Guide for Authors

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• GENERAL INFORMATION
• AN OPEN-ACCESS JOURNAL
• Transferred Manuscripts
• New Submission Guidelines
• Manuscript Preparation
• Revisions
• MANUSCRIPT CATEGORIES
• Use of inclusive language

GENERAL INFORMATION

Mayo Clinic Proceedings: Innovations, Quality & Outcomes (MCP:IQ&O) publishes original research, reviews, commentaries, editorials, and other materials that focus on clinical innovations, quality improvement, and optimal outcomes, in medicine and surgery. The journal welcomes contributions from authors worldwide. A dedicated and engaged editorial board ensures the highest standards of validity and relevance of its published content through rigorous peer review.

MCP:IQ&O broadens publication opportunities for pioneering and impactful clinical research on factors that affect contemporary health care delivery. The journal speaks through and to health care professionals and researchers interested in practice innovations, quality improvement, and outcomes research that optimize medical and surgical patient care.

MCP:IQ&O is an online-only, open access journal that—like its parent journal, Mayo Clinic Proceedings—is sponsored by Mayo Clinic.

AN OPEN-ACCESS JOURNAL

Article Publishing Fees
MCP: IQ&O is an open-access, fully electronic journal with no paper edition. There are no subscription fees to individuals or to libraries, and the journal will therefore be accessible permanently without cost to physicians, scientists, governments, and concerned individuals worldwide. The journal is sustained by article publishing fees paid by funding organizations or authors. It is Elsevier policy that open access articles:

  • Are fully peer reviewed
  • Are immediately free to access and download from ScienceDirect
  • Permitted re-use defined by the author's choice of Creative Commons user licenses
  • Published with CrossMark® to maintain the publication record.

Article publishing fees are incurred only after an article has been peer-reviewed and accepted for publication. The fee for short communications and case reports is $1000 USD and $3000 USD for research papers and review articles. Upon request, we will waive these fees for authors from countries identified by the UN Least Developed Country List and other similar criteria. Please contact the Editorial Office for confirmation about your eligibility to waive the fee: mcpiqo@gmail.com.

If your article is accepted by MCP: IQ&O, you will be invoiced by Elsevier prior to publication. The article will be made universally available at http://www.sciencedirect.com and on the journal's individual website, http://www.mcpiqojournal.org.

Copyright
Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (see more information on this). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.

Author rights
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. More information.

Author Rights
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. More information.

Elsevier supports responsible sharing
Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.

Funding body agreements and policies
Elsevier has established a number of agreements with funding bodies which allow authors to comply with their funder's open access policies. Some funding bodies will reimburse the author for the Open Access Publication Fee. After acceptance, open access papers will be published under a noncommercial license. For authors requiring a commercial CC BY license, you can apply after your manuscript is accepted for publication.

To ensure authors can comply with open access policies, Elsevier has established agreements with a number of funding bodies. A list of agreements can be found at: https://www.elsevier.com/about/open-science/open-access/agreements.

Third-Party Use
Permitted third party (re)use is defined by the following Creative Commons user licenses:

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND)
For noncommercial purposes, this license lets others distribute and copy the article, and include it in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.

Transferred Manuscripts

Mayo Clinic Proceedings and MCP:IQ&O are editorially independent. Mayo Clinic Proceedings utilizes a manuscript transfer system designed to provide flexibility and efficiency for you as an author. If a paper is rejected at Mayo Clinic Proceedings, the editors may offer the author(s) the option to transfer the paper to MCP:IQ&O for consideration. This offer may occur during the initial assessment of a manuscript or after receipt of the reviewers' comments.

Within the decision letter from Mayo Clinic Proceedings, the handling Editor will highlight the option of transferring the manuscript to MCP:IQ&O, and the corresponding author may either accept or decline that offer via a link in the decision letter e-mail. Upon acceptance of the offer, the manuscript is transferred automatically to the new journal.

If the manuscript already has reviewer comments, they are also transferred to MCP:IQ&O along with the manuscript files. The Editor may request that the author upload revised files and a point-by-point response to the reviewers' comments. On submission of transferred manuscripts to MCP:IQ&O, an Editor will determine whether additional peer review will be necessary. The offer to authors to transfer a manuscript to MCP:IQ&O does not guarantee acceptance.

All inquiries regarding journal policy should be directed to the Editorial Office at mcpiqo@gmail.com.

New Submission Guidelines

Manuscripts can be submitted online at http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/mcpiqo. If you are unsure about whether you have an account or have forgotten your password, enter your e-mail address into the "Password Help" section of the login screen. If an account has already been established, you will receive an e-mail with your account information. If you do not have an account, click on the "Create Account" link.

Once you have successfully logged in, click on "Author Center," then on "Click here to submit a new manuscript." Follow the steps and instructions provided. If you are interrupted during the submission process, your work will automatically be saved and you can return to your Author Center at a later time to finish the submission process. Required metadata pertaining to the manuscript include the name, address, telephone number, and e-mail address of the corresponding author and all contributing authors; affiliated institutions; title of the manuscript; abstract; and key words. Authors are required to provide at least 2 preferred reviewers, and have the option of providing nonpreferred reviewer names. MCP:IQ&O reserves the right of final reviewer selection. Once your manuscript has been completely submitted, a manuscript number will be assigned and used in all correspondence. The Editorial Office is automatically notified of the submission and sends an e-mail confirming the submission of the manuscript to the author(s).

Each manuscript submission should designate one corresponding author and all contributing authors. Authorship must be limited to those who have contributed substantially to the design of the study, analysis of the data, and writing of the article. Authors must disclose any potential financial or ethical conflicts of interest regarding the contents of the submission.

Mayo Clinic Proceedings: Innovations, Quality & Outcomes accepts no responsibility for manuscripts that are lost or destroyed through electronic or computer problems. Authors are encouraged to keep copies of submitted manuscripts, including figures. If an author does not receive confirmation of submission within 48 hours, he or she should contact the Editorial Office at mcpiqo@gmail.com. If notice has not been received, the manuscript has not been completely submitted.

All manuscripts are reviewed by Editorial Board members. Initial editorial reviews usually are completed within 1 to 2 weeks of manuscript submission. Once the Editorial Board review is complete, manuscripts are either forwarded on to peer review or rejected. Before a manuscript is sent for peer review, it is processed through through CrossCheck, a text-matching software service.

The time required for review of revised manuscripts varies. Decisions on acceptance or rejection are communicated only by e-mail to the corresponding author. The assigned manuscript number allows authors to view the status of their manuscripts through each step of the process.
Peer Review and Confidentiality
Mayo Clinic Proceedings: Innovations, Quality & Outcomes uses a single-blinded review process. Reviewer identities are not, and should not be, disclosed to the authors or other reviewers. In addition, authors should not contact those whom they presume to be reviewers of their manuscript. All contributions will be initially assessed by the editor for suitability for the journal. Papers deemed suitable are then typically sent to a minimum of two independent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor's decision is final. More information on types of peer review.

Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract, a published lecture or academic thesis, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service Crossref Similarity Check.

Potential Competing Interests
All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential competing interests include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. Authors must disclose any potential competing interests in two places: 1. A summary potential competing interests statement in the manuscript file. If there are no interests to declare then please state this: Potential Competing Interests: The authors report no competing interests. This summary statement will be ultimately published if the article is accepted. 2. Detailed disclosures as part of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest statement, which is part of the journal's official records. It is important for potential competing interests to be declared in both places and that the information matches. More information.

Financial Disclosure
All authors are required to complete their own International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest statement. These forms will be requested from each author at submission. Authors should also include all financial support of the research and conflict of interest disclosures on the title page of the manuscript.

Role of the Funding Source
You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated. Please see https://www.elsevier.com/funding.

After acceptance, open access papers will be published under a noncommercial license. For authors requiring a commercial CC BY license, you can apply after your manuscript is accepted for publication.

Elsevier has established agreements and developed policies to facilitate author compliance with manuscript archiving requirements incorporated into many grant awards. To learn more about existing agreements and policies please visit https://www.elsevier.com/fundingbodies.

Human and Animal Research
All human studies must contain a statement within the Patients and Methods section indicating that the study has been approved by an institutional review board and that participants have signed written informed consent or that the institutional review board has waived the need for informed consent. Mayo Clinic Proceedings: Innovations, Quality & Outcomes does not publish manuscripts on animal research.

Registration of Clinical Trials
Mayo Clinic Proceedings: Innovations, Quality & Outcomes requires registration for all clinical trials submitted for publication. Trials that start enrollment after July 1, 2008, should be registered before starting patient enrollment. Clinical trials will need to be registered in 1 of the 5 registries accepted by the ICMJE or in any of the primary registries that participate in the WHO International Clinical Trial Registry Platform. For additional information, please see http://www.icmje.org/recommendations/browse/publishing-and-editorial-issues/clinical-trial-registration.html.

Authorship
All authors should have made substantial contributions to all of the following: (1) the conception and design of the study, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data, (2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content, (3) final approval of the version to be submitted. MCP:IQ&O follows the recommendations and requirements of authorship as described by the ICMJE: http://www.icmje.org/recommendations/browse/roles-and-responsibilities/defining-the-role-of-authors-and-contributors.html.

Changes to Authorship
Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the journal Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed.

Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted. While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the Editor will result in a corrigendum.

Ethics in Publishing
Please see our information pages on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication.

Other Author Resources
Language (usage and editing services)
Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is acccepted, but not a mixture of these.) Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop.

Elsevier Publishing Campus
The Elsevier Publishing Campus (http://www.publishingcampus.com) is an online platform offering free lectures, interactive training and professional advice to support you in publishing your research. The College of Skills training offers modules on how to prepare, write and structure your articles and explains how editors will look at your paper when it is submitted for publication. Use these resources, and more, to ensure that your submission will be the best you can make it

Manuscript Preparation

Authors should prepare manuscripts in accordance with the "Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals," developed by the ICMJE (Ann Intern Med. 1997;126:36-47 or http://www.icmje.org). Reports of randomized controlled trials should include the CONSORT flow diagram (Ann Intern Med. 2001;134:657-662). Specific requirements for Mayo Clinic Proceedings: Innovations, Quality & Outcomes follow.

The manuscript should be typed in 12-point type and double-spaced throughout, and should be arranged as follows: (1) title page, (2) abstract, (3) alphabetical list of abbreviations used at least 3 times in the body of the manuscript (exclusive of abstract, figures, and tables) and their expansions, (4) text with appropriate headings and conclusion, (5) acknowledgments, (6) references, (7) legends, (8) tables (with alphabetical list of all abbreviations and their expansions as a footnote), and (9) illustrations (with separate alphabetical list of abbreviations and their expansion in legend). Manuscript pages should be numbered consecutively and labeled with the last name of the first author. The text portion of the manuscript should be saved using a word-processing program, such as a .doc or .rtf file format.

Tables should be created using your word processor's table function. Tables can be placed at the end of your manuscript document or saved as separate files.

Line art, including graphs and algorithms (flow charts), should be created and submitted in PowerPoint. Halftone and color images should be saved in Photoshop in .jpg, .gif, or .tiff format at 300 dpi. Figures should not be inserted or embedded into the manuscript document; rather, they should be saved and uploaded as separate files.

Title Page
Title: Formulate a title that reflects the content of the article. Avoid declarative statements, questions, and titles that tantalize but do not inform readers. For improved discoverability, please include important key words in your title as appropriate.
Authors: Include first names and middle initials, academic degrees, departmental affiliations and institutions, and current departmental and institutional affiliations for authors who have relocated since completion of the study.
Financial support and conflict of interest disclosure: List all financial and material support for the research and work described in the manuscript (eg, grant number and funding agency for the project, an individual author, or both). Each author must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. When in doubt, please disclose. If there are no conflicts of interest, please provide a statement to that effect for each author.
Reprints and correspondence: Include name, address, and e-mail address of author to whom postpublication correspondence and reprint requests should be addressed. Please see the following for all author's rights information to sharing your article: https://www.elsevier.com/authors/journal-authors/submit-your-paper/sharing-and-promoting-your-article.

Abstract
Abstracts should be no more than 250 words.

For Original Articles:

  • Organize abstract in a structured format, with the following headings: Objective, Patients and Methods, Results, and Conclusion.
  • Ensure that information in each section of the abstract is in the corresponding section of the text.
  • Begin the "Objective" section of the Abstract with the word "To" and then state why you performed the study. Objective should not exceed one sentence.
  • In the Patients and Methods section of the Abstract and of the text, please provide the complete dates of the study, eg, January 1, 2000, through December 31, 2002.
  • Please provide the Clinical Trials registration number at the end of the Abstract, if applicable.

For other contributions, abstracts should not be structured.

Text

  • Express measurements in conventional units, giving conversion factor to SI units on first mention.
  • Give exact P values, even if they are nonsignificant. Style as P=.02 (italic letter, closed up, no initial zero). The lowest P value we report is P<.001. Round P values to 2 digits, except for the values in which the first 2 or 3 numbers after the decimal point are zeroes, then round to 3 or 4 digits, respectively. For P values that are less than .001 use P<.001.
  • Avoid specialized jargon and abbreviations; abbreviate a term only if it is used at least 3 times in text (exclusive of abstract, tables, and figures) and define at first mention.
  • Use generic names for drugs and equipment.
  • Do not use footnotes within the text.
  • For genetic nomenclature, please follow the recommendations of the Human Genome Organisation. Approved gene symbols, descriptions, and older aliases can be searched at http://www.genenames.org.
  • For gene mutations, please see the HGVS website (at http://www.hgvs.org [use the Recommendations Including Nomenclature Guidelines link] or http://www.hgvs.org/content/guidelines).

Acknowledgements
The corresponding author must provide assurance in writing that permission has been obtained from those acknowledged.

References

  • Authors are responsible for the accuracy and completeness of their references and for their complete and accurate citation in the text.
  • Cite references, figures, and tables consecutively as they appear in the text; use superscript numerals for text citations. Tables and Figures (including Supplemental eTables and eFigures) are considered part of text and so citations are numbered consecutively with those in text. Example: If Table 1 contains references, and the reference number in the text before citation of Table 1 is 5, a reference in Table 1 would become reference 6; the next reference cited in manuscript after table call-out would be cited as reference 7.
  • Cite personal communications (specify oral or written) and unpublished data parenthetically in the text and include date (do not list in references). The corresponding author must provide assurance in writing that permission has been obtained from those acknowledged.
  • In the reference list, include names and initials of all authors (if more than 6, list 3 followed by "et al"), the title, source (journal abbreviations should conform to those in Index Medicus), year, volume, issue, and expanded page ranges. For appropriate reference style, refer to a recent issue of the journal http://www.mayoclinicproceedings.org or the American Medical Association Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors, 10th ed. New York, NY; Oxford University Press; 2007:39-79.
  • Data references. This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. This identifier will not appear in your published article.

Reference Style

Journals (Print)
1. Rainier S, Thomas D, Tokarz D, et al. Myofibrillogenesis regulator 1 gene mutations cause paroxysmal dystonic choreoathetosis. Arch Neurol. 2004;61(7):1025-1029.
Journals (Online)
2. Duchin JS. Can preparedness for biologic terrorism save us from pertussis? Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2004;158(2):106-107. Available at http://archpedi.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/158/2/106. Accessed June 1, 2004.
Journals (Published Online Ahead of Print)
3. Cannon CP, Braunwald E, McCabe CH, et al; Pravastatin or atorvastatin evaluation and infection therapy-thrombolysis in myocardial infarction 22 Investigators. intensive vs moderate lipid lowering with statins after acute coronary syndromes [published online ahead of print March 8, 2004]. N Engl J Med. 2004;350(15):1495-1504. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa040583.
Chapter
4. Bithell TC. Hereditary coagulation disorders. In: Lee GR, Bithell TC, Foerster J, Athens JW, Lukens JN, eds. Wintrobe's Clinical Hematology. Vol 2. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lea & Febiger; 1993:1422-1472.
Book
5. Guyton AC. Textbook of Medical Physiology. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders Co; 1991:255-262.
Web
6. International Society for Infectious Diseases. ProMED-mail website. http://www.promedmail.org. Accessed April 29, 2004.
Dataset references
7.Oguro, M, Imahiro, S, Saito, S, Nakashizuka, T. Mortality data for Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions, Mendeley Data, v1; 2015. https://doi.org/10.17632/xwj98nb39r.1.

Tables

  • Number tables consecutively (with Arabic numerals) in the order of their citation in the text.
  • Type all tabular material double-spaced; each table should be on a separate page.
  • Provide a title for each table; define all abbreviations used in each table in a footnote.
  • Superscripted lowercase letters (a-z) should be used for table footnotes.
  • Do not submit tables as images.

Illustrations

  • Cite all illustrations in the text and number them (with Arabic numerals) in the order of their appearance.
  • Provide a legend for each figure as part of the manuscript document. Include definitions of any abbreviations that appear on the figure, along with any permissions noted, and an appropriate citation.
  • For photomicrographs, specify stain and original magnification.
  • For any illustration with a recognizable patient, submit a release form signed by the patient.
  • Do not trim illustrations or assemble component parts.
  • We do not publish pie charts; three-dimensional figures are not acceptable; hatching should be avoided on bar graphs.
  • Line art, including graphs and algorithms (flow charts), should be created in PowerPoint.
  • Halftone and color images should be saved in Photoshop in .jpg, .gif, or .tiff format at 300 dpi.
  • Illustrations borrowed from a source not copyrighted by Mayo Foundation require permission and credit line information from the publisher. See "Permissions" below.
  • Any figures submitted in color will appear in color in print and online at no additional charge to the author.

Please do not:
  • Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); the resolution is too low.
  • Supply files that are too low in resolution.
  • Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

Manipulation of Images
Mayo Clinic Proceedings: Innovations, Quality & Outcomes follows Elsevier's policy on manipulation of images (https://www.elsevier.com/author-schemas/artwork-and-media-instructions). No specific feature within an image may be enhanced, obscured, moved, removed, or introduced. Adjustments of brightness, contrast, or color balance are acceptable if and as long as they do not obscure or eliminate any information present in the original. Manipulating images for improved clarity is accepted, but manipulation for other purposes could be seen as scientific ethical abuse and will be dealt with accordingly. (Rossner and Yamada, 2004. The Journal of Cell Biology, 166, 11-15. http://jcb.rupress.org/content/166/1/11.full).

Permissions

  • Use of previously published graphic and tabular material is strongly discouraged.
  • Authors are responsible for obtaining permission for reuse of material (illustrations, tables, or lengthy quotes) from other sources, including adaptations. The preferred and quickest method for obtaining permission is via the Copyright Clearance Center.
  • Permission letters from the copyright holder of the original source (along with complete bibliographic information) must be submitted with the manuscript. Failure to provide all appropriate permissions will delay publication or may necessitate the omission of a figure or table for which permission has not been received.

Supplemental Materials
Publication of supporting material is at the discretion of the Editorial Board. Supplemental material will not be edited by the journal office, and it is the author's responsibility to ensure the accuracy of the data and the clarity of the format. Once accepted for publication, authors will not be provided an opportunity to review or modify supplemental material.

Use the headings Supplemental Table, Supplemental Figure, or Supplemental Appendix for your supporting material, and save and upload a PDF version of this material.

The following disclaimer is listed on the Journal's website: Supplemental material attached to journal articles has not been edited, and the authors take responsibility for the accuracy of all data.

Authors are responsible for ensuring the following:

  • Data (including percentages) are accurate and consistent with those cited in the manuscript.
  • Permission from the original publisher is obtained and sent to the journal office for any borrowed material. The works from which figures or tables are borrowed should be cited in the reference list. A credit line should be added to the figure legend or after the table footnotes in the following format: "From Title of Journal,1 with permission."
  • Supplemental figures and tables meet the same formatting specifications as those for the print journal. For example, three-dimensional figures are not acceptable, hatching should be avoided on bar graphs, and pie charts are not acceptable. Do not submit tables as images.
  • All online supplemental material is correctly called out in the body of the manuscript in the appropriate location (eg, Supplemental Table 1, Supplemental Figure 1, Supplemental Appendix 1).
  • All references cited in the online supplement are included in the reference list of the manuscript and are cited in order (based on the first occurrence of the callout to that supplemental document). Proper format for citing reference in table or figure: Smith et al,14 2010.
  • A title for each table and a legend for each figure are provided and all abbreviations are expanded in the table footnote or figure legend.
  • Table footnotes should be superscripted lowercase letters (a-z).

Revisions

Enter your Author Center and click on "Manuscripts with Decisions." Locate the appropriate manuscript and click on the "Create a Revision" link. This will create a revision draft with a .R1, .R2, etc. extension. On the first screen, respond to the reviewer's comments in the section entitled "Comments to Decision Letter." Verify the accuracy of the article type, title, abstract, authors, and keywords. Complete the checklist on the Details and Comments screen. On the File Upload screen, delete any original files that are not pertinent to the revised manuscript and upload the revised manuscript files. View the HTML and PDF versions of the manuscript to ensure accuracy and click the Submit button when finished. You will receive an e-mail confirmation that the revised manuscript has been successfully submitted.

Acceptance
All accepted manuscripts are edited according to the American Medical Association Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors, 10th ed. New York, NY; Oxford University Press; 2007, and the corresponding author will receive an approval copy of the page proofs before publication.

Early View Articles
Mayo Clinic Proceedings: Innovations, Quality & Outcomes, publishes articles ahead of their assembly into published issues. All articles published are in final format and have been approved by the author(s) and editors prior to release to the website. Articles receive a unique DOI (Digital Object Identifier) number that facilitates searches of electronic databases. The official publication date is the date of electronic publication. These articles are published in a subsequent online issue of the Mayo Clinic Proceedings: Innovations, Quality & Outcomes.

Reprints
Journal corresponding authors will receive a free PDF of their own articles for personal use only. A form for ordering paper reprints will accompany the author acknowledgement e-mail from the Publisher.

Offprints
The corresponding author will, at no cost, receive a customized Share Link providing 50 days free access to the final published version of the article on ScienceDirect. The Share Link can be used for sharing the article via any communication channel, including email and social media. For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's Webshop. Corresponding authors who have published their article open access do not receive a Share Link as their final published version of the article is available open access on ScienceDirect and can be shared through the article DOI link.

Embargo
All information regarding the content and publication date of accepted manuscripts is confidential. Information contained in or about accepted articles cannot appear in any media outlet (print, broadcast, or electronic) until online publication.

Reference Management Software
Most Elsevier journals have their reference template available in many of the most popular reference management software products. These include all products that support Citation Style Language styles, such as Mendeley and Zotero, as well as EndNote. Using the word processor plug-ins from these products, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article, after which citations and bibliographies will be automatically formatted in the journal's style. If no template is yet available for this journal, please follow the format of the sample references and citations as shown in this Guide.

MANUSCRIPT CATEGORIES

Guidelines for the most frequent types of articles submitted to the journal are summarized below. Specific limits for word count, references, tables, and figures are provided in table format for quick reference. Authors are required to include the word count of the text, and the number of references, tables, and figures, on the Title page of the manuscript.
PIQO Article Types

Original Articles
These include prospective clinical trials, laboratory research, retrospective clinical analyses (eg, case series), meta-analyses, and related research. Priority for publication is given to those manuscripts with original and novel findings, particularly related to the clinical care of patients. In addition to peer review, original manuscripts will undergo statistical review by either a master's or doctorate degree statistician.

Review Articles
These consist of a critical assessment of literature and existing data. Priority for publication is given to topics with relevance to the clinical care of patients, the advancement of medical science, or improvements in health care delivery and economics. Authors are strongly encouraged to describe within the abstract and manuscript text the methods used to focus their search of the literature (eg, PubMed, MEDLINE), the search terms used, and the date limitations of the search. Also, please indicate how studies were selected for inclusion in the review. Provide 3-5 take home points. These points should emphasize why our audience should read your article, describe what is new or cutting edge, and how it is of interest to your colleagues. The manuscripts most competitive for publication will introduce novel ideas or refreshing speculative syntheses and will address topics of importance to large numbers of patients, evolving medical issues, or mechanistically important topics. Mayo Clinic Proceedings: Innovations, Quality & Outcomes is not interested in publishing material that can be readily obtained from existing book chapters or topics that have recently been published in other large-circulation medical journals.

Solicited Reviews
The Editorial Board can solicit a review on any topic, and in any format, deemed appropriate, as determined by a needs-assessment analysis. In general, topics are solicited for their importance and timeliness, and authors are invited based on their expertise. Even after manuscripts are solicited, acceptance for publication is at the discretion of the Editorial Board. Hence, even though the acceptance rate for a solicited review would be expected to be greater than for unsolicited material, acceptance of solicited reviews is neither guaranteed nor universal.

Special Articles
Designation as a Special Article is at the discretion of the Editorial Board. In general, Special Articles address important, evolving, highly visible, and often controversial topics (eg, the 2000 article on Gulf War illnesses). Individual articles may contain an amalgam of literature review, new original data, and speculative synthesis, with some opportunity for injecting the authors' opinions. As such, the article content may be more closely aligned with the Original Articles or Reviews, but with some features of Editorials or Commentaries.

Commentaries
Commentaries are intended to offer expert insights into important or controversial topics related to clinical medicine, medical economics, governmental policy, ethics, or related issues. When appropriate, the Editorial Board expects authors to acknowledge a limited amount of supporting or opposing literature. Priority is given to novel thought, clear and creative writing, and the relevance of the manuscript to the interests of Mayo Clinic Proceedings: Innovations, Quality & Outcomes' readers.

Brief Reports
A Brief Report will typically address an early report or observation of relevance to clinical medicine or medical science. This category is not intended to present preliminary data on structured, ongoing research but instead is intended to present unanticipated or extremely novel observations that may encourage others to perform related research or reassess their clinical practice.

Editorials
Submission of Editorials is by invitation from, or prior arrangement with, the Editorial Board. Most Editorials will comment on other material (eg, an innovative original article) appearing in the same issue of the journal or on changes in journal activities or policies. "Freestanding" editorials that comment on other topics, such as major changes in clinical medicine or health care policy, not originally introduced within the pages of Mayo Clinic Proceedings: Innovations, Quality & Outcomes, are also published. Final acceptance of any Editorial, even an invited Editorial, is at the discretion of the Editorial Board.

Letters to the Editor
The Editor welcomes letters and comments, particularly pertaining to recently published articles in Mayo Clinic Proceedings: Innovations, Quality & Outcomes, as well as letters reporting original observations and research. Letters pertaining to a recently published MCP:IQ&O article should be received no later than 1 month after the article's publication. It is assumed that appropriate letters submitted to the Editor will be published, at the Editor's discretion, unless the writer indicates otherwise. Priority is given for the importance of the message, novelty of thought, and clarity of presentation. The Editor reserves the right to edit letters in accordance with journal style and to abridge them if necessary.

Case Reports
Case Reports should be approximately 800 to 1800 words (up to 7 typed, double-spaced pages). Case reports must include an unstructured abstract. The number of references, tables, and figures should be appropriate for the overall length of the paper. In general, no more than 2 tables or 2 figures are necessary.

Publication priority will be given to case reports that identify:

  • A first-of-its-kind, unexpected, or unusual observation of a disease process that is relevant to a meaningful number of patients, such as:
    • a new disease or syndrome
    • a previously unknown or important manifestation of a common disease
    • a new understanding of the pathophysiology of a common disease
  • A new or first observation of an important adverse effect of a commonly used drug
  • New therapeutic activity of a new treatment, including drug and non-drug therapies.

A small fraction of manuscripts rejected for publication as case reports, but offering some incremental advances in knowledge, may, if appropriately novel, be given priority for conversion to a Letter to the Editor.

Use of inclusive language

Inclusive language acknowledges diversity, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and promotes equal opportunities. Articles should make no assumptions about the beliefs or commitments of any reader, should contain nothing which might imply that one individual is superior to another on the grounds of race, sex, culture or any other characteristic, and should use inclusive language throughout. Authors should ensure that writing is free from bias, for instance by using 'he or she', 'his/her' instead of 'he' or 'his', and by making use of job titles that are free of stereotyping (e.g. 'chairperson' instead of 'chairman' and 'flight attendant' instead of 'stewardess').