Guide for Authors

All journal information and instructions compiled in one document (PDF) in just one mouse-click Author information pack

INTRODUCTION
• Criteria for manuscripts
• Types of article
• I. General rules
• II. Research papers
• III. Invited review article
• IV. Review articles
• V. Keynote reviews
• VI. Editorials
• VII. Guideline
• VIII. Short communications
• IX. Technical notes
• X. Letter to the Editor
• XI. Commentary
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
• Ethics in publishing
• Declaration of interest
• Submission declaration and verification
• Contributors
• Changes to authorship
• Copyright
• Role of the funding source
• Submission
• Review process
• Permissions
• Disclaimer
PREPARATION
• Peer review
• Double-blind review
• Article structure
• Essential title page information
• Acknowledgements
• Abstract
• Keywords
• Abbreviations
• Artwork
• Tables
• References
• Data visualization
• Supplementary material
• Research data
• Interactive Case Insights
• Submission checklist
AFTER ACCEPTANCE
• Proofs
• Offprints
AUTHOR INQUIRIES

Criteria for manuscripts

The Editorial Board of Polish Journal of Neurology and Neurosurgery takes under consideration for publication original articles with the understanding that neither the manuscript nor any part of its essential substance, tables or figures have been published previously in print form or electronically and are not under consideration by any other publication or electronic medium. Copies of any closely related manuscripts should be submitted to the Editor along with the manuscript that is to be considered by Polish Journal of Neurology and Neurosurgery. Each submission packet should include the statement signed by the first author that the work has not been published previously or submitted elsewhere for review and a copyright transfer.

Types of article

Polish Journal of Neurology and Neurosurgery publishes following types of articles:

  • Research papers
  • Invited review articles
  • Invited review articles
  • Review articles
  • Keynote reviews
  • Editorials
  • Guidelines
  • Short communications
  • Technical notes
  • Letters to the Editor
  • Commentaries

I. General rules

Polish Journal of Neurology and Neurosurgery (PJNNS) has an ambition to become an effective platform for exchanging discoveries, reflexions and ideas in the field of clinical neurology. To facilitate the transfer of the knowledge between the Authors and the Readers the editorial team of PJNNS kindly asks the Authors to strictly follow the following general rules of preparing articles.

Authorship.
As PJNNS follows and supports the rules of responsible and ethical publishing. It is understood that all persons added to the list of authors substantially participated in collecting and analysing of the data and/or in preparing the manuscript and that none of the researchers/ clinicians significantly involved in the project were neglected in the list of authors. It is also assumed that all the listed Authors had read and accepted the manuscript prior to its submission. Structure of the manuscript.
For each type of manuscript instructions regarding its structure are presented below.
Title page. First (title) page of each manuscript should contain title of the article; Authors' names, scientific degrees and affiliations; name and address of the corresponding author.
Title.
Title should be no longer than 160 characters. Preferably it should unambiguously point at the subject (or topic) being considered in the paper. Abstract.
Abstract is required for Research papers, Invited review articles, Review articles, Keynote reviews, Editorials, Guidelines, and Short communications. For the Technical notes, Letters to the Editor on previously published manuscripts, and Commentaries the abstracts should not be included. Thus these last category articles should be titled in a manner giving the reader an insight into the content of the text.
Key words.
The abstract or the title of the paper should be followed by 4 - 8 key words allowing a precise indexing of a paper. The exact name of clinical entity being the main topic of the paper should be mentioned as one of the key words.
Ethical permission.
A statement on ethical aspects of every submitted paper should be placed in its text. In case of papers which do not describe any clinical observations of experiments (e.g. Reviews or Commentaries) a sentence "Ethical approval was not necessary for preparation of this article) should be placed after the main text of the manuscript. In case of papers describing original discovery the statement on ethical approval should be written in the methodological part of the manuscript.
Illustrations.
Illustrations should be submitted as a separate files with captions provided within the text of the manuscript. The illustrations should be numbered accordingly to the order of appearance in the text. The number of illustrations is limited to two. However, additional illustration or videos could be placed in supplementary material files.

Tables.
Tables should be prepared with the same text processing software as the rest of the manuscript. The tables should be numbered consecutively as they appear in the text. Tables should be placed on separate pages at the end of the manuscript. The number of tables is limited to two. However, additional tables could be placed in supplementary material files.
References.
The Vancouver style of referencing is required in papers submitted to PJNNS. The number of references for specific types of articles should be limited as follows:

  • Research papers: up to 50
  • Invited review articles and Review articles: up to 100
  • Keynote reviews and Editorials: up to 30
  • Guidelines: up to 80
  • Short communications and Technical notes : up to 20
  • Letter to the Editor and Commentaries: up to 10
However, additional references can be placed in supplementary material.
Funding.
Detailed and clear information on the funding source should be given after the main text of the manuscript. When no external sources of funding were involved in the process of preparation of the manuscript it should be stated as follows: “This publication was prepared without any external sources of funding ”.
Conflict of interest.
Any possible conflict of interest regarding the topic of the submitted paper should be mentioned for all the authors in a separate paragraph following the main text of the manuscript.

II. Research papers

Research papers presenting results of performed experiments and/or clinical observations are the core group of publications in PJNNS.
1. Word Count.
Research papers should contain no more than 3500 words, excluding references, Illustrations' captions and Tables.
2. Title.
Title should be informative and concise, preferably directly addressing clinical entity or problem described in the manuscript, no longer than 160 characters.
3. Abstract.
Abstract should be no longer than 350 words. It should be divided into following paragraphs: Aim of the study; Clinical rationale for the study; Materials and Methods; Results; Conclusions and Clinical Implications.
4. Key words.
The abstract should be followed by 4 - 8 key words. At least one of the key words should be a name of specific clinical entity (e.g. Parkinson disease), syndrome (e.g. Seizure) or procedure (e.g. Stereotactic biopsy).
5. Structure and content of the main text.
The main text should be divided into following sections:

  • Introduction defining the topic of the paper and putting it in context of recent publications;
  • Clinical Rationale For the Study - a short paragraph explaining why results of the study are supposed to be clinically useful or scientifically inspiring;
  • Materials and Methods - a description of studied and control populations and performed intervention or undertaken observation. It should also contain precise description of laboratory experiments (where applicable) allowing its reproduction and of statistical methods used for analysis of the data. The Authors should also add their statement upon ethical approval of their project to this section.
  • Discussion. The Authors are kindly asked to put their specific findings in the context of the most recent publications in the field. The Discussion should also precisely point at strong and weak aspects of the described project. The limitations of the work done should be also included. The Authors are obliged to sum up their discussion with specific conclusions resulting from confrontation of their findings with data found in the literature.
  • Clinical Implications/Future Directions - short paragraph of 5 - 8 sentences, explaining if/how results of this study may influence everyday clinical practice and what further scientific efforts should be undertaken to add new data to the field.
6. Number of Tables.
Research papers may contain up to 2 Tables, numbered accordingly to their appearance in the text, with precise legends and titles. Additional Tables (clearly addressed in the text of manuscript) may be submitted as supplementary material.
7. Number of Illustrations.
Research papers may be illustrated with up to 2 illustrations. The Illustrations should be numbered, titled and described in a way allowing unambiguous placing them within the text. Additional Illustrations (clearly addressed in the text of manuscript) may be submitted as supplementary material.
8.References.
Research papers should have no more than 50 references.

III. Invited review article

Editor-in-Chief invites an Author to write a Review article on selected clinical or scientific topic. The aims of publishing Reviews are to present actual state of knowledge in the field as well as to present actual state of limitations in the field, to provoke new questions in old discussions and to show future research directions.
1. Word count.
Invited review article should contain no more than 5000 words, excluding references, Illustrations' captions and Tables.
2. Title.
Informative and highly specific titles are preferred.
3. Abstract.
An abstract of no more than 300 words is required. The abstract should shortly define topics covered by the Review and signal whether the paper is addressed more to clinicians or to researchers. Abstract should be divided into following paragraphs: Introduction, State of the Art, Clinical Implications, Future Directions.
4. Key words.
The abstract should be followed by 4 - 8 key words. At least one of the key words should be a name of specific clinical entity (e.g. Parkinson disease), syndrome (e.g. Seizure) or procedure (e.g. Stereotactic biopsy).
5. Structure and content of the main text.
Although the structure of Review should rather serve the Authors to present their ideas, nevertheless a following organization of the text is suggested:

  • Introduction defining the area of Review and purposes of the Review.
  • State of the Art section describing significance of the topic of Review, presenting actual knowledge in the field with special consideration given to discoveries published most recently.
  • Clinical Implications panel summing up the most important facts presented in the Review that may increase clinical effectiveness and help to avoid mistakes.
  • Future Directions panel summing up unanswered questions in the field and formulating challenges for researchers.
6. Number of Tables.
Reviews may contain up to 2 Tables. Additional Tables (clearly addressed in the text of manuscript) may be submitted as supplementary material.
7. Number of Illustrations.
Reviews may contain up to 2 Illustrations. Additional Illustrations (clearly addressed in the text of manuscript) may be submitted as supplementary material.
8. References.
Reviews may contain up to 100 References. Additional References may be submitted as a supplementary material.

IV. Review articles

Authors are encouraged to propose topics and titles of reviews to be published in PJNNS. Author(s) proposing a review is kindly asked to present to the Editor in Chief a preliminary abstract of the paper (up to 200 words) to assess if the merit of the article is within the scope of PJNNS or there are no similar reviews under consideration. One of the Co-Editors-in-Chief decides whether to commission a full Review from the Author(s). The formal requirements for a Review articles are the same as for the Invited review articles.

1. Word count.
Invited review article should contain no more than 5000 words, excluding references, Illustrations' captions and Tables.
2. Title.
Informative and highly specific titles are preferred.
3. Abstract. An abstract of no more than 300 words is required. The abstract should shortly define topics covered by the Review and signal whether the paper is addressed more to clinicians or to researchers. Abstract should be divided into following paragraphs: Introduction, State of the Art, Clinical Implications, Future Directions.
4. Key words.
The abstract should be followed by 4 - 8 key words. At least one of the key words should be a name of specific clinical entity (e.g. Parkinson disease), syndrome (e.g. Seizure) or procedure (e.g. Stereotactic biopsy).
5. Structure and content of the main text.
Although the structure of Review should rather serve the Authors to present their ideas, nevertheless a following organization of the text is suggested:
Introduction defining the area of Review and purposes of the Review. State of the Art section describing significance of the topic of Review, presenting actual knowledge in the field with special consideration given to discoveries published most recently.
Clinical Implications panel summing up the most important facts presented in the Review that may increase clinical effectiveness and help to avoid mistakes.
Future Directions panel summing up unanswered questions in the field and formulating challenges for researchers.
6. Number of Tables.
Reviews may contain up to 2 Tables. Additional Tables (clearly addressed in the text of manuscript) may be submitted as supplementary material.
7. Number of Illustrations.
Reviews may contain up to 2 Illustrations. Additional Illustrations (clearly addressed in the text of manuscript) may be submitted as supplementary material.
8. References.
Reviews may contain up to 100 References. Additional References may be submitted as a supplementary material.

V. Keynote reviews

The Editors of PJNNS write by themselves or invite other Authors to write a Keynote review to describe a new phenomenon or to present a short analysis of recently discovered facts.

1. Word count.
Keynote review should contain no more than 1500 words, excluding abstract and references.
2. Title.
The Authors are encouraged to formulate individualized and eye-catching titles of Keynote reviews.
3. Abstract.
Keynote reviews are required to have an abstract no longer than 150 words, describing the area covered by the text. Abstract should be divided into Paragraphs: Introduction, Clinical Reflexions, Clinical Implications.
4. Key words.
The abstract should be followed by 2 - 4 relevant key words. 5. Structure and content of the main text. No specific structure is required for those articles although the Authors are kindly ask to divide the text into entitled sections to facilitate following the reasoning.
6. Number of Tables.
Keynote reviews may contain up to 2 Tables. Additional Tables (clearly addressed in the text of manuscript) may be submitted as supplementary material.
7. Number of Illustrations.
Keynote reviews may contain up to 2 Illustrations. Additional Tables (clearly addressed in the text of manuscript) may be submitted as supplementary material.
8. References.
Keynote reviews may contain up to 30 References. Additional References may be submitted as supplementary material.

VI. Editorials

Editorials are articles written by the Editors of PJNNS or by Authors invited by the Editors. The aim of Editorial is to comment a paper published in PJNNS or to place it in a wider scientific context.

1. Word count.
Editorial should contain no more than 800 words, excluding references,
2. Title.
Title should be relevant to the article commented
3. Abstract.
Editorials are required to have an abstract no longer than 100 words. Abstract should be divided into Paragraphs: Introduction (pointing at article commented), Clinical Reflexions, Clinical Implications.
4. Key words
Key words are not required for Editorials
5. Structure and content of the main text.
Editorials are not supposed to be specifically structured
6. Number of Tables.
Editorials may contain up to 2 Tables. Additional Tables (clearly addressed in the text of manuscript) may be submitted as supplementary material.
7. Number of Illustrations
Editorials may contain up to 2 Illustrations. Additional Illustrations (clearly addressed in the text of manuscript) may be submitted as supplementary material.
8. References.
Editorials may contain up to 30 references. Additional References may be submitted as supplementary material.

VII. Guideline

PJNNS is open for proposals of publishing papers containing clinical guidelines prepared by medical societies and other clinical and scientific groups of experts. Guideline papers should fulfil specific criteria described below:

1. Word count.
Guideline should contain no more than 3500 words, excluding references, Illustrations' captions and Tables.
2. Title.
The Title should contain the names(s) of the organization(s) preparing the guidelines and the specific clinical condition to which the guideline applies.
3. Abstract.
Abstract should contain no more than 350 words. It should shortly describe the clinical condition being the subject of the guidelines and present most important guidelines. Abstract should be divided into following paragraphs: Introduction, Aim of the Guideline, Results, and Conclusions.
4. Key words.
Abstract should be followed by 4 - 8 key words.
5. Structure and content of the main text.
The main text should be divided into following sections:
Introduction describing clinical phenomenon which is the subject of the guidelines, with basic epidemiological, pathophysiological and therapeutic data.
Aim of the guidelines: Precisely defined clinical issues that are addressed by the guidelines, most preferably formulated as clinical questions.
Methods. Definition of relevant publications, methods of publications search, methods of reaching the consensus, strength of guidelines should be described
Results.
Evidence-based answers to questions formulated in "Aim of the guidelines"section should be presented.
Conclusions.
Potential clinical implications of the guidelines and their identified weak points should be described as well as areas still waiting for creating guidelines.
6. Number of Tables.
Guideline may contain up to 2 Tables. Additional Tables (clearly addressed in the text of manuscript) may be submitted as supplementary material.
7. Number of Illustrations.
Guideline may contain up to 2 Illustrations. Additional Illustrations (clearly addressed in the text of manuscript) may be submitted as supplementary material.
8. References.
Guideline may contain up to 80 references. Additional References may be submitted as supplementary material.

VIII. Short communications

Short communication is a type of article serving for presentation of data coming from case series, short projects of preliminary studies.

1. Word count.
Short communications should contain no more than 1500 words, excluding references, Illustrations' captions and Tables.
2. Title.
Title should be informative and concise, preferably directly addressing clinical entity or problem described in the manuscript, no longer than 160 characters.
3. Abstract.
Abstract should be no longer than 200 words. It should be divided into following paragraphs: Aim of the study; Materials and Methods; Results; Conclusions and Clinical Implications.
4. Key words.
The abstract should be followed by 4 - 8 key words. At least one of the key words should be a name of specific clinical entity (e.g. Parkinson disease), syndrome (e.g. Seizure) or procedure (e.g. Stereotactic biopsy).
5. Structure and content of the main text.
The main text should be divided into following sections:
Introduction. Very short paragraph defining the topic of the paper and putting it in context of recent publications;
Materials and Methods - a description of studied and control populations and performed intervention or undertaken observation. It should also contain precise description of laboratory experiments (where applicable) allowing its reproduction and of statistical methods used for analysis of the data. The Authors should also add their statement upon ethical approval of their project to this section.
Discussion. The Authors are kindly asked to put their specific findings in the context of the most recent publications in the field. The Authors are obliged to sum up their discussion with specific conclusions resulting from confrontation of their findings with data found in the literature.
Clinical Implications/Future Directions- short (but crucial for Shortcommunications) paragraph of 3 - 4 sentences, explaining if/how results of this study may influence everyday clinical practice and what further scientific efforts should be undertaken to add new data to the field.
6. Number of Tables.
Short communications may contain only 1 Table. Additional Tables (clearly addressed in the text of manuscript) may be submitted as supplementary material.
7. Number of Illustrations.
Short communications may also contain a single Illustrations. Additional Illustrations (clearly addressed in the text of manuscript) may be submitted as supplementary material.
8. References.
Short communications may contain up to 20 references. Additional References may be submitted as supplementary material.

IX. Technical notes

PJNNS publishes Technical notes. Those papers focus on new operational techniques or on new devices improving neurosurgical procedures.

1. Word count.
Technical notes should contain no more than 1200 words, excluding references, Illustrations' captions and Tables.
2. Title.
Title should directly refer to technique or device described.
3. Abstract.
Abstract should be no longer than 150 words. No specific structure is required. Abstract should be divided into following paragraphs: Aim of the study, Materials and Methods, Results, Clinical Implications.
4. Key words.
The abstract should be followed by 4 - 8 key words. At least one of the key words should be a name of specific clinical entity (e.g. Parkinson disease), syndrome (e.g. Seizure) or procedure (e.g. Stereotactic biopsy).
5. Structure and content of the main text.
No specific structure is required.
6. Number of Tables.
Technical notes may contain a single Table. Additional Tables (clearly addressed in the text of manuscript) may be submitted as supplementary material.
7. Number of Illustrations.
Technical notes may also contain a single Illustrations. Additional Illustrations (clearly addressed in the text of manuscript) may be submitted as supplementary material.
8. References.
Technical notes may contain up to 20 references. Additional References may be submitted as supplementary material.

X. Letter to the Editor

Authors are invited to submit their clinical observations (e.g. Case reports, short case series) in form of Letters to the Editor.

1. Word count.
Letter to the Editor should contain no more than 1000 words, excluding references, Illustrations' captions and Tables.
2. Title.
Title should be informative enough to give the reader the most important information presented in the Letter to the Editor.
3. Abstract.
No abstract is required.
4. Key words.
The title should be followed by 2 - 4 key words.
5. Structure and content of the main text.
Although no specific structure is required, the Authors are asked to present the clinical observation first, then to place it in context of published data with special attention given to novelty and uniqueness of the presented finding.
6. Number of Tables.

Letters to the Editor may contain a single Table. Additional Tables (clearly addressed in the text of manuscript) may be submitted as supplementary material.
7. Number of Illustrations.
Letters to the Editor may also contain a single Illustration. Additional Illustrations (clearly addressed in the text of manuscript) may be submitted as supplementary material.
8. References.
Letters to the Editor may contain up to 10 references. Additional References may be submitted as supplementary material.

XI. Commentary

As creative discussion is sine qua non for development of science the Editors invite the readers of PJNNS to submit their reflexions or doubts provoked by papers published in the journal. Submissions related to research papers are of special value. Those articles will be published as Commentaries. If only possible they will be answered by the Authors of original contribution.

1. Word count.
Commentaries should contain no more than 1000 words, excluding references, Illustrations' captions and Tables.
2. Title.
Title should refer directly to the paper that provoked the Comment
3. Abstract.
No abstract is required.
4. Key words.
No key words are required.
5. Structure and content of the main text.
Although no specific structure is required, the Authors are asked to present shortly the research paper and then to express their reflexions supported by previously published data.
6. Number of Tables.
Commentaries may contain a single Table. Additional Tables (clearly addressed in the text of manuscript) may be submitted as supplementary material.
7. Number of Illustrations.
Commentaries may also contain a single Illustrations. Additional Illustrations (clearly addressed in the text of manuscript) may be submitted as supplementary material.
8. References. Commentaries may contain up to 10 references. Additional References may be submitted as supplementary material.

Ethics in publishing

Please see our information pages on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication.

Declaration of interest

All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential competing interests include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. Authors must disclose any interests in two places: 1. A summary declaration of interest statement in the title page file (if double-blind) or the manuscript file (if single-blind). If there are no interests to declare then please state this: 'Declarations of interest: none'. This summary statement will be ultimately published if the article is accepted. 2. Detailed disclosures as part of a separate Declaration of Interest form, which forms part of the journal's official records. It is important for potential interests to be declared in both places and that the information matches. More information.

Submission declaration and verification

Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract, a published lecture or academic thesis, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service Crossref Similarity Check.

Contributors

Each author is required to declare his or her individual contribution to the article: all authors must have materially participated in the research and/or article preparation, so roles for all authors should be described. The statement that all authors have approved the final article should be true and included in the disclosure.

Changes to authorship

Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the journal Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed.
Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted. While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the Editor will result in a corrigendum.

Copyright

Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (see more information on this). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.

Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations. If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases.

For gold open access articles: Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an 'Exclusive License Agreement' (more information). Permitted third party reuse of gold open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license.

Author rights
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. More information.

Elsevier supports responsible sharing
Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.

Role of the funding source

You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.

Funding body agreements and policies
Elsevier has established a number of agreements with funding bodies which allow authors to comply with their funder's open access policies. Some funding bodies will reimburse the author for the gold open access publication fee. Details of existing agreements are available online.

Green open access
Authors can share their research in a variety of different ways and Elsevier has a number of green open access options available. We recommend authors see our green open access page for further information. Authors can also self-archive their manuscripts immediately and enable public access from their institution's repository after an embargo period. This is the version that has been accepted for publication and which typically includes author-incorporated changes suggested during submission, peer review and in editor-author communications. Embargo period: For subscription articles, an appropriate amount of time is needed for journals to deliver value to subscribing customers before an article becomes freely available to the public. This is the embargo period and it begins from the date the article is formally published online in its final and fully citable form. Find out more.

This journal has an embargo period of 12 months.

Language (usage and editing services)
Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop.

Submission

Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files (e.g., Word, LaTeX) are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.

Submit your article
Please submit your article via https://www.evise.com/profile/api/navigate/PJNNS

Referees
Please submit the names and institutional e-mail addresses of several potential referees. For more details, visit our Support site. Note that the editor retains the sole right to decide whether or not the suggested reviewers are used.

Review process

Manuscripts are evaluated on the basis that they present new insights to the investigated topic, are likely to contribute to a research progress. It is understood that all authors listed on a manuscript have agreed to its submission. The signature of the corresponding author on the letter of submission signifies that these conditions have been fulfilled. Received manuscripts are first examined by the Editors of Polish Journal of Neurology and Neurosurgery. Manuscripts with insufficient priority for publication are rejected promptly. Incomplete packages or manuscripts not prepared in the advised style will be sent back to authors without scientific review. The authors are notified with the reference number upon manuscript registration at the Editorial Office. The registered manuscripts are sent to independent experts for scientific evaluation. We encourage authors to suggest the names of possible reviewers, but we reserve the right of final selection. Submitted papers are accepted for publication after a positive opinion of the independent reviewers.

Permissions

Materials taken from other sources must be accompanied by a written statement from both author and publisher giving permission to Polish Journal of Neurology and Neurosurgery for reproduction. Obtain permission in writing from at least one author of papers still in press, unpublished data, and personal communications.

Disclaimer

Every effort is made by the Editor-in-Chief and the Editorial Board of Polish Journal of Neurology and Neurosurgery to see that no inaccurate or misleading data, opinion or statement appear in Polish Journal of Neurology and Neurosurgery. However, they wish to make it clear that the data and opinions appearing in the articles and advertisements herein are the responsibility of the contributor, sponsor or advertiser concerned. Accordingly, the Editor-in-Chief and the Editorial Board accept no liability whatsoever for the consequences of any such inaccurate of misleading data, opinion or statement. Every effort is made to ensure that drug doses and other quantities are presented accurately. Nevertheless, readers are advised that methods and techniques involving drug usage and other treatments described in Polish Journal of Neurology and Neurosurgery, should only be followed in conjunction with the drug or treatment manufacturer's own published literature in the readers own country.

Peer review

This journal operates a double blind review process. All contributions will be initially assessed by the editor for suitability for the journal. Papers deemed suitable are then typically sent to a minimum of two independent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor's decision is final. More information on types of peer review.

Double-blind review

This journal uses double-blind review, which means the identities of the authors are concealed from the reviewers, and vice versa. More information is available on our website. To facilitate this, please include the following separately:
Title page (with author details): This should include the title, authors' names, affiliations, acknowledgements and any Declaration of Interest statement, and a complete address for the corresponding author including an e-mail address.
Blinded manuscript (no author details): The main body of the paper (including the references, figures, tables and any acknowledgements) should not include any identifying information, such as the authors' names or affiliations.

Use of word processing software
It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier). Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork.
To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.

Article structure

Subdivision - numbered sections
Divide your article into clearly defined and numbered sections. Subsections should be numbered 1.1 (then 1.1.1, 1.1.2, ...), 1.2, etc. (the abstract is not included in section numbering). Use this numbering also for internal cross-referencing: do not just refer to 'the text'. Any subsection may be given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line.

Introduction
State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results.

Material and methods
Provide sufficient details to allow the work to be reproduced by an independent researcher. Methods that are already published should be summarized, and indicated by a reference. If quoting directly from a previously published method, use quotation marks and also cite the source. Any modifications to existing methods should also be described.

Results
Results should be clear and concise.

Discussion
This should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. A combined Results and Discussion section is often appropriate. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature.

Essential title page information

Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
Author names and affiliations. Please clearly indicate the given name(s) and family name(s) of each author and check that all names are accurately spelled. You can add your name between parentheses in your own script behind the English transliteration. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. This responsibility includes answering any future queries about Methodology and Materials. Ensure that the e-mail address is given and that contact details are kept up to date by the corresponding author.
Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.

Acknowledgements

Collate acknowledgements in a separate section and include it on the title page only. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.).

Abstract

A concise and factual abstract is required. The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results and major conclusions. An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. For this reason, References should be avoided, but if essential, then cite the author(s) and year(s). Also, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself.

The abstract should be included in the Blinded Manuscript.

Keywords

Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 5 keywords, using American spelling and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, 'and', 'of'). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.

Abbreviations

Abbreviations that are unavoidable must be defined twice: (1) at their first mention in the Abstract and (2) at their first mention in the remaining part of the article. Ensure consistency of abbreviations throughout the article.

Units
Follow internationally accepted rules and conventions: use the international system of units (SI). If other units are mentioned, please give their equivalent in SI.

Footnotes
Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article. Many word processors can build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Otherwise, please indicate the position of footnotes in the text and list the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article. Do not include footnotes in the Reference list.

Artwork

Electronic artwork
General points
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.
• Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
• Provide captions to illustrations separately.
• Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the published version.
• Submit each illustration as a separate file.
A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available.
You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
Formats
If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format.
Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.
Please do not:
• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
• Supply files that are too low in resolution;
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

Color artwork
Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF), or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution.

Figure captions
Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.

Tables

Please submit tables as editable text and not as images. Tables can be placed either next to the relevant text in the article, or on separate page(s) at the end. Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text and place any table notes below the table body. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in them do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article. Please avoid using vertical rules and shading in table cells.

References

Citation in text
Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.

Reference links
Increased discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, CrossRef and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the DOI is encouraged.

A DOI can be used to cite and link to electronic articles where an article is in-press and full citation details are not yet known, but the article is available online. A DOI is guaranteed never to change, so you can use it as a permanent link to any electronic article. An example of a citation using DOI for an article not yet in an issue is: VanDecar J.C., Russo R.M., James D.E., Ambeh W.B., Franke M. (2003). Aseismic continuation of the Lesser Antilles slab beneath northeastern Venezuela. Journal of Geophysical Research, https://doi.org/10.1029/2001JB000884. Please note the format of such citations should be in the same style as all other references in the paper.

Web references
As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.

Data references
This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in your published article.

References in a special issue
Please ensure that the words 'this issue' are added to any references in the list (and any citations in the text) to other articles in the same Special Issue.

Reference management software
Most Elsevier journals have their reference template available in many of the most popular reference management software products. These include all products that support Citation Style Language styles, such as Mendeley and Zotero, as well as EndNote. Using the word processor plug-ins from these products, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article, after which citations and bibliographies will be automatically formatted in the journal's style. If no template is yet available for this journal, please follow the format of the sample references and citations as shown in this Guide. If you use reference management software, please ensure that you remove all field codes before submitting the electronic manuscript. More information on how to remove field codes.

Other software that can be used for reference management: RefWorks (http://www.refworks.com), BibTeX (http://www.bibtex.org), ProCite (http://www.procite.com).

Users of Mendeley Desktop can easily install the reference style for this journal by clicking the following link:
http://open.mendeley.com/use-citation-style/neurologia-i-neurochirurgia-polska
When preparing your manuscript, you will then be able to select this style using the Mendeley plug-ins for Microsoft Word or LibreOffice.

Reference style
The references should be based on the readily available texts published in the latest and major journals mainly written in English. Number the references (numbers in square brackets) in the list in the order in which they appear in the text.
Model of reference to a journal publication:
Last name, initial, full paper title, journal full name, year, volume (number) first and last page.
Examples:
Reference to a journal publication:
[1] Paivio A, Jansen B, Becker LJ. Comparisons through the mind's eye. Cognition 1975;37(2):635–47.
Reference to a book:
[2] Letheridge S, Cannon CR, editors. Bilingual education: teaching English as a second language. New York: Praeger; 1980.
Reference to a chapter in an edited book:
[3] Strunk Jr W, White EB. The elements of style. 3rd ed. New York: MacMillan; 1979 [chapter 4].
Reference to a conference (only abstracts 2-page long may serve as references):
[4] Douglis F, Ball Th. Tracking and viewing changes on the web. In: Proc. 1996 USENIX technical conference; 1996
Data references:
[5] Oguro M, Imahiro S, Saito S, Nakashizuka T. Mortality data for Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions, Mendeley Data, v1; 2015. http://dx.doi.org/10.17632/xwj98nb39r.1.

Data visualization

Include interactive data visualizations in your publication and let your readers interact and engage more closely with your research. Follow the instructions here to find out about available data visualization options and how to include them with your article.

Supplementary material

Supplementary material such as applications, images and sound clips, can be published with your article to enhance it. Submitted supplementary items are published exactly as they are received (Excel or PowerPoint files will appear as such online). Please submit your material together with the article and supply a concise, descriptive caption for each supplementary file. If you wish to make changes to supplementary material during any stage of the process, please make sure to provide an updated file. Do not annotate any corrections on a previous version. Please switch off the 'Track Changes' option in Microsoft Office files as these will appear in the published version.

Research data

This journal encourages and enables you to share data that supports your research publication where appropriate, and enables you to interlink the data with your published articles. Research data refers to the results of observations or experimentation that validate research findings. To facilitate reproducibility and data reuse, this journal also encourages you to share your software, code, models, algorithms, protocols, methods and other useful materials related to the project.

Below are a number of ways in which you can associate data with your article or make a statement about the availability of your data when submitting your manuscript. If you are sharing data in one of these ways, you are encouraged to cite the data in your manuscript and reference list. Please refer to the "References" section for more information about data citation. For more information on depositing, sharing and using research data and other relevant research materials, visit the research data page.

Data linking
If you have made your research data available in a data repository, you can link your article directly to the dataset. Elsevier collaborates with a number of repositories to link articles on ScienceDirect with relevant repositories, giving readers access to underlying data that gives them a better understanding of the research described.

There are different ways to link your datasets to your article. When available, you can directly link your dataset to your article by providing the relevant information in the submission system. For more information, visit the database linking page.

For supported data repositories a repository banner will automatically appear next to your published article on ScienceDirect.

In addition, you can link to relevant data or entities through identifiers within the text of your manuscript, using the following format: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN).

Mendeley Data
This journal supports Mendeley Data, enabling you to deposit any research data (including raw and processed data, video, code, software, algorithms, protocols, and methods) associated with your manuscript in a free-to-use, open access repository. During the submission process, after uploading your manuscript, you will have the opportunity to upload your relevant datasets directly to Mendeley Data. The datasets will be listed and directly accessible to readers next to your published article online.

For more information, visit the Mendeley Data for journals page.

Data statement
To foster transparency, we encourage you to state the availability of your data in your submission. This may be a requirement of your funding body or institution. If your data is unavailable to access or unsuitable to post, you will have the opportunity to indicate why during the submission process, for example by stating that the research data is confidential. The statement will appear with your published article on ScienceDirect. For more information, visit the Data Statement page.

Interactive Case Insights

The journal encourages authors to complement their case reports with test questions that reinforce the key learning points. These author created questions are submitted along with the article (new or revised) and will be made available in ScienceDirect along with your paper. More information and examples are available at http://www.elsevier.com/about/content-innovation/interactive-case-insights. Test questions are created online at http://elsevier-apps.sciverse.com/GadgetICRWeb/verification. Create the test questions, save them as a file to your desktop, and submit along with your (new or revised) manuscript. For questions, please contact icihelp@elsevier.com.

Submission checklist

The following list will be useful during the final checking of an article prior to sending it to the journal for review. Please consult this Guide for Authors for further details of any item.
Ensure that the following items are present:
One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
• E-mail address
• Full postal address
• Phone numbers
All necessary files have been uploaded, and contain:
• Keywords
• All figure captions
• All tables (including title, description, footnotes)
Further considerations:
• Manuscript has been 'spell-checked' and 'grammar-checked'
• References are in the correct format for this journal
• All references mentioned in the Reference list are cited in the text, and vice versa
• Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Web)
For any further information please visit our customer support site at http://support.elsevier.com.

Proofs

One set of page proofs (as PDF files) will be sent by e-mail to the corresponding author (if we do not have an e-mail address then paper proofs will be sent by post) or, a link will be provided in the e-mail so that authors can download the files themselves. Elsevier now provides authors with PDF proofs which can be annotated; for this you will need to download the free Adobe Reader, version 9 (or higher). Instructions on how to annotate PDF files will accompany the proofs (also given online). The exact system requirements are given at the Adobe site.
If you do not wish to use the PDF annotations function, you may list the corrections (including replies to the Query Form) and return them to Elsevier in an e-mail. Please list your corrections quoting line number. If, for any reason, this is not possible, then mark the corrections and any other comments (including replies to the Query Form) on a printout of your proof and scan the pages and return via e-mail. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication: please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.

Offprints

The corresponding author will, at no cost, receive a customized Share Link providing 50 days free access to the final published version of the article on ScienceDirect. The Share Link can be used for sharing the article via any communication channel, including email and social media. For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's Webshop. Corresponding authors who have published their article gold open access do not receive a Share Link as their final published version of the article is available open access on ScienceDirect and can be shared through the article DOI link.



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