Guide. If you use reference management software, please ensure that you remove all field codes before submitting the electronic manuscript. More information on how to remove field codes from different reference management software.

Reference style
References cited in the manuscript should be listed as a separate section immediately following the text. Authors must verify all references. Citation style must conform to the guidelines set by the AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors. 11th ed. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 2020. Journal abbreviations should be those recognized by Index Medicus. Number references sequentially in the order cited in the text.References cited only in a figure or table are numbered according to their first mention in the text. Do not use personal communications or materials "submitted" or "in preparation" as references. Materials accepted for publication, but not yet published, may be cited followed by "(in press)."

References with 7 or more authors should list only the first 6 followed by "et al." Journal references should appear in the following order: author(s), title, journal abbreviation, year, volume number (in Arabic numerals), and inclusive pages. Book references are listed by author(s), title, edition (when other than first), volume (when more than one), city, publisher, and year. A chapter in a book should be listed by author(s) of the chapter, title of the chapter, "In:", editor(s)/authors of the book, title of the book, edition (when other than first), volume (when more than one), city, publisher, year, and inclusive pages of the chapter."

Letters to the Editor and Clinical Letters (to include Case Reports and Technical Notes) submitted to Neuromodulation must not include more than 5 references.

Journal abbreviations source
Journal names should be abbreviated according to the List of Title Word Abbreviations.

Video

Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the file in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 150 MB per file, 1 GB in total. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect. Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages. Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.

Supplementary material
Authors may submit supplemental digital content to enhance the online version of their article. Supporting information may include the following types of content: text, tables, figures, graphics, illustrations, and videos.

Cite and number all supporting information consecutively in the text (eg, Table S1, S2, Figure S1, S2, etc.), and provide a separate legend for this material. Citations should include the type of material submitted, should be clearly labeled as "Supplementary Data," and should provide a brief description of the supplemental content at the end of the manuscript. For example: "Video S1 demonstrates the reduction in dyskinesia in the patient receiving deep brain stimulation."

Access to these files must be provided with the manuscript at the time of submission as they will be included in the peer review process. The supporting information must be uploaded during the file upload step of manuscript submission.

The publisher reserves the right to refuse hosting to any data sets that are determined too large for their servers.

Supporting information will be published as submitted and will not be corrected or checked for scientific accuracy, typographical errors or functionality.

Online proof correction

To ensure a fast publication process of the article, we kindly ask authors to provide us with their proof corrections within two days. Corresponding authors will receive an e-mail with a link to our online proofing system, allowing annotation and correction of proofs online. The environment is similar to MS Word: in addition to editing text, you can also comment on figures/tables and answer questions from the Copy Editor. Web-based proofing provides a faster and less error-prone process by allowing you to directly type your corrections, eliminating the potential introduction of errors.
If preferred, you can still choose to annotate and upload your edits on the PDF version. All instructions for proofing will be given in the e-mail we send to authors, including alternative methods to the online version and PDF.
We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication. Please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.

Offprints

The corresponding author will, at no cost, receive a customized Share Link providing 50 days free access to the final published version of the article on ScienceDirect. The Share Link can be used for sharing the article via any communication channel, including email and social media. For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's Author Services. Corresponding authors who have published their article gold open access do not receive a Share Link as their final published version of the article is available open access on ScienceDirect and can be shared through the article DOI link.

Articles in Press
Articles in Press are complete full-text articles published online in advance of their publication in a printed issue. Articles are therefore available as soon as they are ready, rather than having to wait for the next scheduled print issue. Articles in Press are complete and final. They have been fully reviewed, revised and edited for publication, and the authors' final corrections have been incorporated. Because they are in final form, no changes can be made after online publication. The nature of Articles in Press means that they do not yet have volume, issue or page numbers, so they cannot be cited in the traditional way. They are therefore given a Digital Object Identifier (DOI), which allows the article to be cited and tracked before it is allocated to an issue. After print publication, the DOI remains valid and can continue to be used to cite and access the article.



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Permission
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