Guide for Authors

All journal information and instructions compiled in one document (PDF) in just one mouse-click Author information pack

• Publication charges
• Scope
• Impact factor
• Frequency
• Abstracted/indexed in
• Peer Review
• Types of articles
• Format of Manuscripts
• Title page
• Abstract
• Keywords
• Text
• Abbreviations
• Disclosure
• References
• Submission declaration and verification
• Authorship
• Changes to authorship
• Informed consent and patient details
• Ethics in publishing
• Human and animal rights
• Guidelines for studies of DNA polymorphisms
• Microarray data
• Style
• Journal style
• Artwork
• Tables
• Video
• Supplementary material
• Submission of papers
• Submission checklist
• Format for Revised Manuscripts
• Copyright
• Role of the funding source
• Open access
• Article-in-press publication
• Manuscript deposition service
• Proofs
• Crossmark
• Offprints

Publication charges

(Do not apply to invited authors.)
Page charges cover a proportion of the costs of processing and producing the article for publication. After final layout for publication, each page of an article will incur a fixed charge of US$165 per page.


Kidney International devotes itself to renal research. It aims to inform the renal researcher and the practicing nephrologist on all aspects of renal research. These include:

  • The latest clinical studies on emerging developments in renal medicine.
  • The highest level of original research studies in clinical and basic renal research.
  • In each issue some of these articles will be highlighted by commentaries that aim to put these studies in the appropriate context. These will form a research tool for clinical and basic investigators.
  • Nephrology Digest comments and puts in perspective several areas of new developments in basic and clinical research in nephrology at large, as reported in the recent literature and at scientific meetings.
  • Editorials that highlight important issues in international nephrology.
  • Nephrology sans Frontières are occasional short articles that discuss matters of local interest to nephrologists around the world, but which we feel need to be known by nephrologists world-wide.
  • Mini Reviews on hot topics and in depth reviews about major issues in renal research.
  • Controversial discussions on renal therapeutics or diagnosis written by two opposing authorities.
  • Nephrology Images, which are presentations of interesting images in renal pathology, radiology chosen for their illustrative nature or simply for their esthetic qualities.
  • Issues of importance to the international renal community including the politics of funding; of organ transplantation, of adequacy of dialysis, of world-wide affordability of end-stage renal care; and many other topical issues.
  • Journal Club are synopses that bring you the latest research highlights from across a wide spectrum of journals in fields relevant to renal research.

Impact factor

2016 Impact Factor: 8.395
4 of 76 journals in Urology & Nephrology
© 2017 Journal Citation Reports® (Clarivate Analytics, 2017)


ISSN: 0085-2538
EISSN: 1523-1755


Published monthly.

Abstracted/indexed in

  • Index Medicus/Medline
  • Science Citation Index
  • Current Contents/Life Sciences
  • Current Contents/Clinical Medicine
  • SciSearch
  • Chemical Abstracts
  • EMBASE/Excerpta Medica
  • Reference Update
  • CABS
  • Biological Abstracts
  • Global Health
  • MDX Health Digest
  • Adonis
  • Scopus

Peer Review

This journal operates a single blind review process. All contributions will be initially assessed by the editor for suitability for Kidney International. Papers deemed suitable are then sent to at least two independent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor's decision is final. For more information on the types of peer review, please visit our peer-review site (


The American Medical Association Manual of Style (10th edition) should be used as a style guideline.

Manuscripts that do not adhere to the following instructions will be returned to the corresponding author for technical revision before undergoing peer review.

Types of articles


  • Word limit: 5,000 words (28,000 characters) maximum including spaces and abstract but excluding references, tables, and figures. Abstract: 250 words (1,500 characters) maximum including spaces.
  • References: no maximum.
  • Figures/tables: 3 images or figures required.
  • Disclosure statement required.
  • Reviews are comprehensive analyses of specific topics in nephrology that are usually solicited by the Editors. Proposals for reviews should be submitted to the editorial office by email:; proposals submitted to Manuscript Central will not be considered. Authors should only send an outline of the proposed paper for initial consideration. Both solicited and unsolicited review articles will undergo peer review prior to acceptance.

Mini Review

  • Word limit: 3,000 words (16,800 characters) maximum including spaces and abstract but excluding references, tables, and figures. Abstract: 250 words (1,500 characters) maximum including spaces.
  • References: 20 maximum.
  • Figures/tables: 2 images or figures required.
  • Disclosure statement required.
  • Mini reviews of topical and highly focused subjects are usually solicited by the Editors. Proposals for mini reviews should be submitted to the editorial office by email:; proposals submitted to Manuscript Central will not be considered. Authors should only send an outline of the proposed paper for initial consideration. Both solicited and unsolicited mini review articles will undergo peer review prior to acceptance.

Original Article

  • Subcategories: Basic Research, Clinical Investigation.
  • Word limit: 4,000 words (22,400 characters) maximum including spaces and abstract but excluding references, tables, and figures. Abstract: 250 words (1,500 characters) maximum including spaces. Results: Include headings about what is being tested in each individual experiment.
  • References: no limit.
  • Figures/tables: no limit. However, additional figures and tables may be considered as supplements for web-only publication.
  • Disclosure statement required. Full-length reports of current research in either basic or clinical science.

Clinical Trials

  • Word limit: 4,000 words (22,400 characters) maximum including spaces and abstract but excluding references, tables, and figures. Abstract: 250 words (1,500 characters) maximum including spaces. Results: Include headings about what is being tested in each individual experiment.
  • References: no limit.
  • Figures/tables: no limit. However, additional figures and tables may be considered as supplements for web-only publication.
  • Disclosure statement required.
  • Full-length reports of current research in either basic or clinical science.

Please read the Special Notice Regarding Clinical Trials below.

Special notice regarding clinical trials
As defined by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE), a clinical trial is any research project that prospectively assigns human subjects to intervention and comparison groups to study the cause-and-effect relationship between a medical intervention and a health outcome. A medical intervention is any intervention used to modify a health outcome and includes but is not limited to drugs, surgical procedures, devices, behavioral treatments, and process-of-care changes. A trial must have at least one prospectively assigned concurrent control or comparison group in order to trigger the requirement for registration. Nonrandomized trials are not exempt from the registration requirement if they meet the above criteria.

All clinical trials must be registered in a public registry prior to submission. The journal follows the trials registration policy of the ICMJE ( and considers only trials that have been appropriately registered before submission, regardless of when the trial closed to enrollment. Acceptable registries must meet the following ICMJE requirements:

  • be publicly available, searchable, and open to all prospective registrants;
  • have a validation mechanism for registration data; and
  • be managed by a not-for-profit organization.

Examples of registries that meet these criteria include:

  1. the registry sponsored by the United States National Library of Medicine (,
  2. the International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number Registry (,
  3. the Cochrane Renal Group Registry (, and
  4. the European Clinical Trials Database (

The trial registry number for eligible papers will be collected during the submission process.

Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) must adhere to the CONSORT statement (CONsolidated Standards Of Reporting Trials), and submissions must be accompanied by a completed CONSORT checklist (uploaded as a related manuscript file). Further information can be found at

Commentary (by invitation only)

  • Word limit: 1,500 words (8,400 characters) maximum including spaces and abstract but excluding references.
  • Title: 115 characters maximum including spaces.
  • Abstract: 75 words (420 characters) maximum.
  • References: 9 maximum including the article discussed.
  • Figures/tables: 1 figure required (will be redrawn).
  • Commentaries discuss a paper published in a specific issue and should set the problems addressed by the paper in the wider context of the field. Disclosure statement required.

Technical Note

  • Word limit: 1,500 words (8,400 characters) maximum including abstract but excluding references, tables, and figures.
  • Abstract: 250 words (1,500 characters) maximum including spaces.
  • References: 20 maximum.
  • Disclosure statement required.
  • Examples of appropriate subject matter include descriptions of new laboratory or clinical methods, new apparatus, or critical modifications of established techniques. Organization of Technical Notes should be the same as for regular manuscripts.

Letter to the Editor

  • Word limit: 250 words (1,500 characters) maximum including spaces.
  • Abstract: no abstract required for this manuscript type.
  • References: 4 maximum.
  • Figures/tables: up to 1.
  • Letters to the Editor will be considered for publication, subject to editing. Letters must contain information critical to a certain area or must be confirmatory of data recently published in Kidney International. A Letter must reference the original source, and a Response to a Letter must reference the Letter in the first few paragraphs, as well as the original source. Letters can use an arbitrary title, but a Response must cite the title of the Letter: e.g., Response to [title of Letter]. All Letters must contain a title page including title, all authors' names and affiliations, and corresponding author contact information.

Editorial (by invitation only)

  • Word Limit: 1,600 words (8,960 characters) maximum including spaces.
  • Abstract: no abstract required for this manuscript type.
  • Keywords: 3–6.
  • References: 5 maximum.
  • Proposals for Editorials may be submitted; authors should only send an outline of the proposed paper for initial consideration.

Nephrology Image

  • Word limit: title: 70 characters including spaces; text: 300 words (1,700 characters) including spaces.
  • Figures: 2 single-panel figures maximum. No multipart figures allowed.
  • References: none.
  • Abstract: no abstract required for this manuscript type.
  • Illustrative images that are unique or highly illustrative of specific occurrences in nephrology such as renal pathology, radiology, specific-skin lesions, etc. They should be accompanied by a brief 1-paragraph description of relevant clinical information. Article must fit onto 1 page. You will be asked to cut text or part of your figure in the proof if the article is longer than 1 page.

Make Your Diagnosis

  • Word limit: title: 70 characters; The Case (page 1): 245 words (1,400 characters); The Diagnosis (page 2): 405 words (2,300 characters). Word limits include spaces but exclude references, tables, and figures.
  • Abstract: no abstract required for this manuscript type.
  • References: 3 maximum.
  • Figures/tables: 1 single-panel figure maximum per page.
  • This column provides readers with an opportunity to make clinical diagnoses based on an image accompanied by the history and physical exam, all of which will be on the first page. The second page will include the answers, a brief discussion, and any other relevant follow-up images and laboratory data.

ISN Forefronts in Nephrology, ISN Nexus, Meeting Report (by invitation only)

  • Word limit: to be determined in consultation with Editors.
  • Abstract: 150 words (1,500 characters) maximum including spaces, excluding references and figures.
  • References: no maximum.
  • Figures/tables: at least 1 image or figure.
  • Disclosure statement required.
  • These authoritative proceedings of specific topics in nephrology are usually solicited by the Editors. Proposals may be submitted; authors should only send an outline of the proposed paper for initial consideration. Both solicited and unsolicited articles will undergo peer review prior to acceptance.

Nephrologists sans Frontières (by invitation only)

  • Word limit: 1,500 words.
  • Abstract: no abstract required for this manuscript type.
  • Keywords: 3–6.
  • References: no more than 9.
  • Figures/tables: 1.

Policy Forum

  • Word limit: 1,500 words.
  • Abstract: <55 words.
  • Keywords: 3–6.
  • References: no more than 9.
  • COI: A short disclosure statement is required.

Nephrology Digest (by invitation only)

  • Word limit: 600–900 words excluding references.
  • Title: 100 characters maximum including spaces.
  • References: 9 maximum including the article or presentation discussed.
  • Figures/tables: 1 figure or table (figures may be redrawn).
  • Nephrology Digests discuss a recent development in the field published or presented outside of Kidney International and should frame the issue in the wider context of the field. Nephrology Digest may also provide a forum for commentary on broader issues of relevance to research or clinical care in nephrology.
  • Authors will not be charged for color images.
  • Disclosure statement required.

Format of Manuscripts

Manuscripts must be typed in English and double-spaced. All text including legends, footnotes, tables, and references are to be on one side of the page only. All manuscript pages must be numbered.

Elsevier supports responsible sharing
Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.

Language (usage and editing services)
Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop.

Use of word processing software
It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier). Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork.
To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.

Title page

This should include (a) the complete manuscript title; (b) all authors' full names (listed as first name, middle initial, last name), highest academic degrees, and affiliations; (c) the name and address for correspondence, fax number, telephone number, and e-mail address; and (d) the sources of support that require acknowledgment. A running headline of no more than 50 characters (including spaces) should be supplied.


The abstract should be no longer than 1,500 characters including spaces, stating the main problem, methods, results, and conclusions. There should be no subheadings in the abstract. It must be factual and comprehensive. The use of abbreviations and acronyms should be limited and general statements (e.g., “the significance of the results is discussed”) should be avoided. The editors reserve the right to edit the title and abstract to conform to journal style.

The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results, and major conclusions. An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. For this reason, references should be avoided, but if essential, then cite the author(s) and year(s). Also, nonstandard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself.


Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 6 keywords, using American spelling and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, 'and', 'of'). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.


The manuscript should be organized under the following nine headings:

  • Title page
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Results
  • Discussion
  • Methods
  • Disclosure
  • References
  • Acknowledgements


Abbreviations should be defined at first mention in the text and in each table and figure. For a list of standard abbreviations, please consult the Council of Biology Editors Style Guide (available from the Council of Science Editors, 9650 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20814) or other standard sources. Write out the full term for each abbreviation at its first use unless it is a standard unit of measure. Refrain from overuse of abbreviations.


For original articles, technical notes, commentaries, and reviews, the submitting author must include a disclosure statement in the body of the manuscript. The statement will describe all of the authors' relationships with companies that may have a financial interest in the information contained in the manuscript. This information should be provided under the heading titled "Disclosure", which should appear after the Methods section and before the References section. The absence of any interest to disclose must also be stated. In addition, any financial interests must be detailed in the Financial Disclosure form, which must be uploaded for each author upon submission.


References should be listed in order of appearance (AMA style). Indicate references by (consecutive) superscript Arabic numerals in the order in which they appear in the text. The numerals are to be used outside periods and commas, inside colons and semicolons. For further detail and examples you are referred to the AMA Manual of Style, A Guide for Authors and Editors, Tenth Edition, ISBN 0-978-0-19-517633-9 (see

The reference list (starting on a separate page) should contain the references in the order in which they are cited in the text. Only published works (as well as manuscripts already accepted for publication) which are referred to in the text should be listed in the reference list. The reference list must not contain any abstract citations, unpublished observations, personal communications, etc. Kindly cite such sources solely within the text (in parentheses), not in the reference list. Do not list more than 3 authors per reference. Should there be 4 or more, please include only the first 3 followed by "et al."

Citation in text
Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.

Reference links
Increased discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, CrossRef and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the DOI is encouraged.

A DOI can be used to cite and link to electronic articles where an article is in-press and full citation details are not yet known, but the article is available online. A DOI is guaranteed never to change, so you can use it as a permanent link to any electronic article. An example of a citation using DOI for an article not yet in an issue is: VanDecar J.C., Russo R.M., James D.E., Ambeh W.B., Franke M. (2003). Aseismic continuation of the Lesser Antilles slab beneath northeastern Venezuela. Journal of Geophysical Research, Please note the format of such citations should be in the same style as all other references in the paper.

Web references
As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.

Data References
Please cite underlying or relevant datasets in your text and include said references in your Reference List. Data references should include the following: author name, title, repository, version, persistent identifier, year. Add the word "dataset" in brackets (i.e., [dataset]) immediately before the reference so that it can be properly identified. This identifier will not appear in your published article.

Number the references in the list in the order in which they appear in the text.

Reference to a journal publication:
1. Fan SL, Almond MK, Ball E, et al. Pamidronate therapy as prevention of bone loss following renal transplantation. Kidney Int. 2000;57:684–690.

Reference to a supplement article:
2. Fogo AB. Glomerular hypertension abnormal glomerular growth, and progression of renal diseases. Kidney Int. 2000;57(suppl 75):S15–S21.

Reference to a book:
3. Lameire N, Mehta RL, eds. Complications of Dialysis. New York, NY: Marcel Dekker, Inc; 2000.

Reference to a chapter in an edited book:
4. Weidner N, Buckalew VM Jr. Sickle cell anemia, sickle cell trait, and polycythemic states. In: Tisher CC, Brenner BM, eds. Renal Pathology. Vol 2. Philadelphia, PA: JB Lippincott Company; 1989:1417–1436.

Reference to a dataset:
[dataset] 5. Oguro M, Imahiro S, Saito S, et al. Mortality data for Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions, Mendeley Data, v1; 2015.

Journal abbreviations source
Journal names should be abbreviated according to the List of Title Word Abbreviations.

Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.).


Submission declaration and verification

Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see, that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. Permission for use within the submitted manuscript of any text, figures, tables, or data from other sources must be granted to the author, and must be on file prior to publication. If a modified, redrawn, or adapted figure is substantially similar to the original figure, permission from the original source is required. A simple color change or change of labels on an X and Y axis is not sufficient. Even in the rare circumstances where a figure has been modified, redrawn, or adapted enough so as not to require permission, the original source of the figure should nonetheless be acknowledged (e.g. ”Based on…“). When re-using a ”courtesy image“ from a non-Elsevier product, or from one Elsevier product in a different Elsevier product, permission must be obtained directly from the named individual or institution. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service CrossCheck


Requirements for all categories of articles should conform to the "Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals," developed by the ICMJE (

Each author must have contributed sufficiently to the intellectual content of the submission. The corresponding author should list all authors and their contributions to the work. The corresponding author must confirm that he or she has had full access to the data in the study and final responsibility for the decision to submit for publication. To qualify as a contributing author, one must meet all of the following criteria:

  1. Conceived and/or designed the work that led to the submission, acquired data, and/or played an important role in interpreting the results.
  2. Drafted or revised the manuscript.
  3. Approved the final version.
Contributions by individuals who made direct contributions to the work but do not meet all of the above criteria should be noted in the Acknowledgments section of the manuscript. Medical writers and industry employees can be contributors. Their roles, affiliations, and potential conflicts of interest should be included in the author list or noted in the Acknowledgments and/or Contributors section concurrent with their contribution to the work submitted. Signed statements from any medical writers or editors declaring that they have given permission to be named as an author, as a contributor, or in the Acknowledgments section is also required. Failure to acknowledge these contributors can be considered inappropriate, which conflicts with the journal's editorial policy.

Although the editors and referees make every effort to ensure the validity of published manuscripts, the final responsibility rests with the authors, not with Kidney International, its editors, the International Society of Nephrology, or Elsevier.

Changes to authorship

This policy concerns the addition, deletion, or rearrangement of author names in the authorship of accepted manuscripts:
Before the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Requests to add or remove an author, or to rearrange the author names, must be sent to the Journal Manager from the corresponding author of the accepted manuscript and must include: (a) the reason the name should be added or removed, or the author names rearranged and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, fax, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed. Requests that are not sent by the corresponding author will be forwarded by the Journal Manager to the corresponding author, who must follow the procedure as described above. Note that: (1) Journal Managers will inform the Journal Editors of any such requests and (2) publication of the accepted manuscript in an online issue is suspended until authorship has been agreed.
After the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Any requests to add, delete, or rearrange author names in an article published in an online issue will follow the same policies as noted above and result in a corrigendum.

Informed consent and patient details

Studies on patients or volunteers require ethics committee approval and informed consent, which should be documented in the paper. Appropriate consents, permissions and releases must be obtained where an author wishes to include case details or other personal information or images of patients and any other individuals in an Elsevier publication. Written consents must be retained by the author and copies of the consents or evidence that such consents have been obtained must be provided to Elsevier on request. For more information, please review the Elsevier Policy on the Use of Images or Personal Information of Patients or other Individuals. Unless you have written permission from the patient (or, where applicable, the next of kin), the personal details of any patient included in any part of the article and in any supplementary materials (including all illustrations and videos) must be removed before submission.

Ethics in publishing

Please see our information pages on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication.

This journal is a member of, and subscribes to the principles of, the Committee on Publications Ethics (COPE)

Human and animal rights

If the work involves the use of animal or human subjects, the author should ensure that the work described has been carried out in accordance with The Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association (Declaration of Helsinki) for experiments involving humans; EU Directive 2010/63/EU for animal experiments; Uniform Requirements for manuscripts submitted to Biomedical journals, and in the case of renal transplant the Declaration of Istanbul (as published in KI Vol. 74 No. 7 [2008]). Kidney International will not consider manuscripts containing data derived from transplants obtained from executed prisoners. If authors wish to submit a manuscript related to this issue such as an editorial or review examining the consequences of such practices, they must contact the Editorial Office to obtain permission prior to submitting the manuscript. Authors should include a statement in the manuscript that informed consent was obtained for experimentation with human subjects. The privacy rights of human subjects must always be observed.

Guidelines for studies of DNA polymorphisms

For case-control studies investigating associations between DNA sequence polymorphisms and renal phenotypes, the following review criteria will be considered in prioritizing manuscripts for publication:

  1. Adequate sample size and explicit power calculation are required for all submitted manuscripts. Negative studies have to be adequately powered in order to be considered for publication.
  2. Appropriate correction of P values for multiple comparisons is also required. In many cases this will involve calculation of empiric P values by permutation.
  3. Typing multiple markers within a locus of interest is preferred over studies that examine a single polymorphism. Defining risk haplotypes and performing haplotypic association tests is encouraged.
  4. Assessment and correction for possible population stratification are strongly encouraged, unless the analysis involves a method that is robust to stratification effects (e.g., transmission-disequilibrium testing).
  5. Replication of the association in an independent cohort is required for new association findings.
  6. Priority will be given to studies that demonstrate a specific effect of the associated polymorphism on the expression or function of the relevant genes. A convincing biological validation will be considered in lieu of the replication requirement.

Microarray data

Authors submitting manuscripts containing microarray data must submit the data to the Gene Expression Omnibus ( or ArrayExpress ( databases and provide the accession number(s) upon submission to the journal. The data must be MIAME-compliant, with all variables completed.


The American Medical Association Manual of Style (10th edition), Stedman's Medical Dictionary (27th edition) and Merriam Webster's Collegiate Dictionary (10th edition) should be used as standard references. Refer to drugs and therapeutic agents by their accepted generic or chemical name, and do not abbreviate them (a proprietary name may be given only with the first use of the generic name). Code numbers should be used only when a generic name is not yet available (the chemical name and a figure giving the chemical structure of the drug are required). Copyright or trade names of drugs should be capitalized and placed in parentheses after the name of the drug. Names and locations (city and state in USA; city and country outside USA) of manufacturers of drugs, supplies, or equipment cited in a manuscript are required to comply with trademark law and should be provided in parentheses. Quantitative data may be reported in the units used in the original measurement, but SI units are preferred, including those applicable to body weight, mass (weight), and temperature.

Journal style

As the electronic submission will provide the basic material for typesetting, it is important that papers are prepared in the general editorial style of the journal.

  1. For information on labeling figures, see the artwork guidelines:
  2. Do not make rules thinner than 1 pt (0.36 mm).
  3. Use a coarse hatching pattern rather than shading for tints in graphs.
  4. Color should be distinct when used as an identifying tool.
  5. Use SI units throughout.
  6. Spaces, not commas, should be used to separate thousands.
  7. Abbreviations should be preceded by the words for which they stand in the first instance of use in the text. Overuse of abbreviations in the text is discouraged.
  8. No abbreviations should be used in the title or the abstract.
  9. The abstract should be written as a single paragraph; do not include headings.
  10. Text should be double spaced with a wide margin.
  11. At the first mention of a manufacturer, the town (state if USA) and country should be provided.

Follow internationally accepted rules and conventions: use the international system of units (SI). If other units are mentioned, please give their equivalent in SI.


Electronic artwork
General points

  • Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
  • Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.
  • Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, or Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.
  • Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
  • Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
  • Provide captions to illustrations separately.
  • Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the published version.
  • Submit each illustration as a separate file.

Please be mindful that histological images look darker in print than online so please ensure they are submitted in as bright a format as possible.

All microscopy figures must contain scale bars, which must be defined in the legends.

It is strongly encouraged that data be displayed in their raw form and not in a way that conceals their distribution. We recommend that individual data be presented as dot plots next to the average for the group with appropriate error bars, as shown in this sample from PLOS Biology. Presenting data as columns with error bars (dynamite plunger plots) is discouraged.

A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available on our website: You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.

If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply ‘as is’ in the native document format.
Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please ‘Save as’ or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):

  • EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
  • TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
  • TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black and white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1,000 dpi.
  • TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/halftone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.
Please do not:
  • supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
  • supply files that are too low in resolution; and
  • submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

Color artwork
Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF) or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color online (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) in addition to color reproduction in print. Further information on the preparation of electronic artwork.

Illustration services
Elsevier's WebShop offers Illustration Services to authors preparing to submit a manuscript but concerned about the quality of the images accompanying their article. Elsevier's expert illustrators can produce scientific, technical and medical-style images, as well as a full range of charts, tables and graphs. Image 'polishing' is also available, where our illustrators take your image(s) and improve them to a professional standard. Please visit the website to find out more.

Figure captions
Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used. Use scale markers in the image for electron micrographs and indicate the type of stain used.

Text graphics
Text graphics may be embedded in the text at the appropriate position. See further under Electronic artwork.


Please submit tables as editable text and not as images. Tables can be placed either next to the relevant text in the article, or on separate page(s) at the end. Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text and place any table notes below the table body. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in them do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article. Please avoid using vertical rules. Place explanatory matter of tables in the footnotes rather than in the titles.


Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the files in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 150 MB in total. Any single file should not exceed 50 MB. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect. Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages. Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.

Supplementary material

Supplementary material such as applications, images and sound clips, can be published with your article to enhance it. Submitted supplementary items are published exactly as they are received (Excel or PowerPoint files will appear as such online). Please submit your material together with the article and supply a concise, descriptive caption for each supplementary file. If you wish to make changes to supplementary material during any stage of the process, please make sure to provide an updated file. Do not annotate any corrections on a previous version. Please switch off the 'Track Changes' option in Microsoft Office files as these will appear in the published version.

Data linking
If you have made your research data available in a data repository, you can link your article directly to the dataset. Elsevier collaborates with a number of repositories to link articles on ScienceDirect with relevant repositories, giving readers access to underlying data that gives them a better understanding of the research described.

There are different ways to link your datasets to your article. When available, you can directly link your dataset to your article by providing the relevant information in the submission system. For more information, visit the database linking page.

For supported data repositories a repository banner will automatically appear next to your published article on ScienceDirect.

In addition, you can link to relevant data or entities through identifiers within the text of your manuscript, using the following format: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN).

Supplementary information is peer-reviewed material directly relevant to the conclusion of an article that cannot be included in the printed version owing to space or format constraints. It is posted on the journal's web site and linked to the article when the article is published and may consist of data files, graphics, movies, or extensive tables. The printed article must be complete and self-explanatory without the supplementary information. Supplementary information enhances a reader's understanding of the paper but is not essential to that understanding. Supplementary information must be supplied to the editorial office in its final form for peer review. On acceptance, the final version of the peer-reviewed supplementary information should be submitted with the accepted paper. To ensure that the contents of the supplementary information files can be viewed by the editor(s), referees, and readers, please also submit a ‘read-me’ file containing brief instructions on how to use the file.

If your manuscript or any significant part of it has been under consideration for publication elsewhere, or has appeared elsewhere in a manner that could be construed as a prior or duplication publication of the same, or very similar, work, the said material must be included and marked appropriately as a supplemental file.

Authors should ensure that supplementary information is supplied in its FINAL format as it is not copyedited and will appear online exactly as originally submitted. It cannot be altered, nor can new supplementary information be added, after the paper has been accepted for publication. Please supply the supplementary information via the electronic manuscript submission and tracking system, in an acceptable file format. Authors should include a text summary (no more than 50 words) to describe the contents of each file, identify the types of files (file formats) submitted, and include the text ‘Supplementary information is available at Kidney International's website’ at the end of the article and before the references.

Accepted file formats
Quick Time files (.mov), graphical image files (.gif), HTML files (.html), MPEG movie files (.mpg), JPEG image files (.jpg), sound files (.wav), plain ASCII text (.txt), MS Word documents (.doc), Postscript files (.ps), MS Excel spreadsheet documents (.xls), and PowerPoint files (.ppt). We cannot accept TeX and LaTeX.

File sizes must be as small as possible so that they can be downloaded quickly. Images should not exceed 640 × 480 pixels but we would recommend 480 × 360 pixels as the maximum frame size for movies. We would also recommend a frame rate of 15 frames per second. If applicable to the presentation of the supplementary information, use a 256-color palette. Please consider the use of lower specification for all of these points if the supplementary information can still be represented clearly. Our recommended maximum data rate is 150 KB/s.

The number of files should be limited to eight, and the total file size should not exceed 8 MB. Individual files should not exceed 1 MB. Please seek advice from the editorial office before sending files larger than our maximum size to avoid delays in publication.

Further questions about the submission or preparation of supplementary information should be directed to the editorial office.


Submission of papers

If you are ready to submit an article please visit the Online Submission page:
All text should be submitted in Microsoft Word (.doc) and figures as .tif or .jpg files.
Figures appearing in the online version of manuscripts will be published in 72 dpi as is standard for all .pdf files on the internet. All figures published in print are at least 300 dpi.

Submission checklist

You can use this list to carry out a final check of your submission before you send it to the journal for review. Please check the relevant section in this Guide for Authors for more details.

Ensure that the following items are present:

One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
• E-mail address
• Full postal address

All necessary files have been uploaded:
• Include keywords
• All figures (include relevant captions)
• All tables (including titles, description, footnotes)
• Ensure all figure and table citations in the text match the files provided
• Indicate clearly if color should be used for any figures in print
Graphical Abstracts / Highlights files (where applicable)
Supplemental files (where applicable)

Further considerations
• Manuscript has been 'spell checked' and 'grammar checked'
• All references mentioned in the Reference List are cited in the text, and vice versa
• Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Internet)
• A competing interests statement is provided, even if the authors have no competing interests to declare
• Journal policies detailed in this guide have been reviewed
• Referee suggestions and contact details provided, based on journal requirements

For further information, visit our Support Center.

Format for Revised Manuscripts

We ask that two versions of a revised manuscript be uploaded, one with “tracked” changes and one “clean” version with all changes accepted and track changes turned off.

Article transfer service
This journal is part of our Article Transfer Service. This means that if the Editor feels your article is more suitable in one of our other participating journals, then you may be asked to consider transferring the article to one of those. If you agree, your article will be transferred automatically on your behalf with no need to reformat. Please note that your article will be reviewed again by the new journal. More information.


Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (see more information on this). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.

Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations. If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases.

Author rights
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. More information.

Role of the funding source

You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.

Formatting of funding sources
List funding sources in this standard way to facilitate compliance to funder's requirements:

Funding: This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health [grant numbers xxxx, yyyy]; the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, WA [grant number zzzz]; and the United States Institutes of Peace [grant number aaaa].

It is not necessary to include detailed descriptions on the program or type of grants and awards. When funding is from a block grant or other resources available to a university, college, or other research institution, submit the name of the institute or organization that provided the funding.

If no funding has been provided for the research, please include the following sentence:

This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Funding body agreements and policies
Elsevier has established a number of agreements with funding bodies which allow authors to comply with their funder's open access policies. Some funding bodies will reimburse the author for the Open Access Publication Fee. Details of existing agreements are available online.
After acceptance, open access papers will be published under a noncommercial license. For authors requiring a commercial CC BY license, you can apply after your manuscript is accepted for publication.

Open access

This journal offers authors a choice in publishing their research:

• Articles are made available to subscribers as well as developing countries and patient groups through our universal access programs.
• No open access publication fee payable by authors.
Open access
• Articles are freely available to both subscribers and the wider public with permitted reuse.
• An open access publication fee is payable by authors or on their behalf, e.g. by their research funder or institution.

Regardless of how you choose to publish your article, the journal will apply the same peer review criteria and acceptance standards.

For open access articles, permitted third party (re)use is defined by the following Creative Commons user licenses:

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND)
For non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.

For authors requiring a commercial CC BY license, you can apply after your manuscript is accepted for publication.

The open access fee for this journal is $2,600 for ISN members and $3,200 for non-ISN members, excluding taxes.

Green open access
Authors can share their research in a variety of different ways and Elsevier has a number of green open access options available. We recommend authors see our green open access page for further information. Authors can also self-archive their manuscripts immediately and enable public access from their institution's repository after an embargo period. This is the version that has been accepted for publication and which typically includes author-incorporated changes suggested during submission, peer review and in editor-author communications. Embargo period: For subscription articles, an appropriate amount of time is needed for journals to deliver value to subscribing customers before an article becomes freely available to the public. This is the embargo period and it begins from the date the article is formally published online in its final and fully citable form. Find out more.

This journal has an embargo period of 12 months.

Article-in-press publication

All original articles and reviews are published ahead of print as Articles in Press. This will be the final version of the manuscript and will subsequently appear, unchanged, in print.

Manuscript deposition service

Elsevier's automated manuscript deposition service enables authors to meet the open access or public access policies of all of the participating funders, making it simple and free for researchers to comply.


One set of page proofs (as PDF files) will be sent by e-mail to the corresponding author (if we do not have an e-mail address then paper proofs will be sent by post) or, a link will be provided in the e-mail so that authors can download the files themselves. Elsevier now provides authors with PDF proofs which can be annotated; for this you will need to download the free Adobe Reader, version 9 (or higher). Instructions on how to annotate PDF files will accompany the proofs (also given online). The exact system requirements are given at the Adobe site.
If you do not wish to use the PDF annotations function, you may list the corrections (including replies to the Query Form) and return them to Elsevier in an e-mail. Please list your corrections quoting line number. If, for any reason, this is not possible, then mark the corrections and any other comments (including replies to the Query Form) on a printout of your proof and scan the pages and return via e-mail. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication: please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.


Authors will see the CrossMark logo with their articles upon publication in an issue. CrossMark is a multipublisher initiative to provide a standard way for readers to locate the current version of a piece of content. By applying the CrossMark logo Elsevier Inc. is committing to maintaining the content it publishes and to alerting readers to changes if and when they occur. Clicking on the CrossMark logo will tell you the current status of a document and may also give you additional publication record information about the document.


The corresponding author will, at no cost, receive a customized Share Link providing 50 days free access to the final published version of the article on ScienceDirect. The Share Link can be used for sharing the article via any communication channel, including email and social media. For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's Webshop. Corresponding authors who have published their article open access do not receive a Share Link as their final published version of the article is available open access on ScienceDirect and can be shared through the article DOI link.

Visit the Elsevier Support Center to find the answers you need. Here you will find everything from Frequently Asked Questions to ways to get in touch.
You can also find out when your accepted article will be published.