Guide for Authors

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• Article categories
• Contact details for submission
• Submission checklist
• Ethics in publishing
• Ethical approval of studies and Informed consent
• Conflict of Interest
• Submission declaration and verification
• Use of inclusive language
• Author contributions
• Authorship
• Changes to Authorship
• Copyright
• Plagiarism
• Approval/Vetting of MJAFI articles by office of DGAFMS
• Reporting clinical trials
• Funding/support statement
• Open access
• Language (usage and editing services)
• Identification of patients in descriptions, photographs and pedigrees
• Submission
• Manuscript
• Length of articles
• Acknowledgements
• Artwork
• Editorial Process
• Video
• Preparation for Publication and Proofs
• Reprints
• Research data
• Proofs
• Offprints

Medical Journal Armed Forces India (MJAFI) is a quarterly, peer reviewed international publication. The Journal is published quarterly by Elsevier, a division of Reed-Elsevier (India) Private Limited. It is circulated to all members of Armed Forces Medical Services of India, all medical college libraries of India and subscribers.

The full text of the journal is available online on ScienceDirect. The journal allows full access to its contents on registration. The journal does not charge for submission, processing, publication of manuscripts or for color reproduction of photographs. Medical Journal Armed Forces India (MJAFI) publishes original articles, case reports, review articles, editorials, short communications, contemporary issues, letters to editor, book reviews and other scientific information in all disciplines of medical science. The members of Armed forces of India Medical Services are contributing to international literature, besides there are problems specific to this region and the solutions for them need to be exchanged and this Journal makes a great contribution to disseminate the knowledge amongst its members.

The Editorial Board comprises eminent specialists and consultants from India and abroad. Although preference is given to original work carried out in the Indian subcontinent, contributions are welcome from anywhere in the world.

The Editorial Board requires authors to be in compliance with the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals (URMs), which are compiled by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE); current URMs are available at This Guide for Authors is revised periodically by the Editors as needed. Authors should consult a recent issue of the Journal or visit the journal homepage for the latest version of this guide. Any manuscript not prepared according to this guide will be returned immediately to the author(s) without review.

Article categories

The categories of articles that are published in the Journal are listed and described below. Please select the category that best describes your paper. If your paper does not fall into any of these categories, please contact the Editorial Office.

Original Articles: These are scientific communications from research workers engaged in the field of medicine and include randomized controlled trials, intervention studies, studies of screening and diagnostic tests, outcome studies, cost effective analyses, case control studies and surveys with high response rate. Articles pertaining to the field of military medicine and those of general interest are published on priority.
The guidelines for specific study designs are CONSORT, STARD, QUOROM, STROBE and MOOSE as applicable. All clinical trials need to be registered with the ICMR Registry.
Responsibility for correctness of data and statistical analysis, wherever applicable, lies entirely with the authors. In this regard, it is suggested that a biostatistician may be consulted if needed and suitably acknowledged in the title page.
Format - Abstract (Structured) & Keywords; Introduction; Material & Methods; Results; Discussion.

Review Article or Update Article: These are invited from senior faculty and experts in the field who have published quality original research articles in the same field. Prospective authors are requested to consult the Editor in Chief for prior approval of their topic.

Pictorial reviews/essays:These are descriptive essays on topics of educational and teaching value, providing up-to-date and well illustrated pictorial review on the topic/subject. Pictorial reviews/essays should contain a brief unstructured abstract (maximum 250 words), main body of text at no more than 1500 words (excl. abstract), 10 references and maximum 20 figures including sub figures.

Contemporary Issue: These are articles of topics of current interest, authored preferably by eexperts in the concerned field.

Short Communication: This article describes briefly a research study or a case series to highlight specific or peculiar aspects of a particular condition/s.

Methods in Medicine (including Drug and Equipment Update): These are brief descriptions of a specific technique or procedure, modification of a technique, or equipment of interest and should be supported by relevant diagrams and results of clinical and/or field trials.

Military Medicine: Highlight the experience, innovations and achievements of doctors in the practice of military medicine and other such issues affecting health of troops inoperational conditions. No objection certificate from the head of the institution is a must. Such articles (as deemed appropriate by the editorial team) may require administrative clearance and approval from appropriate higher authorities before final acceptance/ publication.

Perspective: These are basically opinion pieces written by senior faculty/scientists, experts in the field and policy makers.

Student Research: This aims towards encouraging the undergraduate students for their participation in medical research and publication. Any fresh findings/research or research done by students as part of ICMR may be considered.

[Format for the entire above category except for Original articles - Key words; unstructured abstract; Introduction; Results (if applicable); Discussion.]

Case Reports: A case report should communicate a message regarding diagnosis/management of a new and emerging disease, an unexpected association between disease or symptoms, a rare feature of a disease or unique therapeutic approach, an unexpected event while observing or treating a patient. Only rarity of particular case does not merit publication of the case report. As a routine, maximum of four authors are permitted for a case report.
Format - Keywords; unstructured abstract; Introduction;Case Report; Discussion

Images in Medicine: This consists of an interesting clinical or radiological image which is typical and diagnostic of the described condition. Maximum word limit is 1000 words. Figures/illustrations to be limited to 4 (including sub figures) and references upto 10.

'Letter to the Editor' and replies: These should be brief with objective and constructive criticism of published articles. A short pertinent title accompanied by a covering letter should be given. The recent past or current issue publications based Letter to Editor should be given. Current interesting medical topics/anomalies can also be considered for Letter to Editor.

Others: These include Editorials, Guest Editorials and Symposia, which are solicited by the Editorial Board.

Size of manuscript

The Table below provides guidelines regarding maximum permissible size of text as well as number of Tables, Figures and References. Articles not adhering to the above specifications are likely to be rejected at the discretion of the editorial team.

Type of ArticleText (in words)Tables and figuresReferences
Review/Update Article4000830
Original Article3000830
Pictorial Review/Essay150020(including sub figures)10
Contemporary Issue2000410
Short Communication1500210
Case Report1000410
Images in Medicine10004(including sub figures)10
Methods in medicine100045
Military Medicine1500810
Student Research3000830
Letter to Editor50023

Contact details for submission

If assistance is required by the authors, please refer to the tutorials for authors and/or customer support that are available on the EES website; you may also contact the Editorial Office. Please do not post, fax or e-mail your manuscripts to the Editorial Office.

Editorial Office
Medical Journal Armed Forces India
C/o Armed Forces Medical College
Pune-411040, Maharashtra, India
Civil Tel: (020) 26332951
Technical team: techteammjafi
Technical Editor: techeditormjafi
Executive Editor: execeditormjafi

Submission checklist

You can use this list to carry out a final check of your submission before you send it to the journal for review. Please check the relevant section in this Guide for Authors for more details.

Ensure that the following items are present:

One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
• E-mail address
• Full postal address

All necessary files have been uploaded:
• Include keywords
• All figures (include relevant captions)
• All tables (including titles, description, footnotes)
• Ensure all figure and table citations in the text match the files provided
• Indicate clearly if color should be used for any figures in print
Graphical Abstracts / Highlights files (where applicable)
Supplemental files (where applicable)

Further considerations
• Manuscript has been 'spell checked' and 'grammar checked'
• All references mentioned in the Reference List are cited in the text, and vice versa
• Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Internet)
• A competing interests statement is provided, even if the authors have no competing interests to declare
• Journal policies detailed in this guide have been reviewed
• Referee suggestions and contact details provided, based on journal requirements

For further information, visit our Support Center.

Manuscripts submitted to Medical journal Armed Forces India should not have been published previously or be under simultaneous consideration for publication by any other journal. Violation may lead to a retraction of the published article by the Journal and other actions as deemed necessary by the editor. All articles (including those invited) will be peer-reviewed, and accepted articles will be edited to the Journal's style. Accepted manuscripts become the permanent property of the Journal and may not be reproduced, in whole or in part, without the written permission of the editor. Studies involving human subjects or animals should have received the approval of the institutional ethics committee. A statement to this effect and that informed consent was obtained from participating human subjects must be included in the manuscript text.

Ethics in publishing

Please see our information pages on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication.

Ethical approval of studies and Informed consent

Studies involving human subjects or animals should have received the approval of the institutional ethics committee. A statement to this effect and that informed consent was obtained from participating human subjects must be included in the manuscript text. Please ensure that the work described has been carried out in accordance with The Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association (Declaration of Helsinki) for experiments involving humans; EU Directive 2010/63/EU for animal experiments; Uniform Requirements for manuscripts submitted to Biomedical journals Authors should include a statement in the manuscript that informed consent was obtained for experimentation with human subjects. The privacy rights of human subjects must always be observed.

Conflict of Interest

A conflict of interest occurs when an individual's objectivity is potentially compromised by a desire for financial gain, prominence, professional advancement or a successful outcome. MJAFI Editors strive to ensure that what is published in the Journal is as balanced, objective and evidence-based as possible. Since it can be difficult to distinguish between an actual conflict of interest and a perceived conflict of interest, the Journal requires authors to disclose all and any potential conflicts of interest and let readers judge for themselves. Therefore, please ensure that you provide information about any potential financial and non-financial conflicts of interest in a concise paragraph after the main text.

Conflicts of interest may be financial or non-financial. Financial conflicts include financial relationships such as honoraria; educational grants; participation in speakers' bureaus; membership, employment, consultancies, stock ownership, or other equity interest; expert testimony or patent-licensing arrangements. Non-financial conflicts include personal or professional relationships, affiliations, academic competition, intellectual passion, knowledge or beliefs that might affect objectivity.

Authors should submit a conflict of interest statement which will be published with every article. The purpose of the statement is to ensure that any factors —personal relationships, financial connections (e.g. AFMRC Projects, ICMR Projects), sponsorships— that might bias the author of an article, are declared so that readers are aware of the potential conflict of interest and can include that knowledge in the assessment of information. Stating a conflict of interest does not disqualify an author from publication. All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. See also Further information and an example of a Conflict of Interest form can be found at:

Submission declaration and verification

Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract, a published lecture or academic thesis, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service Crossref Similarity Check.

Use of inclusive language

Inclusive language acknowledges diversity, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and promotes equal opportunities. Articles should make no assumptions about the beliefs or commitments of any reader, should contain nothing which might imply that one individual is superior to another on the grounds of race, sex, culture or any other characteristic, and should use inclusive language throughout. Authors should ensure that writing is free from bias, for instance by using 'he or she', 'his/her' instead of 'he' or 'his', and by making use of job titles that are free of stereotyping (e.g. 'chairperson' instead of 'chairman' and 'flight attendant' instead of 'stewardess').

Author contributions

For transparency, we encourage authors to submit an author statement file outlining their individual contributions to the paper using the relevant CRediT roles: Conceptualization; Data curation; Formal analysis; Funding acquisition; Investigation; Methodology; Project administration; Resources; Software; Supervision; Validation; Visualization; Roles/Writing - original draft; Writing - review & editing. Authorship statements should be formatted with the names of authors first and CRediT role(s) following. More details and an example


All individuals designated as authors should qualify for authorship.

An 'author' is considered to be someone who has made substantive intellectual contributions to a published study. An author must take responsibility for at least one component of the work, should be able to identify who is responsible for each component, and should ideally be confident of their co-authors' ability and integrity.

Authorship credit should be based on substantial contributions to conception and design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and final approval of the version to be published. Authors should meet all the above conditions.

Participation solely in the acquisition of funding, for the collection of data or data entry, and general routine supervision does not justify authorship. The order of authorship should be a joint decision of all the co-authors. Once submitted, the order will not be changed without written consent of all the co-authors.

Intellectual contribution
The contribution of each author is to be mentioned, on the Title Page/Author Certificate only, in all multi-author research papers under the following headings: Study Concept, Drafting & Manuscript Revision, Statistical Analysis, Study Supervision.

Changes to Authorship

Ideally there should not be any change in authorship after the manuscript is submitted. In situations where there has been an omission or substantial work is done when the article is revised, an author's name may be added. This policy concerns the addition, deletion, or rearrangement of author names in the authorship of accepted manuscripts:
Before the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Requests to add or remove an author, or to rearrange the author names, must be sent to the Journal Manager from the corresponding author of the accepted manuscript and must include: (a) the reason the name should be added or removed, or the author names rearranged and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, fax, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed. Requests that are not sent by the corresponding author will be forwarded by the Journal Manager to the corresponding author, who must follow the procedure as described above. Note that: (1) Journal Managers will inform the Journal Editors of any such requests and (2) publication of the accepted manuscript in an online issue is suspended until authorship has been agreed upon by the editor.
After the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Any requests to add, delete, or rearrange author names in an article published in an online issue will follow the same policies as noted above and result in a corrigendum.


MJAFI is the official peer-reviewed publication of the Armed Forces Medical Services (AFMS). Contents of the MJAFI are covered by copyright. MJAFI does not accept any responsibility for the statements made by the authors. The Editorial Board has the right to introduce such changes in the articles as may be considered necessary for effectiveness of communication.


Plagiarism is the wrongful appropriation or purloining and publication as one's own, of the ideas, or the expression of the ideas of another without proper attribution or permission. Plagiarism is considered by the MJAFI as a serious professional/scientific/publication misconduct. Each manuscript submitted to the MJAFI shall be subjected to thorough plagiarism check with professional plagiarism detection software as well as scrutiny by the editorial team before processing the manuscript, every time. Authors are themselves responsible to ensure that a submitted manuscript is free from plagiarism. Authors and reviewers are advised to be careful to maintain high ethical standards as per existing international norms. Please view

Approval/Vetting of MJAFI articles by office of DGAFMS

Certain papers/articles submitted to MJAFI wherein Armed Forces data of sensitive nature is highlighted, will be forwarded by MJAFI during the review process to the Office of DGAFMS for reviewing and granting of permission/clearance/approval for publication of the same in the MJAFI. Only those articles which are approved by the Office of DGAFMS will be further processed for publication in the MJAFI.

Reporting clinical trials

All randomized controlled trials submitted for publication should include a completed Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) flow chart (please go to for more information). MJAFI has adopted the ICMJE proposal that requires, as a condition of consideration for publication of clinical trials, registration in a public trials registry. Trials must register at or before the onset of patient enrolment. The clinical trial registration number should be included at the end of the abstract of the article. All clinical trials from India need to be registered with the ICMR Registry.

For this purpose, a clinical trial is defined as any research study that prospectively assigns human participants or groups of humans to one or more health-related interventions to evaluate the effects of health outcomes. Health-related interventions include any intervention used to modify a biomedical or health-related outcome (for example drugs, surgical procedures, devices, behavioral treatments, dietary interventions, and process-of-care changes). Health outcomes include any biomedical or health-related measures obtained in patients or participants, including pharmacokinetic measures and adverse events.

Purely observational studies (those in which the assignment of the medical intervention is not at the discretion of the investigator) will not require registration. Further information can be found at

Elsevier supports responsible sharing
Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.

Funding/support statement

All financial and material support for the research, work, writing and editorial assistance from internal or external agencies, including commercial companies, should be clearly and completely identified in a Funding/Support Statement. You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated. Please see

Open access

Please visit our Open Access page from the Journal Homepage for more information.

Language (usage and editing services)

Articles should be written in English, using American English spelling. Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop or visit our customer support site for more information.

Identification of patients in descriptions, photographs and pedigrees

A signed statement of informed consent to publish (in print and online) patient descriptions, photographs and pedigrees should be obtained from all persons (parents or legal guardians for minors) who can be identified (including by the patients themselves) in such written descriptions, photographs or pedigrees. Such persons should be shown the manuscript before its submission. Omitting data or making data less specific to de-identify patients is acceptable, but changing any such data is not acceptable. State explicitly in the methods section of the manuscript that informed consent was obtained from all participating adult subjects or from parents or legal guardians for minors or incapacitated adults, together with the manner in which informed consent was obtained (i.e., oral or written).


Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files (e.g., Word, LaTeX) are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.

The Journal only accepts online submissions in electronic format. All new manuscripts must be submitted through Medical journal Armed Forces India online and review website ( Please follow the following steps to submit your manuscript:
1. Open the homepage of the Journal's website
2. Register yourself for free by clicking on register on the top and create a user profile with a desired username and mandatory details. On submission of the information, you will receive an email confirming your registration along with the 'Password'
3. Click "Log In" on the main navigation menu at the top of the journal screen to open the login page.
4. Enter your username and password in the appropriate fields (e-mailed to you at the time of registration).
5. Click "Author Log in", this takes you to the "Author Main Menu".
6. After that you can submit the manuscript by following the instructions provided on the screen.
7. Revised manuscripts can be uploaded online using the same log in.
If you have any problems in submission of your manuscript, please send us an email at

Note : Please note that the username and password combination required for Elsevier Editorial System is different from your username and password combination used to "Track your paper" on the Elsevier "Authors' Home" website.

By submitting a manuscript online, the author agrees to the following:

1. The work is original and free from plagiarism.
2. It has not been submitted for publication/is not under consideration for publication at another Journal.
3. All authors are aware of the order of authorship. The submitting author shall be solely responsible in case disputes arise.
4. Once published, copyright of manuscript shall stand transferred to the Journal.
5. 'Conflict of interest' if any, must be explicitly stated at the end of the manuscript.

Submit your article
Please submit your article via

Manuscripts must conform to the instructions given below:


The manuscript should be typed in single space in a word file in US English format. Font size should be Arial 12 points. Identity of the author or institute should not be revealed in the manuscript, except on the title page. (For example, do not mention name of institute in Methods, citing previous study as 'our study', names on figure labels, name of institute in photographs etc).

The manuscript comprises (1) Cover letter (2) Certificate from author (3) Certificate from Head of the Institution (4) Title page with author details (5) Main manuscript without author details (6) Tables (7) Figures (8) Legends.All these files need to be uploadedseparately in the same order.

(1) Certificates: It is mandatory to upload a scanned copy of the following ink signed certificates as per prescribed format available online at
Please scan and save as PDF file for easier uploading.

(a) Certificate from Authors, (Proforma encl)
(b) Certificate from Head of the Institution where study has been carried out, (Proforma encl)
(c) Sanction accorded by Office of DGAFMS for publication of articles based on AFMRC projects.

Additional Certificates: Conflict of interest certificate, Source of support (if any), Registration number (in case of a clinical trial)

(2) Title page: gives the title of the article, a short title, type of article (original article, case report etc), name(s) of the author(s), affiliations of author(s), place of work, names and addresses of the authors and word count (excluding abstract and references),number of figures, tables, photos and references. Identify one author as corresponding author and give his/her postal address, direct telephone or mobile number and email address. The title should not exceed 60 characters. It should have no abbreviations. Names of all the authors with highest academic degree must be typed one below the other with proper footnote marks after the name. Affiliations (with corresponding footnote marks at the beginning) and addresses of authors should be typed as footnotes only. The following footnote marks should be used in the order a,b,c,d,e,f. Acknowledgements, if any, may be mentioned on this page.
See also the title page template,

(3) Abstract and Keywords: The abstract is a synopsis of the main article in about 200 words and gives an opportunity to the author to encourage the reader to go through the article. It should be structured into the headings: Background, Methods, Results, Conclusion, giving facts and not descriptions. Avoid abbreviations. No abstract is required for Letters to the Editor. Give not more than 6 keywords using terms from Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) list of Index Medicus.

(4) Text: The text should be divided into sections, e.g. Introduction, Material and Methods, Results and Discussion. Each should have its individuality and must not be mixed with others. Ensure that all references, tables and figures are cited in the text. Only authorized, internationally accepted abbreviations should be used. First time use of an abbreviation must always be preceded by its full form except for standard units of measurement. Abbreviations are to be avoided in title, abstract and keywords.

(5)References:Responsibility of accuracy of the references lies entirely with the authors. The authors are encouraged to use the facility available for checking the correctness of references online. References should be in the style described in examples. References should be listed in the order in which they are cited in the text. Only relevant and recent references are encouraged. They should be indicated in the text by Arabic numerals superscripted with word or punctuation. Ensure that all the references cited in the text are included in the list and vice versa. List all authors, surname followed by initials when six or less; when seven or more, give only first three and add et al. Do not use full stops in abbreviations of journal names.

Representative examples, based on formats used by NLM in Index Medicus are given below. Please refer to ICMJE guidelines for other types of references.

Examples of Reference Formats

i) Standard Journal Articles -

a) Single author:
Masic I. The importance of proper citation of references in biomedical articles. Acta Inform Med 2013;21(3):148-155.

b) Upto six authors:
Chio A, Pagani M, Agosta F, Calvo A, Cistaro A, Filippi M. Neuroimaging in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: insights into structural and functional changes. Lancet Neurol 2014;13(12):1228-1240.

c) More than six authors:
Lord JM, Midwinter MJ, Chen YF, et al. The systemic immune response to trauma: an overview of pathophysiology and treatment. Lancet 2014;384(9952):1455-1465.

ii) Research group/Organization as Author -

a) Look AHEAD Research Group. Effect of a longterm behavioural weight loss intervention on nephropathy in overweight or obese adults with type 2 diabetes: a secondary analysis of the Look AHEAD randomised clinical trial. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol.2014;(10):801-809.

b) Parkinson Study Group. A controlled, randomized, delayed-start study of rasagiline in early Parkinson disease. Arch Neurol. 2004;61(4):561-566.

iii) No Author Given -

Evidence and doubt in the translation of research into care. Lancet. 2014; 384 (9944):638.

iv) Volume with Supplement -

Lenzo NP, Anderson J, Campbell A, Morandeau L, De Grado TR. Fluoromethylcholine PET in recurrent multifocal hepatoma. Australas Radiol. 2007;51 Suppl:B299-302.

v) Issue with supplement -

GCrawford M, Mullan J, Vanderveen T. Technology and safe medication administration. J Infus Nurs. 2005;28(2 Suppl):37-41.

vi) Epub ahead of print with DOI -

ItoD, Hata S, Seiichiro S, Kobayashi K, Teruya M, Kaminishi M. Amebiasis presenting as acute appendicitis: Report of a case and review of Japanese literature. Int J Surg Case Rep. 2014;5(12):1054-1057.

vii) Epub ahead of print with pii & DOI -

Arnold M, Pandeya N, Byrnes G, et al. Global burden of cancer attributable to high body-mass index in 2012: a population-based study. Lancet Oncol. 2014. pii: S1470-2045(14)71123-4.

viii) Type of article indicated as needed -

Zaidi HA, Russin JJ, Spetzler RF. Conservative management vs intervention for unruptured brain arteriovenous malformations (Comment). JAMA. 2014;312(10):1058.

Books and Other Monographs

ix) Personal Authors - Hofman R, Benz EJ, Silberstein LE, Heslop HE, Weitz Ji, Anastasi J, editors. Hematology: basic principles and practice. 6th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders; 2013. p. 361-365.

x) Editor(s), compiler as Author - Dausset J, Colombani J, editors. Histocompatibility testing 1972. Copenhagen: Munksgaard, 1973.

xi) Chapter in a Book - David WB. The safety and quality of health care. In: Dan LL, Fauci AS, Kasper DL, Hauser SL, Jameson JL, Loscalzo J, editors. Harrison's principles of internal medicine. 18th ed. New York: McGraw Hill Proessions; 2011. p. 85-92.

xii) Conference Papers - Harley NH. Comparing radon daughter dosimetric and risk models. In: Gammage RB, Kaye SV, editors. Indoor air and human health. Proceedings of the Seventh Life Sciences Symposium; 1984 Oct 29-31; Knoxville (TN). Chelsea: Lewis, 1985: 69-78.

xiii) Conference proceedings - Vivian VL, editor. Child abuse and neglect: A medical community response. Proceedings of the First AMA National Conference on Child Abuse and Neglect; 1984 Mar 30-31; Chicago. Chicago: American Medical Association, 1985.

xiv) Scientific or technical report - Akutsu T. Total heart replacement device. Bethesda (MD): National Institute of Health, National Heart and Lung Institute; 1974 Apr. Report No. : NIH-NHLI-69-2185-4.

xv) Dissertation or Thesis - Mohamed S. A study of lipid profile in young smokers [dissertation]. Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka: 2006.

xvi) Newspaper Articles - Rensberger B, Specter B, CFCs may be destroyed by natural process. The Washington Post 1989 Aug 7; Sect. A: 2 (col. 5).

xvii) Magazine Articles - Roueche B. Annals of medicine: the Santa Claus Culture. The New Yorker 1971 Sep 4; 66-81.

xviii) Journal article on the internet - Abood S. Quality improvement initiative in nursing homes: the ANA acts in an advisory role. Am J Nurs (serial on the internet). 2002 Jun (cited 2002 Aug 12); 102 (6): (about 3 p). Available from Wawatch.htm. Accessed on mm/yy.

(6)Tables - are to be typed on separate pages. They should be serially numbered in Arabic numerals (eg. Table 1, Table 2) and a short title should specify the contents. Horizontal lines in the body of the table except between a column heading and its sub-headings should be avoided. The vertical lines separating the columns should be totally omitted. A table should not exceed a page in length, and should not contain less than four lines of data. Tables should be self-explanatory and should not duplicate the data in the text.

(7) Figures/Illustrations/Photographs: Illustrations should be clear enough and should have at least 300 x300 dpi resolutions. Color image may be uploaded only when essential for the manuscript. Line art drawing must have a minimum resolution of 1200 dpi. Photographs/illustrations may be submitted as 'JPEG', or 'TIFF' files. In clinical photographs, identity of the subjects should be suitably masked. In case this is not possible, a written permission from the concerned person should accompany the manuscript. Permission to reproduce any borrowed illustration must be obtained from the copy write holder.

(8) Legends to Figures: The Figure number (numbered consecutively in Arabic numerals), title and explanations of the Figures should appear in the legend (not on the Figure). Type the legends on a separate page. Enough information should be included to interpret the Figure without reference to the text.

(9)Units: All measurements must be in metric units, preferably with corresponding SI units in parentheses. No periods, no plural form (eg. '10 cm' not '10 cms.').

Use 'radiograph', 'radiographic' and 'radiographical' not 'X-ray'. 'Significant' should be reserved for use in the statistical sense. Avoid duplication and repetition of material in Results and Discussion, in Tables and Text, and in Text and Legends.

Personal communications and unpublished data
These sources cannot be included in the references list but may be described in the text. The author(s) must give the full name and highest academic degree of the person, the date of the communication, and indicate whether it was in oral or written (letter, fax, e-mail) form. A signed statement of permission should be included from each person identified as a source of information in a personal communication or as a source for unpublished data.

Ethics: Do not use names and initials of the patients or hospital numbers, especially in illustrative material. When informed consent for the same has been taken from the patient, it should be mentioned in the manuscript. Any report of experimental investigation on human subjects must contain evidence of informed consent by the subjects and of approval by the institutional ethics committee. Authors are encouraged to visit the following links on ethics.,

Length of articles

Please refer to the table in Article Categories section

Please provide 3-6 relevant keywords (in alphabetical order) for the following article categories: Review Articles, Original Articles, Short Communications, and Case Reports. Keywords will be used for indexing purposes and should be taken from the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) list of Index Medicus ( Avoid general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, "and", "of"). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible.
No keywords are required for Editorials, Perspectives, Image and Challenge, and Letters to the Editor.


General acknowledgments for consultations and statistical analyses should be listed concisely, including the names of the individuals who were directly involved. Consent should be obtained from those individuals before their names are listed in this section. Those acknowledged should not include secretarial, clerical or technical staff whose participation was limited to the performance of their normal duties.



1. Certified that I / we have not used any information or material from official documents graded 'Restricted' and above or any 'Classified' information obtained in my /our official capacity in the preparation of the article titled.

2. Certified that this manuscript contains no matter that is libelous or otherwise unlawful, or invades individual privacy or infringes on any proprietary rights.

3. Certified that we have made substantive and intellectual contribution to the article and assume public responsibility for its content. It is also certified that none of the material in this manuscript has been published previously or is currently under consideration for publication elsewhere.

4. Intellectual contribution of authors: All authors certify that they have made substantial contributions to the concept or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work. All authors have been involved in drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content. All authors have a role in final approval of the version to be published.

Study concept / design :

Conduct of Study :

Statistical analysis :

Drafting and manuscript revision :

Final Approval of published version :

5. All authors are in agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.

6. The copyrights of article are hereby transferred to MJAFI.

7. Certified that this article is not based on an AFMRC project.

First Author Second Author Other Authors


Note: Clause 7 to be modified as "Certified that this article is based on AFMRC project No.___" for all articles based on AFMRC projects.


Certified that I have no objection to the publication of the article titled "_____" in Medical Journal Armed Forces India written by "_____"(names of authors) for which research / study has been carried out in this institution / at ______ (specify location) (strike out portion not applicable).

Station: (Head of the Institution)

Date: Signature with Official Stamp

Note: Applicable for all types of Manuscripts except for Letter to Editor.


Electronic artwork
General points
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.
• Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
• Provide captions to illustrations separately.
• Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the published version.
• Submit each illustration as a separate file.
• Ensure that color images are accessible to all, including those with impaired color vision.

A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available.
You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format.
Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.
Please do not:
• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
• Supply files that are too low in resolution;
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

Citation in text
Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.

Data references
This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in your published article.

Editorial Process

All articles submitted to the Journal undergo initial review by the Editor/associate editor and articles that are outside the scope of Journal or are not in the journal format are excluded. Later each article is reviewed by at least two reviewers. The time to first decision is usually less than 6 weeks.

As per the policy of the Journal, an Editor, who is either author of a manuscript or belongs to the same institution as any of the authors, is not assigned that manuscript and is not involved in decision-making regarding its publication. Reviewers/Editorial Board members should decline the invitation to review a manuscript which is submitted by authors from their institution.


Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the file in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 150 MB per file, 1 GB in total. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect. Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages. Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.

Preparation for Publication and Proofs

Once a manuscript has been accepted for publication, authors should submit the final version of their manuscript in MS Word format, with all tables/figures as applicable, via the EES.

Accepted manuscripts are then copyedited according to the Journal's style and the galley proofs in the form of a PDF file are sent by the Publisher to the corresponding author for final approval. Authors are responsible for all statements made in their work, including changes made by the copy editor.

Proofreading is solely the authors' responsibility. Note that the Editorial Board reserves the right to make revisions to the manuscript and the Publisher may proceed with the publication of your article if no response from the author(s) is received.


No reprints are provided to the author free of charge since the journal is available free online on ScienceDirect. Reprints may be requested and are provided on payment.

Address all correspondence to: Editor in-Chief, Medical journal Armed Forces India at

Research data

This journal encourages and enables you to share data that supports your research publication where appropriate, and enables you to interlink the data with your published articles. Research data refers to the results of observations or experimentation that validate research findings. To facilitate reproducibility and data reuse, this journal also encourages you to share your software, code, models, algorithms, protocols, methods and other useful materials related to the project.

Below are a number of ways in which you can associate data with your article or make a statement about the availability of your data when submitting your manuscript. If you are sharing data in one of these ways, you are encouraged to cite the data in your manuscript and reference list. Please refer to the "References" section for more information about data citation. For more information on depositing, sharing and using research data and other relevant research materials, visit the research data page.

Data linking
If you have made your research data available in a data repository, you can link your article directly to the dataset. Elsevier collaborates with a number of repositories to link articles on ScienceDirect with relevant repositories, giving readers access to underlying data that gives them a better understanding of the research described.

There are different ways to link your datasets to your article. When available, you can directly link your dataset to your article by providing the relevant information in the submission system. For more information, visit the database linking page.

For supported data repositories a repository banner will automatically appear next to your published article on ScienceDirect.

In addition, you can link to relevant data or entities through identifiers within the text of your manuscript, using the following format: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN).

Mendeley Data
This journal supports Mendeley Data, enabling you to deposit any research data (including raw and processed data, video, code, software, algorithms, protocols, and methods) associated with your manuscript in a free-to-use, open access repository. During the submission process, after uploading your manuscript, you will have the opportunity to upload your relevant datasets directly to Mendeley Data. The datasets will be listed and directly accessible to readers next to your published article online.

For more information, visit the Mendeley Data for journals page.

Data statement
To foster transparency, we encourage you to state the availability of your data in your submission. This may be a requirement of your funding body or institution. If your data is unavailable to access or unsuitable to post, you will have the opportunity to indicate why during the submission process, for example by stating that the research data is confidential. The statement will appear with your published article on ScienceDirect. For more information, visit the Data Statement page.


One set of page proofs (as PDF files) will be sent by e-mail to the corresponding author (if we do not have an e-mail address then paper proofs will be sent by post) or a link will be provided in the e-mail so that authors can download the files themselves. To ensure a fast publication process of the article, we kindly ask authors to provide us with their proof corrections within two days. Elsevier now provides authors with PDF proofs which can be annotated; for this you will need to download the free Adobe Reader, version 9 (or higher). Instructions on how to annotate PDF files will accompany the proofs (also given online). The exact system requirements are given at the Adobe site.
If you do not wish to use the PDF annotations function, you may list the corrections (including replies to the Query Form) and return them to Elsevier in an e-mail. Please list your corrections quoting line number. If, for any reason, this is not possible, then mark the corrections and any other comments (including replies to the Query Form) on a printout of your proof and scan the pages and return via e-mail. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication: please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.


The corresponding author, at no cost, will be provided with a personalized link providing 50 days free access to the final published version of the article on ScienceDirect. This link can also be used for sharing via email and social networks. For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's WebShop ( Authors requiring printed copies of multiple articles may use Elsevier WebShop's 'Create Your Own Book' service to collate multiple articles within a single cover (

Visit the Elsevier Support Center to find the answers you need. Here you will find everything from Frequently Asked Questions to ways to get in touch.
You can also check the status of your submitted article or find out when your accepted article will be published.