Guide for Authors

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Medical Journal Armed Forces India (MJAFI) is a peer reviewed, multi speciality medical journal with circulation both in India and abroad. It has been published continuously every quarter since 1945 and enjoys an extensive readership. MJAFI publishes original research work of high standard for dissemination in both print and online. MJAFI is governed by the Armed Forces Medical Services of India. The Editorial Board functions independently and comprises of eminent consultants from across specialities and regions of the world.

MJAFI invites Editorials, Review articles, Original articles, Case reports and other forms of scientific information in all disciplines of medical science from prospective authors worldwide. The scope of the journal covers all specialities of medicine. Content related to a general medical readership is encouraged. Separate theme sections are published from time to time on topics such as military medicine, communicable diseases, lifestyle diseases, digital health, medical education, student research and so on.

Manuscripts are subjected to a double blind peer review process. The journal does not charge for submission, processing, publication of manuscripts or for color reproduction of photographs.

The Guidelines for Authors are in accordance with the ?Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals? as published by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors at as updated on Dec 2019. Authors are encouraged to familiarise themselves with the current guidelines / recommendations.

Manuscripts are accepted for publication with the understanding that their contents, all or in part, have not been published and will not be published elsewhere, (except in the abstract form or with the explicit consent of the Editor in Chief). Material received for consideration will be acknowledged. Manuscripts will be initially reviewed by the Editorial team for suitability. Manuscripts meeting criterion of quality would be subjected for formal review by blinded peer reviewers on multiple parameters such as originality, methodology, scientific content, quality, clinical importance and overall suitability for publication in the journal. Reviewer comments will be sent to the corresponding author for response, revision and resubmission within a specified timeframe. Manuscripts accepted for publication are edited for grammar, punctuation and format. Page proofs will be sent to the corresponding author for corrections and resubmission by email.

Articles once rejected will not be entertained ordinarily for reconsideration in future. The decision of the Editorial Board will be considered final for all purposes. Decisions of rejection may not reflect upon the quality of research submitted and merely a statement of current needs of the journal.

Articles resubmitted after the stipulated period has lapsed will be treated as new submissions and may be freshly registered at the discretion of the Editorial Board.


All individuals designated as authors should qualify for authorship. An `author? is considered to be someone who has made substantive intellectual contributions to a published study. An author should be confident of his / her co-authors? ability and integrity.

Authorship credit should be based on the criterion below. Contributors who do NOT meet all the criteria for authorship should not be listed as authors, but they should be acknowledged.

  1. Substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis or interpretation of data for the work; AND
  2. Drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; AND
  3. Final approval of the version to be published; AND
  4. Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.

Participation solely in the acquisition of funding, for the collection of data or data entry, and general routine supervision does not justify authorship. The Intellectual contribution of each author is to be mentioned, on the Author Certificate.

The order of authorship should be a joint decision of all the co-authors. Once submitted, the order will not be changed without written consent of all the co-authors. The manuscript should be submitted by the corresponding author and requests for change in the same will NOT be entertained.

Ethics in publishing

MJAFI lays emphasis on the ethical aspects of research being published in its journal. Declaration of conflicts of interest of each author are mandatory. Data privacy should be maintained strictly. Any report of experimental investigation on human subjects must contain evidence of informed consent by the subjects and of approval by the institutional ethics committee. MJAFI encourages authors to see guidelines issued by COPE for elaboration on the topic. Do not use names and initials of the patients or any revealing details., especially in illustrative material. When informed consent for the same has been taken from the patient, it should be mentioned in the manuscript. Any report of experimental investigation on human subjects must contain evidence of informed consent by the subjects and of approval by the institutional ethics committee. Authors are encouraged to visit the following links on ethics in publications. research,

Disclosure of Financial and Non Financial Relationship and Activities, and Conflicts of Interest

Authors should submit a conflict of interest statement which will be published with every article. The purpose of the statement is to ensure that any factors- personal relationships, financial connections (e.g. Research projects funded by various agencies such as WHO, AFMRC, ICMR, sponsorships), industry participation etc that might bias the author of an article, are declared so that readers are aware of the potential conflict of interest and can include that knowledge in the assessment of information. Stating disclosure does not disqualify an author from publication. The Disclosure/COI form can be downloaded from the website.


Contents of the MJAFI are covered by copyright. MJAFI does not accept any responsibility for the statements made by the authors. The Editorial Board has the right to introduce such changes in the articles as may be considered necessary for effectiveness of communication. Once published, copyright of manuscript shall stand transferred to the Journal.


Plagiarism is the wrongful appropriation or purloining and publication as one?s own, of the ideas, or the expression of the ideas of another. Plagiarism is considered by the MJAFI as a serious scientific/ professional misconduct. Authors are responsible to ensure that submitted manuscripts are free from plagiarism of all types. MJAFI adopts international standards to screen plagiarism. However the responsibility of plagiarism arising later rests with the authors. Authors and reviewers are advised to be careful to maintain high ethical standards. Please view authors/ethics#writing-an-article

Approval/ Vetting of MJAFI articles by the office of DGAFMS

Certain papers/ articles submitted to MJAFI wherein Indian Armed Forces data of sensitive nature is highlighted, will be forwarded by MJAFI to the Office of DGAFMS for reviewing and granting of permission/ clearance/ approval for publication of the same in the MJAFI.

Ahead of Print

All accepted manuscripts are published ahead of print on the MJAFI website after proof reading. This is done to improve the visibility of research pending print.

Online Only Issue

The journal may publish `Online Only Issue? as a supplement to regular print issue in order to reduce backlog of accepted articles pending publication in the print version at the discretion of the Editorial Committee from time to time. Articles published in the `Online Only Issue? will not be published in the print version of the journal.

Submission of Manuscript

All new manuscripts must be submitted through the Medical Journal Armed Forces India online manuscript management website ( Hard copy submissions are not accepted and will be returned to authors at their cost. Please register yourself at the website and follow instructions to submit the manuscript. An author information pack may be downloaded for guidance.

By submitting a manuscript online, the author agrees to the following:

  1. The work is original and free from plagiarism.
  2. The work is not under consideration for review/ publication in another Journal.
  3. All authors are aware of the order of authorship. The corresponding author shall be solely responsible in cases of authorship disputes.


The manuscript should be typed in single space in MS Word ? file in US English format. Font size should be Arial 12 points. Identity of the author or institute should not be revealed in the manuscript, except on the title page. (For example, do not mention the name of the institute in Methods, citing previous study as `our study?, names on figure labels, name of institute in photographs etc). All certificates and files need to be uploaded in the online manuscript management system in a particular order. Authors are advised to familiarise themselves with the same using the help functionality provided on the website.


It is mandatory to upload a scanned copy of the following ink signed certificates as per prescribed formats available online in the Author Information Pack. Please scan and save as a PDF file for easier uploading on the manuscript management website.

  1. Cover letter:
    Cover letter can be downloaded from this link
  2. Title Page:
    Title page file can be downloaded from this link
  3. Certificate from Authors:
    Certificate from authors can be downloaded from this link
  4. Certificate from Head of the Institution where study has been carried out:
    Certificate from the head of the Institution can be downloaded from this link
  5. Disclosure/COI form:

  6. Conflict of Interest form can be downloaded from ICMJE website filled up, and printed. A scan of the same may please be uploaded
  7. Sanction accorded by Office of DGAFMS (only for publication of articles based on AFMRC projects.)
  8. Additional Certificates: Disclosure of financial and non financial relationship and activities, and Conflicts of Interest, Source of support (if any), Clinical Trial Registration number (in case of a clinical trial) etc.

Title page

Should give the title of the article, a short title, type of article (original article, case report etc), name(s) of the author(s), affiliations of author(s), place of work, names and addresses of the authors and word count (excluding abstract and references), number of figures, tables, photos and references. The ORCID ID of all authors should preferably be available and mentioned on this page. The corresponding author is the one who is making the submission. The title should not exceed 20 words. It should have no abbreviations. Names of all the authors with the highest academic degree must be typed one below the other with affiliations and addresses. Acknowledgements, if any, may be mentioned on this page and NOT in the manuscript. See also the title page template, mjafi-title-page-template.doc.


The abstract is a synopsis of the main article in about 250 words and gives an opportunity to the author to encourage the reader to go through the article. It should be structured into the headings: Background, Methods, Results, Conclusion, Trial Registration No. (if any), Funding Source giving facts and not descriptions. For clinical trials the author is advised to see the CONSORT checklist for abstracts . The information in the abstract should be consistent with the main text as the manuscript gets revised. If the data has been deposited in a public repository and / or are being used in a secondary analysis, author(s) should state at the end of the abstract the unique, persistent dataset identifier, repository name and number. No abstract is required for Correspondence / Letters to the Editor. The abstract should be included in the manuscript file without author details.

Manuscript without author details

The main manuscript should not contain any identification information (name / institution / funding / acknowledgements etc). The text should be divided into sections, e.g. Introduction, Methods, Results and Discussion. Each should have its individuality and must not be mixed with others. Ensure that all references, tables and figures are cited in the text. Only authorized, internationally accepted abbreviations should be used. First time use of an abbreviation must always be preceded by its full form except for standard units of measurement.


References should cite the original research source when possible. Self citations should be avoided unless essential. Avoid citing sources from pseudo-journals / predatory journals. The responsibility of accuracy of the references lies entirely with the authors. The authors are encouraged to check for the correctness of references online. References should be listed in the order in which they are cited in the text. Only relevant and recent references are encouraged. They should be indicated in the text by superscript Arabic numerals without any parentheses. Ensure that all the references cited in the text are included in the list and vice versa. References should be in the MEDLINE®/ PubMed® Journal Article Citation Format. For examples of references of specific nature, the authors are advised to refer to the resource given at


Provide not more than 6 key words using terms from Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) list of Index Medicus. Avoid abbreviations.


To be provided on separate pages. They should be serially numbered in Arabic numerals (eg. Table 1, Table 2 etc) and a short title should specify the contents of the table. The column heading of the table should be clearly visible. A table should not exceed a page in length, and should not contain less than four lines of data. Tables should be self-explanatory and should not duplicate the data in the text.

Figures/ Illustrations/ Photographs

Illustrations should be clear enough and should have at least 300 x 300 dpi resolutions. Line art drawing must have a minimum resolution of 600 dpi. Photographs/illustrations may be submitted as 'JPEG', or 'TIFF' files. In clinical photographs, the identity of the subjects should be suitably masked. In case this is not possible, a written permission from the concerned person should accompany the manuscript. Written permission to reproduce any previously published illustration must be obtained from the copyright holder.

Legends to Figures

The Figure number (numbered consecutively in Arabic numerals), title and explanations of the Figures should appear in the legend (not on the Figure). Type the legends on a separate page. Enough information should be included to interpret the figure without reference to the text.

Units / Names of drugs

All measurements must be in metric units, preferably with corresponding SI units in parentheses. Drug concentrations may be reported in either SI or mass units. Use only generic names of drugs. In case trade names (proprietary drugs) are used, the manufacturer should be identified clearly.

Video & animation

MJAFI accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. Please provide the file in one of the recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 150 MB per file, 1 GB in total. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of the article. Since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content. For more detailed instructions please visit


Use `radiograph?, `radiographic? instead of the word `X-ray?. `Significant? should be reserved for use in the statistical sense. Avoid duplication and repetition of material in Results and Discussion, in Tables and Text, and in Text and Legends. All supplementary material should be uploaded after the title page.

Manuscript for various types of articles

a. Editorials: Editorials include brief commentaries, perspectives and OP-Eds. These are basically opinion pieces written by senior scientists, experts in the field and policy makers. They are narrative in nature and do not present research work. Experts may be invited to write their impressions of articles published in the journal / other contemporary topics. They may be both invited or submitted by prospective authors and subjected to a review process.

b. Review articles: They may be either in narrative form or systematic reviews. Topics should be of contemporary nature and of interest to the readership of the journal. These are articles written by experts in the field who have published quality original research articles in the same field. The search strategy adopted to obtain articles / data for the review should be clearly spelt out. The PRISMA reporting guidelines should be followed in case of systematic reviews. Purely opinion based reviews are not encouraged and may be published as editorials.

c.Original Articles: These are scientific communications from research workers engaged in the field of medicine and include clinical trials, randomized controlled trials, intervention studies, studies of screening and diagnostic tests, outcome studies, cost effective analyses, case control studies and surveys with high response rate. The guidelines for specific study designs such as CONSORT, STARD, QUOROM, STROBE and MOOSE should be used to improve the submission. For specific guidelines authors are advised to refer to The EQUATOR Network for reporting guidelines on various study types. All clinical trials need to be registered with the appropriate national / international clinical trial registry platform such as WHO- ICTRP, ICMR Registry etc. Responsibility for correctness of data and statistical analysis, wherever applicable, lies entirely with the authors. In this regard, it is suggested that a biostatistician may be consulted if needed and suitably acknowledged in the title page.

d. Case Reports: A case report should communicate a message regarding diagnosis/ management of a new and emerging disease, an unexpected association between disease or symptoms, a rare feature of a disease or unique therapeutic approach, an unexpected event while observing or treating a patient. Only the rarity of a particular case does not merit publication of the case report. The CARE guidelines for case reports are encouraged to be followed. As a routine, a maximum of four authors are permitted for a case report. Discussion should highlight unusual features of the report and briefly discuss pertinent literature. An unstructured abstract should be provided.

e. Correspondence / Letter to the Editor and their replies: These should be brief with objective and constructive criticism of published articles. They should be limited to articles published in the last two years. A short pertinent title accompanied by a covering letter should be given. Current interesting medical topics/ anomalies / short manuscripts which convey an educational message / interesting images can also be considered for Letter to Editor.

Size of manuscript

The Table below provides guidelines regarding maximum permissible size of text as well as number of Tables, Figures and References. Articles not adhering to the given specifications may be rejected at the discretion of the editorial team.
Word count

Email address for correspondence
Executive Editor:
Technical Editor:
Technical team:

Studies in humans and animals

If the work involves the use of human subjects, the author should ensure that the work described has been carried out in accordance with The Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association (Declaration of Helsinki) for experiments involving humans. The manuscript should be in line with the Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals and aim for the inclusion of representative human populations (sex, age and ethnicity) as per those recommendations. The terms sex and gender should be used correctly.

Authors should include a statement in the manuscript that informed consent was obtained for experimentation with human subjects. The privacy rights of human subjects must always be observed.

All animal experiments should comply with the ARRIVE guidelines and should be carried out in accordance with the U.K. Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act, 1986 and associated guidelines, EU Directive 2010/63/EU for animal experiments, or the National Institutes of Health guide for the care and use of Laboratory animals (NIH Publications No. 8023, revised 1978) and the authors should clearly indicate in the manuscript that such guidelines have been followed. The sex of animals must be indicated, and where appropriate, the influence (or association) of sex on the results of the study.