Guide for Authors

All journal information and instructions compiled in one document (PDF) in just one mouse-click Author information pack

• Aims and Scope
• Types of papers published
• Contact details for submission
• Ethics
• Permissions
• Legal requirements
• Conflict of interest
• Copyright
• Retained author rights
• Role of the funding source
• Funding body agreements and policies
• Language and language services
• Patient details
• Submission
• Highlights
• Editorial procedure
• Editorial office
• Arrangement of the manuscript
• Artwork
• Tables
• Supplementary material
• Submission checklist
• Proofs
• Offprints

(Updated 20 November 2015; Please note that Mycoscience has implemented a new page charge policy.)

Aims and Scope

Mycoscience is the official English-language journal of the Mycological Society of Japan and is issued bimonthly. Mycoscience publishes original research articles and reviews on various topics related to fungi including yeasts and other organisms that have traditionally been studied by mycologists. The research areas covered by Mycoscience extend from such purely scientific fields as systematics, evolution, phylogeny, morphology, ecology, physiology, biochemistry, genetics, and molecular biology, to agricultural, medical, and industrial applications. New and improved applications of well-established mycological techniques and methods are also covered.

Types of papers published

Manuscripts should fall into one of the following categories: Full papers, Short communications, Notes, and Reviews.

Full papers:
Full papers are detailed, well-documented reports containing original, comprehensive, and complete work. Therefore, the papers in this category should be original and have scientific merit.

Short communications:
Short communications, reporting timely novel findings, are brief accounts of original research results and should adhere to a similar standard of quality and scientific rigor as Full papers.

Notes are similar to Short communications, but include fewer novel findings.

Short communications and Notes, including illustrations, should be similar to Full papers, except that no primary headings (Introduction, Materials and methods, Results, and Discussion) are used other than References. Second-level headings (but not hierarchically numbered) may be used and are encouraged for clarity of presentation.

Reviews are comprehensive descriptions and interpretations pertaining to a specific topic with an outline of the research history and a suggestion of directions of future research. Reviews should be discussed with the Editor-in-Chief prior to submission.

Contact details for submission

Page charges
This journal has no page charges.


Ethical standards (please visit for further details)
The manuscript should:
• be the authors' own original work, which has not been previously published elsewhere in English or in any other languages (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis),
• reflect the authors' own research and analysis and do so in a truthful and complete manner,
• properly credit the meaningful contributions of co-authors and collaborators,
• not be submitted to more than one journal for consideration (to ensure that it is not under redundant simultaneous peer review),
• be appropriately placed in the context of prior and existing research.


Authors wishing to include figures, tables, or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright owner(s) and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to be the original work of the authors for copyright purposes.

Legal requirements

Manuscripts submitted for publication must contain a declaration that the experiments comply with the current laws of the country where they were performed. This note should be included in a Disclosure before the Reference list.

Conflict of interest

All benefits in any form from a commercial party related directly or indirectly to the subject of a manuscript or to any of its authors must be acknowledged. For each source of funds, both the research funder and the grant number should be given. This note should be included in a Disclosure before the Reference List. If no conflict exists, authors should state that they have no conflict of interest. See also the document available at


Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a "Journal Publishing Agreement" (for more information on this and on the copyright, see Acceptance of the agreement will ensure the widest possible dissemination of information. An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a "Journal Publishing Agreement" form or a link to the online version of this agreement.
Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles, including their abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations (please consult If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners of these works and credit the source(s) in the article. As for a commissioned article, please contact Editorial Office. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases. Please consult

Elsevier supports responsible sharing
Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.

Retained author rights

As an author you (or your employer or institution) retain certain rights; for details you are referred to

Role of the funding source

You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement, this should be stated. Please see

Funding body agreements and policies

Elsevier has established agreements and developed policies to allow authors whose articles appear in journals published by Elsevier to comply with potential manuscript archiving requirements as specified as conditions of their grant awards. To learn more about existing agreements and policies please visit

Green open access
Authors can share their research in a variety of different ways and Elsevier has a number of green open access options available. We recommend authors see our green open access page for further information. Authors can also self-archive their manuscripts immediately and enable public access from their institution's repository after an embargo period. This is the version that has been accepted for publication and which typically includes author-incorporated changes suggested during submission, peer review and in editor-author communications. Embargo period: For subscription articles, an appropriate amount of time is needed for journals to deliver value to subscribing customers before an article becomes freely available to the public. This is the embargo period and it begins from the date the article is formally published online in its final and fully citable form. Find out more.

This journal has an embargo period of 12 months.

Language and language services

Please write your text in good English (American usage is preferable). At Elsevier, copyediting of accepted papers for Mycoscience follows American English standards. Authors who need information on language editing and copyediting services pre- and postsubmission can visit the Elsevier website for language services or the customer support site for more information.

Patient details

Unless you have a written permission from a patient (or, where applicable, the next of kin), personally identifiable information of any patient included in any part of the article and in any supplementary materials (including all illustrations and videos) must be removed before submission. For further information, see


Authors should submit their manuscripts to the Mycoscience online manuscript submission, review, and tracking system, the Elsevier Editorial SystemTM (EES).If the corresponding author or the first author is a Regular member/Student member/Life member/Honorary member of the Mycological Society of Japan, please provide the membership number when submitting a manuscript via EES.

Electronic submission substantially reduces editorial processing and reviewing times and shortens overall publication time. Please follow the hyperlink "Submit online" and upload all your manuscript files following the instructions given on the screen (Do not upload Excel files for tables; see "Text formatting" below).

Authors should review Reference Checking Results during the electronic submission and attempt to resolve any problems with the references prior to submitting the manuscript.

Please submit the names and e-mail addresses of three to five potential reviewers with the manuscript. Note that the editor reserves the right to decide whether the suggested reviewers are qualified.


When submitting a manuscript in EES, authors are asked to submit research Highlights. These are a collection of three to five short bullet points that convey the core findings (e.g., results or conclusions) and provide readers with a quick textual overview of the article. Highlights should be submitted as a separate file in EES by selecting "Highlights" from the drop-down menu when uploading the files.

Specifications: Include three to five bullet points (a maximum of 85 characters per bullet point, including spaces); only the core results of the paper should be covered. Highlights will be displayed in online search results, the contents list, and in the online article but will not appear in the article’s PDF file or in print.

Editorial procedure

The Editorial Board reserves the right to accept a manuscript for publication or to reject it irrespective of the recommendations from peer reviewers. The Board may advise the author to revise the manuscript according to the suggestions of the reviewers or editor(s). A manuscript written in poor English or in an unsuitable format may be rejected regardless of its content. When revision of a manuscript has been requested, the revised manuscript should be returned within three months of the notification. Manuscripts not received within the stipulated revision period will automatically be processed as withdrawn from submission. If the authors decide to withdraw their manuscript from consideration for publication, they should either inform the editor or withdraw the manuscript via EES on their own. The acceptance date will be the date when the Editor-in-Chief has judged the manuscript to be publishable after completion of the review process.

Editorial office

Mycoscience Editorial Office
(If necessary, please send a carbon copy to the Editor-in-Chief.)


Manuscripts should be written in English. All articles submitted to the journal must comply with the Guide for Authors. Failure to do so will result in the return or rejection of the manuscript before peer review.

Click → Sample Pages

Arrangement of the manuscript

Pages should be numbered consecutively and Full papers should be arranged in the order shown below.

Page 1: Title page
The title page should include the following:

Categories of the paper as Full paper, Short Communication, Note, or Review.

A concise and informative title

The name(s) of the author(s)

The affiliation(s) and address(es) of the author(s)

The name, telephone and fax numbers, and e-mail address of the corresponding author

Total text pages, the number of tables, and the number of figures

Note: Taxonomic authorities should not appear in the title unless they are necessary for clarity. Add page numbers to the manuscript using the "insert → page numbers" function of Microsoft Word or other software.

Page 2: Abstract and keywords

Please provide an abstract with a length of no more than 200 words for Full papers and Reviews or 100 words or less for Short communications and Notes. The abstract should not contain any undefined abbreviations or unspecified references. Taxonomic authorities should not appear in the abstract unless they are necessary for clarity.

Please provide a maximum of five alphabetically ordered keywords that can be used for indexing purposes; these can include the name of organisms (common name or scientific name), method(s), or other words or phrases that represent the subject of the study. Keywords should supplement the title and not duplicate words in the title.

Page 3: Text
The text should be divided into sections with headings (see below), followed by Figure legends (see below, "Figure legends"). Authors should consult recent issues of the journal or Sample pages for details of style and formatting.

Primary headings should begin at the left margin in boldface. Usual primary headings are Introduction, Materials and methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgments, and References. Start second-level headings at the left margin in italics and in boldface. Third-level headings are italicized and but not boldface.

Headings should be hierarchically numbered with each major heading given a primary number, and subsidiary headings given as a decimal value of that number (e.g., 3, 3.1, 3.1.1). The second-level headings can be used in Short communications/Notes, if necessary, but not hierarchically numbered.

Text formatting
Manuscripts should be submitted in the Microsoft Word document format.

• Use a regular, plain font (e.g., 12-point Times New Roman) for body text.
• Use italics for emphasis or Latin binomials.
• Do not use double-byte characters.
• Use the automatic page numbering function.
• Do not use field codes/functions.
• Use tab stops or other commands for indents, not the space bar.
• Use the table function or spreadsheets to create tables.
• Use the Equation Editor or MathType for equations.

Note: if you use Microsoft Word 2007, do not create equations with the default equation editor but use the Microsoft Equation Editor or MathType instead.

• Save your file in the .doc or .docx format.

Scientific names
For the correct use of the scientific names of organisms, consult the relevant, current international codes of nomenclature. For descriptions of new taxa, provide the names of the new taxa, followed by the author(s) name(s) and status (e.g., gen. nov., sp. nov.). After the diagnosis, provided in English, designate the type specimen (holotype) and the place of deposit. No Latin diagnosis or description is required.

In papers on taxonomy, cite author names of all specific and infraspecific taxa only at first mention in the text. Alternatively, the names may be cited once in a suitable table in which all the taxa used in the paper are listed. Author names should be abbreviated according to the Authors of Fungal Names (Index of Fungi Supplement, Kirk and Ansell, 1992, or In nontaxonomic articles, citing the authors of fungal names is not mandatory.

A generic name followed by a specific epithet should be written in full at first mention or at the beginning of a sentence; subsequently, it may be abbreviated to its capitalized initial letter where this use is not ambiguous. Italicize only generic, infrageneric (subgenus, section), specific, and infraspecific taxa. However, scientific names used in book titles in references or second/third-level headings should be in Roman type, not in italics.

When citing the author names for plants (if necessary), the names should be properly abbreviated according to the International Plant Names Index (

Specimens, cultures, nomenclatural information, and sequence data
In systematics papers on particular fungal groups (e.g., anamorphic fungi, or other groups for which the established state of knowledge includes such data), cultural and molecular methods are recommended when proposing new higher taxa (genus or higher ranks).

Authors must deposit voucher specimens and cultures in public herbaria and culture collections, which should be accessible to others and be cited by the newest version or online issue of Index Herbariorum ( or WFCC Culture Collections ( The accession numbers for specimens or cultures must be cited in the manuscript. Details regarding specimens and cultures on which the work is based, including molecular sequences, must be provided (country, locality, host or substrate, date of isolation or collection, isolator or collector, and registration numbers). According to the recommendations in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN), authors describing new species or new infraspecific taxa are recommended to deposit a living culture (ex-type culture), whenever practicable, in at least two institutional culture or genetic resource collections and to cite these in the paper. Authors are asked to deposit voucher cultures not only for systematics papers but also for papers in other mycological sciences.

Authors must deposit information on newly recognized taxa in MycoBank ( or in another nomenclatural registry accepted by the ICN and to indicate the accession number below the new taxon name.

Molecular sequence data must be deposited in a molecular sequence repository (DDBJ,; EMBL,; or GenBank,; the accession numbers must be cited in the manuscript.

Authors are requested to deposit sequence alignments in TreeBASE ( or in other public databases and to indicate the accession number in the manuscript.

All potential conflicts of interest must be disclosed in this section. Potential conflicts of interest include all financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) your work. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding (from the private sector).

Acknowledgments of people, organizations, grants, and funds should be placed in this separate section before the Reference list. The names of funding agencies should be written in full.


Cite references in the text as the surname of the author(s) followed by the year of publication in parentheses. Some examples have been given below:

• Negotiation research spans many disciplines (Thompson 1990).
• This result was later contradicted (Becker and Seligman 1996).
• This effect has been widely studied (Abbott 1991; Medvec et al. 1993a,b, 1995; Barakat et al. 1995; Kelso and Smith 1998).
Citations are arranged in chronological order; publications from the same year should be arranged in alphabetical order.

Reference list
The list of references should include only works that are cited in the text and have been published or accepted for publication. Personal communications and unpublished works should be mentioned only in the text. Do not use footnotes or endnotes as a substitute for a reference list.

Reference list entries should be alphabetized by the last name of the authors (priority: the first author, the second author, the third author, and so on). If the same author is present in more than one source, these entries should be listed in chronological order. See "Sample Pages" for details.

• Journal articles (Note: journal names are not to be abbreviated; citation by DOI is strongly recommended)

Aoki T, Scandiani MM, O'Donnell K, 2012. Phenotypic, molecular phylogenetic, and pathogenetic characterization of Fusarium crassistipitatum sp. nov., a novel soybean sudden death syndrome pathogen from Argentina and Brazil. Mycoscience 53: 167–186;

Degawa Y, Ohsawa K, Suyama M, Morishita N, 2014. Mortierella thereuopodae, a new species with verticillate large sporangiophores, inhabiting fecal pellets of Scutigeromorpha. Mycoscience 55: 308–313;

Horn WB, 1989. Ultrastructural changes in trichospores of Smittium culisetae and S. culicis during in vitro sporangiospore extrusion and holdfast formation. Mycologia 81: 742–753.

Hughes SJ, Seifert KA, 2012. Taxonomic and nomenclatural notes on sooty mould names based on species mixtures: Hormiscium handelii and Torula lechleriana. Mycoscience 53: 17–24;

Hyde KD, Chalermpongse A, Boonthavikoon T, 1990. Ecology of intertidal fungi at Ranong mangrove, Thailand. Transactions of the Mycological Society of Japan 31: 17–27.

LoBuglio KF, Pfister DH, 2008. A Glomerella species phylogenetically related to Colletotrichum acutatum on Norway maple in Massachusetts. Mycologia 100: 710–715;

Lohsomboon P, Kakishima M, Ono Y, 1990a. A revision of genus Nyssopsora (Uredinales). Mycological Research 94: 907–922.

Lohsomboon P, Kakishima M, Ono Y, 1990b. The genus Triphragmiopsis (Uredinales). Transactions of the Mycological Society of Japan 31: 335–343.

Morimoto Y, 1953. Notes on species of the rust fungi collected in the island of Yakushima, Kiusiu (in Japanese). Journal of Japanese Botany 28: 313–316.

Nandson GA, 1911. The sexual process in yeasts and bacteria (in Russian). Russkij Vratch 51: 2093.

Niinomi S, Takamatsu S, Havrylenko M, 2008. Molecular data do not support a southern hemisphere base of Nothofagus powdery mildews. Mycologia 100: 716–726;

Pota S, Chatasiri S, Ono Y, Yamaoka Y, Kakishima M, 2013. Taxonomy of two host specialized Phakopsora populations on Meliosma in Japan. Mycoscience 54: 19–28;

Takeshita N, Fischer R, 2011. On the role of microtubules, cell end markers, and septal microtubule organizing centres on site selection for polar growth in Aspergillus nidulans. Fungal Biology 115: 506–517;

Udagawa S, Uchiyama S, Kamiya S, 1994. A new species of Myxotrichum with an Oidiodendron anamorph. Mycotaxon 52: 197–205.


Cooke RC, Rayner ADM, 1984. Ecology of saprotrophic fungi. Longman, London.

Domsch KH, Gams W, Anderson T-H, 1980a. Compendium of soil fungi, vol 1. Academic Press, London.

Domsch KH, Gams W, Anderson T-H, 1980b. Compendium of soil fungi, vol 2. Academic Press, London.

Imazeki R, Hongo T, 1965. Coloured illustration of fungi of Japan, II (in Japanese). Hoikusha, Osaka.

Ridgway R, 1912. Color standards and color nomenclature. Published by the author, Washington, D.C.

South J, Blass B, 2001. The future of modern genomics. Blackwell, London.

•Book chapters

Brown B, Aaron M, 2001. The politics of nature. In: Smith J (ed), The rise of modern genomics, 3rd edn. Wiley, New York, pp 230–257.

Gams W, Christensen M, Onions AH, Pitt JI, Samson RA, 1985. Infrageneric taxa of Aspergillus. In: Samson RA, Pitt JI (eds), Advances in Penicillium and Aspergillus systematic. Plenum, New York, pp 55–62.

Sagara N, 1992. Experimental disturbances and epigeous fungi. In: Carroll GC, Wicklow DT (eds), The fungal community, 2nd edn. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 427–454.

White TJ, Bruns T, Lee S, Taylor J, 1990. Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics. In: Innis MA, Gelfand DH, Sninsky JJ, White TJ (eds), PCR protocols: a guide to methods and applications. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 315–322.

•Abstracts and Proceedings

Kirkpatrick B, Smart C, 1994. Identification of MLOspecific PCR primers obtained from 16S/23S rRNA spacer sequences. 10th International Congress of the International Organization for Mycoplasmology (IOM), Bordeaux, France, Jul 19–26, pp 261–262.

Kreisel H, 1991. Neoteny in the phylogeny of Eumycota. In: Hawksworth DL (ed), Frontiers in mycology (4th International Mycological Congress 1990). CAB International, Wallingford, pp 69–84.

Kudo A, Kaneko S, 1977. Parasiticity of Aecidium meliosmae-myrianthae to grapes (Abstract) (in Japanese). Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan 43: 322.

•PhD dissertations

Powell PE, 1974. Taxonomic studies in the genus Hypoderma. PhD thesis, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York.

•Electronic/online publications (Note: please follow the template below or other general standard format)

Doe J, 1999. Title of subordinate document. In: Gangolli SD (ed), The dictionary of substances and their effects. Royal Society of Chemistry. of subordinate document. Accessed 16 Dec 2011.

Author(s)/organization(, Year). Title. (Publisher, Place.) URL. Accessed/viewed date.

Quantity and units
All measurements should be expressed in the metric system and abbreviated. Use the recommended SI units (Système International d'Unités) as a general rule. When non-SI units are used, they must be explained clearly to avoid ambiguity.

Use Roman type for units and abbreviated units, without periods. Care should be taken to italicize only the units for absorbance, gravitational acceleration, and water activity. The abbreviated units should not be provided in the plural form, that is, an s should not be added to the unit.

Units should be abbreviated as follows:

length: nm, μm, mm, cm, m

mass: pg, ng, μg, mg, g, kg

amount of substance: nmol, μmol, mmol, mol

molar concentration: μM, mM, M

area: mm2, cm2, m2

volume: μl, mL, L (capitalize L, to avoid confusion with number 1), cm3, m3

time: s, min, h, d, wk, mo, y

names of months by first three letters: Jan, Feb, Mar, Apr, May, Jun, Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct, Nov, Dec

temperature: °C (example: 37 °C), K

absorbance: A (example: A260)

gravitational acceleration: g (example: 10,000 g)

light: J, lx, lm, W

molecular weight: Da, kDa

water activity: Aw

Concentrations of solutions are preferably expressed in terms of molarity (M). The percentage symbol % must be used in its correct sense, e.g., g/100 g; otherwise it must be defined as "% (v/v)" or "% (w/v)", e.g., 5% (v/v). Use μg/mL or μg/g in place of the ambiguous ppm.

Abbreviations should be defined at first mention and used consistently thereafter. Use Roman type for abbreviations derived from the Latin or Greek (for example: ca., et al., i.e., e.g., s. str., s. l.). Never use abbreviations or symbols for the name of a substance unless they are internationally accepted. The Enzyme Commission (EC) number should be given at the first mention of an enzyme in the text.

Record measurements as length by width (or diameter). Place exceptional dimensions in parentheses. Indicate mean values separately.

Example: (10–)13–16(–18.5) x 7–8(–9) μm, 15.5 x 7.5 μm on average. Use en dash, not hyphen, for measurements.


Electronic artwork
General points
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Embed the fonts if the software provides that option.
• Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol; alternatively, use fonts that look similar.
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files (e.g., Fig1.tiff, Fig2_ITStree.pdf, Fig3_rev.eps).
• Provide figure legends separately from illustrations.
• Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the printed version.
• Submit each illustration as a separate file.

A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available on our website:
You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed instructions are given here.

If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel), please supply 'as is' in the native document format.
Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (Note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings; embed all used fonts.
TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones); keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings; keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale); keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.

Please do not:

• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors.
• Supply files that are too low in resolution.
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content: i.e., It is recommended that each individual figure file does not exceed 50MB and that the combined size of all the files for submission does not exceed 700MB. Upload of large files may result in problems such as time out during upload or PDF build failure.

Color artwork
Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF, EPS or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color on the Web (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. For color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article. No charge for color reproduction in print will be made for the papers whose first author and/or corresponding author are the member (exclusive of the sustaining member) of the Mycological Society of Japan. Please indicate your preference for color: in print or on the Web only. For further information on the preparation of electronic artwork, please see
Note: because of technical complications which can arise by converting color figures to 'gray scale' please submit in addition usable black and white versions of all the color illustrations. For the printed version should you not opt for color in print.

Figure numbering and labeling
Number figures consecutively in the order they appear in the text. For a composite figure composed of multiple sections, each section should be labeled A, B, C and so on (use uppercase letters).

Figure placement and size
• When preparing your figures, size figures to fit in the column width.
• The figures should be 84 mm, 131 mm, or 174 mm wide and not higher than 240 mm.
• The publisher reserves the right to reduce or enlarge figures.

Figure legends
Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply legends separately (not on the figure itself). A caption should comprise a brief title and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum, but in the figure legend, explain all symbols and abbreviations used in the illustration.


Number tables consecutively in the order they appear in the text. Include footnotes if necessary and indicate them with superscript lowercase letters (not asterisks). Avoid vertical lines and unnecessary horizontal lines. Use tables sparingly and make sure that the data presented in tables do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article.

Data references
This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in your published article.

Supplementary material

Supplementary material can support and enhance your scientific research. Supplementary files offer the author additional possibilities to publish supporting applications, high-resolution images, background datasets, sound clips and more. Please note that such items are published online exactly as they are submitted; there is no typesetting involved (supplementary data supplied as an Excel file or as a PowerPoint slide will appear as such online). Please submit the material together with the article and supply a concise and descriptive caption given directly on each file in a readable format, not in the main body of the text. If you wish to make any changes to supplementary data during any stage of the process, then please make sure to provide an updated file, and do not annotate any corrections on a previous version. Please also make sure to switch off the 'Track Changes' option in any Microsoft Office files as these will appear in the published supplementary file(s). For more detailed instructions please visit our artwork instruction pages at

Supplementary material captions
Each supplementary material file should have a short caption which will be placed at the bottom of the article, where it can assist the reader and also be used by search engines.


This journal encourages and enables you to share data that supports your research publication where appropriate, and enables you to interlink the data with your published articles. Research data refers to the results of observations or experimentation that validate research findings. To facilitate reproducibility and data reuse, this journal also encourages you to share your software, code, models, algorithms, protocols, methods and other useful materials related to the project.

Below are a number of ways in which you can associate data with your article or make a statement about the availability of your data when submitting your manuscript. If you are sharing data in one of these ways, you are encouraged to cite the data in your manuscript and reference list. Please refer to the "References" section for more information about data citation. For more information on depositing, sharing and using research data and other relevant research materials, visit the research data page.

Data linking
If you have made your research data available in a data repository, you can link your article directly to the dataset. Elsevier collaborates with a number of repositories to link articles on ScienceDirect with relevant repositories, giving readers access to underlying data that gives them a better understanding of the research described.

There are different ways to link your datasets to your article. When available, you can directly link your dataset to your article by providing the relevant information in the submission system. For more information, visit the database linking page.

For supported data repositories a repository banner will automatically appear next to your published article on ScienceDirect.

In addition, you can link to relevant data or entities through identifiers within the text of your manuscript, using the following format: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN).

Mendeley Data
This journal supports Mendeley Data, enabling you to deposit any research data (including raw and processed data, video, code, software, algorithms, protocols, and methods) associated with your manuscript in a free-to-use, open access repository. Before submitting your article, you can deposit the relevant datasets to Mendeley Data. Please include the DOI of the deposited dataset(s) in your main manuscript file. The datasets will be listed and directly accessible to readers next to your published article online.

For more information, visit the Mendeley Data for journals page.

Data statement
To foster transparency, we encourage you to state the availability of your data in your submission. This may be a requirement of your funding body or institution. If your data is unavailable to access or unsuitable to post, you will have the opportunity to indicate why during the submission process, for example by stating that the research data is confidential. The statement will appear with your published article on ScienceDirect. For more information, visit the Data Statement page.

Submission checklist

The following list will be useful during the final preparation of an article prior to sending it to the journal for review. Please consult this Guide for Authors for further details about any item in the list.

Ensure that the following items are present and in good condition (failure to do so will result in the return or rejection of the manuscript before peer review):

Title page, Abstract and Keywords:
• A concise and informative title
• Full names of all authors; their complete affiliations and full postal addresses in good format
• One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details: 1) Name; 2) Telephone and fax numbers; 3) E-mail address
• Abstract and Keywords in the required format

All necessary files have been uploaded and contain:
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