Guide for Authors

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Use of inclusive language

Inclusive language acknowledges diversity, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and promotes equal opportunities. Content should make no assumptions about the beliefs or commitments of any reader; contain nothing which might imply that one individual is superior to another on the grounds of age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition; and use inclusive language throughout. Authors should ensure that writing is free from bias, stereotypes, slang, reference to dominant culture and/or cultural assumptions. We advise to seek gender neutrality by using plural nouns ("clinicians, patients/clients") as default/wherever possible to avoid using "he, she," or "he/she." We recommend avoiding the use of descriptors that refer to personal attributes such as age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition unless they are relevant and valid. These guidelines are meant as a point of reference to help identify appropriate language but are by no means exhaustive or definitive.

Please add your Twitter Handle (“@+twitter user name”) and ORCID (Open Researcher and Contributor ID) to your user account in manuscript central. If you don’t have an ORCID, you can sign up for free at


Published monthly.

Impact factor

2019 Impact Factor: 8.945
6 of 85 journals in Urology & Nephrology
© 2020 Clarivate Analytics


ISSN: 0085-2538
EISSN: 1523-1755

Abstracted/indexed in

Index Medicus/Medline, Science Citation Index, Current Contents/Life Sciences, Current Contents/Clinical Medicine, SciSearch, BIOSIS, Chemical Abstracts, EMBASE, Reference Update, CABS, Biological Abstracts, Global Health, Adonis, PASCAL, Scopus

Publication charges

(Do not apply to invited authors.)
Page charges cover a proportion of the costs of processing and producing the article for publication. After final layout for publication, each page of an article will incur a fixed charge of US$165 per page.


Kidney International devotes itself to renal research. It aims to inform the renal researcher and the practicing nephrologist on all aspects of renal research. These include the latest clinical studies on emerging developments in renal medicine and the highest level of original research studies in clinical and basic renal research. In each issue some of these articles will be highlighted by commentaries that aim to put these studies in the appropriate context. These will form a research tool for clinical and basic investigators. Nephrology Digest comments and puts in perspective several areas of new developments in basic and clinical research in nephrology at large, as reported in the recent literature and at scientific meetings. Editorials highlight important issues in international nephrology. Nephrology sans Frontières are occasional short articles that discuss matters of local interest to nephrologists around the world, but which we feel need to be known by nephrologists worldwide. In-depth reviews are about major issues in renal research and controversial discussions on renal therapeutics or diagnosis written by two opposing authorities. Nephrology Images are presentations of interesting images in renal pathology; radiology chosen for their illustrative nature or simply for their esthetic qualities; issues of importance to the international renal community, including the politics of funding, of organ transplantation, of adequacy of dialysis, of worldwide affordability of end-stage renal care, and many other topical issues. Journal Club is a synopses that brings you the latest research highlights from across a wide spectrum of journals in fields relevant to renal research.

Reporting Guidelines

KI requires authors to completely, accurately, and transparently report their findings. Authors submitting articles to KI should refer to the Enhancing the QUAlity and Transparency Of health Research (EQUATOR) Network website (, which provides a central repository of reporting guidelines and other resources to assist authors.
Authors of the following study types are required to upload a copy of the corresponding checklist with their manuscript:

  • CONSORT checklist and flow diagram for Randomized clinical trials
  • STROBE checklist for Observational Studies (see modified STROBE Statement)
  • PRISMA checklist and flow diagram for Systematic reviews and meta-analyses—interventional studies
  • MOOSE checklist and flow diagram for Systematic reviews and meta-analyses—observational studies
  • STARD checklist and flow diagram for Diagnostic accuracy studies
  • COREQ for Qualitative research
  • TRIPOD for Development and updating of predictive models
  • CHEERS for Economic evaluation
  • STARI statement and checklist for Implementation studies
  • STREGA Checklist for studies that investigate Associations between genetic factors and clinical measurements or disease outcomes.
These checklists help improve the quality and consistency of data reporting and assist reviewers in assessing the manuscript. Missing items or deviations should be explained by the authors.

KI encourages the use of PENELOPE for help with identification of the appropriate checklist for data reporting. This tool can be found at

Peer Review

This journal operates a single blind review process. All contributions will be initially assessed by the editor for suitability for Kidney International. Papers deemed suitable are then sent to at least two independent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor's decision is final. For more information on the types of peer review, please visit our peer-review site (

Editor Disclosures

Kidney International follows the ICMJE Guidelines for Disclosures and Conflicts of Interest. Editors and editorial staff must not use information gained through working with manuscripts for private gain. Editor disclosure forms about potential conflicts of interests related to their own commitments are collected annually and kept on file in the editorial office. Authors and reviewers who require this information should contact the editorial office staff.


The American Medical Association Manual of Style (10th edition) should be used as a style guideline.

Manuscripts that do not adhere to the following instructions will be returned to the corresponding author for technical revision before undergoing peer review.

Types of articles


  • Word limit: Reviews should be between 3,000 and 5,000 words, and on average 4,000 words, including abstract but excluding references, tables, and figures.
  • Abstract: 250 words maximum.
  • References: 150 maximum.
  • Figures/tables: 1–3 images or figures required.
  • Disclosure statement required.
  • Reviews are comprehensive analyses of specific topics in nephrology that are solicited by the Editors. Proposals for reviews should be submitted to the editorial office by email: Authors should only send an outline of the proposed paper for initial consideration. Unsolicited reviews submitted directly to Manuscript Central will not be considered. All invited review articles will undergo peer review prior to decision, and there is no absolute guarantee of acceptance.

Original Article

  • Subcategories: Basic Research, Clinical Investigation.
  • Word limit: 4,000 words (22,400 characters) maximum including spaces and abstract but excluding references, tables, and figures. Abstract: 250 words (1,500 characters) maximum including spaces. Results: Include headings about what is being tested in each individual experiment.
  • References: no limit.
  • Figures/tables: no limit. However, additional figures and tables may be considered as supplements for web-only publication.
  • Disclosure statement required. Full-length reports of current research in either basic or clinical science.
  • Data Sharing Statement—Large biological datasets
  • Graphical Abstract required. See Graphical Abstract section for more details.
  • Systematic Reviews: submit as an Original Article. Include PRISMA checklist and PRISMA flow diagram with submission.

Brief Report
The purpose of the Brief Report format is to publish concise but complete reports that present high-quality findings of exceptional interest, novelty, and broad significance for the readers of Kidney International.

A manuscript considered as a potential Brief Report by the Editors will be sent to referees with a request of rapid review. If the manuscript is deemed interesting but not of sufficiently transformative potential, authors may be asked to resubmit their revision as a regular article.

Brief Reports differ from regular articles in that they should be arranged in the following order:

  • Title page,
  • Abstract and keywords,
  • Introduction,
  • Results,
  • Discussion (no headings necessary),
  • Short Methods,
  • Acknowledgments,
  • References,
  • Tables (each including a title and legend), and
  • Figure legends.
  • The abstract should be brief (3 sentences, no more than 100 words). The main text should be limited to 1,500 words (including the abstract but not the acknowledgments, references, tables, and figure legends). Brief Reports normally have no more than 2 display items (Figure and/or Table—uploaded as individual files), and 20 references. The study design, detailed methods, and/or supporting data should be included in Online Supplementary Material (each file uploaded separately).

Clinical Trials

  • Word limit: 4,000 words (22,400 characters) maximum including spaces and abstract but excluding references, tables, and figures. Abstract: 250 words (1,500 characters) maximum including spaces. Results: Include headings about what is being tested in each individual experiment.
  • References: no limit.
  • Figures/tables: no limit. However, additional figures and tables may be considered as supplements for web-only publication.
  • Disclosure statement required.
  • Data Sharing Statement—Large biological datasets
    Kidney International follows the ICMJE's data sharing statement policy for all clinical trials. To foster transparency, we require you to state the availability of your data in your manuscript. This may be a requirement of your funding body or institution. If your data are unavailable to access or unsuitable to post, you will need to indicate why, for example by stating that the research data are confidential. The statement will appear with your published article. For more information, visit the Data Statement page.
  • Full-length reports of current research in either basic or clinical science.

Please read the Special Notice Regarding Clinical Trials below.

Special notice regarding clinical trials
As defined by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE), a clinical trial is any research project that prospectively assigns human subjects to intervention and comparison groups to study the cause-and-effect relationship between a medical intervention and a health outcome. A medical intervention is any intervention used to modify a health outcome and includes but is not limited to drugs, surgical procedures, devices, behavioral treatments, and process-of-care changes. A trial must have at least one prospectively assigned concurrent control or comparison group in order to trigger the requirement for registration. Nonrandomized trials are not exempt from the registration requirement if they meet the above criteria.

All clinical trials must be registered in a public registry prior to submission. The journal follows the trials registration policy of the ICMJE ( and considers only trials that have been appropriately registered before submission, regardless of when the trial closed to enrollment. Acceptable registries must meet the following ICMJE requirements:

  • be publicly available, searchable, and open to all prospective registrants;
  • have a validation mechanism for registration data; and
  • be managed by a not-for-profit organization.

Examples of registries that meet these criteria include:

  1. the registry sponsored by the United States National Library of Medicine (,
  2. the International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number Registry (,
  3. the Cochrane Renal Group Registry (, and
  4. the European Clinical Trials Database (

The trial registry number for eligible papers will be collected during the submission process.

Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) must adhere to the CONSORT statement (CONsolidated Standards Of Reporting Trials), and submissions must be accompanied by a completed CONSORT checklist (uploaded as a related manuscript file). Further information can be found at

Commentary (by invitation only)

  • Word limit: 1,500 words (8,400 characters) maximum including spaces and abstract but excluding references.
  • Title: 115 characters maximum including spaces.
  • Abstract: 75 words (420 characters) maximum.
  • References: 9 maximum including the article discussed.
  • Figures/tables: 1 figure required (will be redrawn).
  • Commentaries discuss a paper published in a specific issue and should set the problems addressed by the paper in the wider context of the field. Disclosure statement required.

Technical Note

  • Word limit: 1,500 words (8,400 characters) maximum including abstract but excluding references, tables, and figures.
  • Abstract: 250 words (1,500 characters) maximum including spaces.
  • References: 20 maximum.
  • Disclosure statement required.
  • Examples of appropriate subject matter include descriptions of new laboratory or clinical methods, new apparatus, or critical modifications of established techniques. Organization of Technical Notes should be the same as for regular manuscripts.

Letter to the Editor

  • Word limit: 250 words (1,500 characters) maximum including spaces.
  • Abstract: no abstract required for this manuscript type.
  • References: 4 maximum.
  • Figures/tables: up to 1.
  • Letters to the Editor will be considered for publication, subject to editing. Letters must contain information critical to a certain area or must be confirmatory of data recently published in Kidney International. A Letter must reference the original source, and a Response to a Letter must reference the Letter in the first few paragraphs, as well as the original source. Letters can use an arbitrary title, but a Response must cite the title of the Letter: e.g., Response to [title of Letter]. All Letters must contain a title page including title, all authors' names and affiliations, and corresponding author contact information.
  • Note that KI does not accept Letters to the Editor regarding Nephrology Digest articles.

Editorial (by invitation only)

  • Word Limit: 1,600 words (8,960 characters) maximum including spaces.
  • Abstract: no abstract required for this manuscript type.
  • Keywords: 3–6.
  • References: 5 maximum.
  • Proposals for Editorials may be submitted; authors should only send an outline of the proposed paper for initial consideration.

Nephrology Image

  • Word limit: title: 70 characters including spaces; text: 300 words (1,700 characters) including spaces.
  • Figures: The equivalent of 2 single-panel figures maximum. Additional figures may be included as supplementary images that will appear online but not in print.
  • References: none.
  • Abstract: no abstract required for this manuscript type.
  • Illustrative images that are unique or highly illustrative of specific occurrences in nephrology such as renal pathology, radiology, specific-skin lesions, etc. They should be accompanied by a brief 1-paragraph description of relevant clinical information. Article must fit onto 1 page. You will be asked to cut text or part of your figure in the proof if the article is longer than 1 page.

Make Your Diagnosis

  • Word limit: title: 70 characters; The Case (page 1): 245 words (1,400 characters); The Diagnosis (page 2): 405 words (2,300 characters). Word limits include spaces but exclude references, tables, and figures.
  • Abstract: no abstract required for this manuscript type.
  • References: 3 maximum.
  • Figures/tables: 1 single-panel figure maximum per page.
  • This column provides readers with an opportunity to make clinical diagnoses based on an image accompanied by the history and physical exam, all of which will be on the first page. The second page will include the answers, a brief discussion, and any other relevant follow-up images and laboratory data.

Meeting Report (by invitation only)

  • Proceedings of meetings are solicited by the Editors, and the Meeting Report will undergo peer review.
  • Word limit: 3000 words
  • Abstract: Unstructured, maximum of 150 words.
  • Disclosure statement required.
  • References: Maximum 50, should be important for establishing background of work discussed or published work from the meeting.
  • General Structure:
    • Provide an introduction that describes the purpose and context of the meeting.
    • Identify the themes developed in the meeting and devote one section to each theme. The themes will serve as headings for the sections.
    • Under each theme heading, highlight one presentation of particular significance.
    • Within a theme, develop a figure or table that summarizes the rest or most of the rest of the presentations.
    • After the meeting themes and new ideas are presented, provide a section that summarizes where the field is currently, ongoing controversies in the field, and recommendations for future directions in the field.

Nephrologists sans Frontières (by invitation only)

  • Word limit: 1,500 words.
  • Abstract: no abstract required for this manuscript type.
  • Keywords: 3–6.
  • References: no more than 9.
  • Figures/tables: 1.

Policy Forum

  • Word limit: 1,500 words.
  • Abstract: none.
  • Keywords: 3–6.
  • References: no more than 9.
  • COI: A short disclosure statement is required.

Nephrology Digest (by invitation only)

  • Word limit: 600–900 words excluding references.
  • Title: 100 characters maximum including spaces.
  • References: 9 maximum including the article or presentation discussed.
  • Figures/tables: 1 figure or table (figures may be redrawn).
  • Nephrology Digests discuss a recent development in the field published or presented outside of Kidney International and should frame the issue in the wider context of the field. Nephrology Digest may also provide a forum for commentary on broader issues of relevance to research or clinical care in nephrology.
  • Authors will not be charged for color images.
  • Disclosure statement required.

Format of Manuscripts

Manuscripts must be typed in English and double-spaced. All text including legends, footnotes, tables, and references are to be on one side of the page only. All manuscript pages must be numbered.

Open access

Please visit our Open Access page for more information.

Language (usage and editing services)
Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's Author Services.

Use of word processing software
It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier). Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required. Figures should not be embedded in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork.
To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.

Title page

This should include (a) the complete manuscript title; (b) all authors' full names (listed as first name, middle initial, last name), highest academic degrees, and affiliations; (c) the name and address for correspondence, fax number, telephone number, and e-mail address; and (d) the sources of support that require acknowledgment. A running headline of no more than 50 characters (including spaces) should be supplied.


The abstract should be no longer than 1,500 characters including spaces, stating the main problem, methods, results, and conclusions. There should be no subheadings in the abstract. It must be factual and comprehensive. The use of abbreviations and acronyms should be limited and general statements (e.g., “the significance of the results is discussed”) should be avoided. The editors reserve the right to edit the title and abstract to conform to journal style.

The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results, and major conclusions. An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. For this reason, references should be avoided, but if essential, then cite the author(s) and year(s). Also, nonstandard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself.


Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 6 keywords, using American spelling and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, 'and', 'of'). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.

Graphical Abstract

A graphical abstract is now mandatory for Kidney International. The Graphical Abstract should summarize the contents of the article in a concise, colorful pictorial form that appeals to the online publication format. It will help readers understand the take-home message of the paper, encourage browsing, and promote interdisciplinary scholarship. Authors must provide an original graphic separate from figure(s) in the paper that clearly represents the work described, preferably saved as a PowerPoint (.ppt) file.

Graphical abstracts should be submitted at the time of revision as a separate image file in the ScholarOne manuscript submission system. We prefer that you create your Graphical Abstract using the PowerPoint template provided. If you choose to create an image without the template provided, be sure to follow the specifications indicated below.

Graphical Abstracts are subject to editorial review for accuracy and quality but will be published as provided without copy editing once they have been accepted for publication.

The Graphical Abstract should be a single file that summarizes the research findings using colorful images rather than text. For ease of browsing, the Graphical Abstract should have a clear start and end, preferably “reading” from top to bottom or left to right. Avoid cluttering elements or images. Refer to Graphical Library in the PowerPoint template for optional layout options.

  • Image size: If using PowerPoint, size slide for widescreen (16:9 ratio) with high-resolution images (minimum of 300 dpi, preferably 600 dpi). If using another program, provide images with a minimum of 531 × 1328 pixels (H×W) and a minimum resolution of 300 dpi. For larger images, use 200 × 500 pixels (HxW).
  • Font: Arial or Calibri fonts only with 18-pt size or larger.
  • File type: preferred file types are PowerPoint, TIFF, or EPS.
  • Save the image file name as Graphical Abstract for uploading.
  • Do not include a heading “Graphical Abstract” within the image file.
  • Use exact title of accepted manuscript as the title.
  • Place author's last name and the year of publication at the bottom.
  • Place major conclusion or take-away point within in a “Conclusion” box.

Find icons and/or pictograms to use in Graphical Abstracts from unaffiliated services such as:
Authors can make use of Elsevier's Illustration Services for a fee at to ensure the best presentation of your image is in accordance with all technical requirements.

Following are some examples of Graphical Abstracts using the Kidney International template.

Translational Statement (only for Basic Research articles)

The Editors require a short paragraph on the translational impact of your study. Please include this paragraph of no more than 100 words under the heading “Translational Statement” and place it in the manuscript following the abstract for editorial review. The Translational Statement should describe how you envision your work affecting clinical care now or in the future and could include a statement on next steps. The goal of this new feature is to make your basic science accessible to all of the Journal's readership by putting it in the context of clinical care. Please note that the Translational Statement may be disseminated after publication to highlight your work.


The manuscript should be organized under the following 11 headings:

  • Graphical Abstract
  • Title page
  • Abstract
  • Translational Statement (only for Basic Research articles)
  • Introduction
  • Results
  • Discussion
  • Methods
  • Disclosure statement
  • References
  • Acknowledgements


Abbreviations should be defined at first mention in the text and in each table and figure. For a list of standard abbreviations, please consult the Council of Biology Editors Style Guide (available from the Council of Science Editors, 9650 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20814) or other standard sources. Write out the full term for each abbreviation at its first use unless it is a standard unit of measure. Refrain from overuse of abbreviations.


For original articles, technical notes, commentaries, and reviews, the submitting author must include a disclosure statement in the body of the manuscript. The statement will describe all of the authors' relationships with companies that may have a financial interest in the information contained in the manuscript. This information should be provided under the heading titled “Disclosure”, which should appear after the Methods section and before the References section. The absence of any interest to disclose must also be stated. In addition, any financial interests must be detailed in the Financial Disclosure form, which must be uploaded for each author upon submission. It is the responsibility of each author to provide complete and accurate financial and consulting information.


References should be listed in order of appearance (AMA style). Indicate references by (consecutive) superscript Arabic numerals in the order in which they appear in the text. The numerals are to be used outside periods and commas, inside colons and semicolons. For further detail and examples you are referred to the AMA Manual of Style, A Guide for Authors and Editors, Tenth Edition, ISBN 0-978-0-19-517633-9 (see

The reference list (starting on a separate page) should contain the references in the order in which they are cited in the text. Only published works (as well as manuscripts already accepted for publication) which are referred to in the text should be listed in the reference list. The reference list must not contain any abstract citations, unpublished observations, personal communications, etc. Kindly cite such sources solely within the text (in parentheses), not in the reference list. Do not list more than 3 authors per reference. Should there be 4 or more, please include only the first 3 followed by "et al."

Please do not use reference linking software such as EndNote to format the citations and references. Please type them manually. If you use reference management software, please ensure that you remove ALL field codes before submitting the electronic manuscript. Please note that once you remove all hidden codes and unlink the field codes, you can no longer reformat or unformat the citations or bibliography, so always make a copy of your document prior to removing any codes. When using EndNote, you may use the EndNote tool to remove field codes, or you many manually remove the codes:

  1. Make a copy of the final manuscript. From the File menu in Word, select the Save As command. Give the file a new name.
  2. In the new file, hit CTRL+A to select all.
  3. Press Ctrl+Shift+F9 or Cmd+6 to unlink all fields. The in-text citations and bibliography become regular text, without field codes or any hidden links.

If authors still have questions about removing the field codes, technical support is available free of charge. The link to reach support is

Citation in text
Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.

Reference links
Increased discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, CrossRef and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the DOI is highly encouraged.

A DOI is guaranteed never to change, so you can use it as a permanent link to any electronic article. An example of a citation using DOI for an article not yet in an issue is: VanDecar J.C., Russo R.M., James D.E., Ambeh W.B., Franke M. (2003). Aseismic continuation of the Lesser Antilles slab beneath northeastern Venezuela. Journal of Geophysical Research, Please note the format of such citations should be in the same style as all other references in the paper.

Web references
As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.

Data References
Please cite underlying or relevant datasets in your text and include said references in your Reference List. Data references should include the following: author name, title, repository, version, persistent identifier, year. Add the word "dataset" in brackets (i.e., [dataset]) immediately before the reference so that it can be properly identified. This identifier will not appear in your published article.

Number the references in the list in the order in which they appear in the text.

Reference to a journal publication:
1. Fan SL, Almond MK, Ball E, et al. Pamidronate therapy as prevention of bone loss following renal transplantation. Kidney Int. 2000;57:684–690.

Reference to a supplement article:
2. Fogo AB. Glomerular hypertension abnormal glomerular growth, and progression of renal diseases. Kidney Int. 2000;57(suppl 75):S15–S21.

Reference to a book:
3. Lameire N, Mehta RL, eds. Complications of Dialysis. New York, NY: Marcel Dekker, Inc; 2000.

Reference to a chapter in an edited book:
4. Weidner N, Buckalew VM Jr. Sickle cell anemia, sickle cell trait, and polycythemic states. In: Tisher CC, Brenner BM, eds. Renal Pathology. Vol 2. Philadelphia, PA: JB Lippincott Company; 1989:1417–1436.

Reference to a dataset:
[dataset] 5. Oguro M, Imahiro S, Saito S, et al. Mortality data for Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions, Mendeley Data, v1; 2015.

Journal abbreviations source
Journal names should be abbreviated according to the List of Title Word Abbreviations.

Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.).


Submission declaration and verification

Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see, that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. Permission for use within the submitted manuscript of any text, figures, tables, or data from other sources must be granted to the author, and must be on file prior to publication. If a modified, redrawn, or adapted figure is substantially similar to the original figure, permission from the original source is required. A simple color change or change of labels on an X and Y axis is not sufficient. Even in the rare circumstances where a figure has been modified, redrawn, or adapted enough so as not to require permission, the original source of the figure should nonetheless be acknowledged (e.g. ”Based on…“). When re-using a ”courtesy image“ from a non-Elsevier product, or from one Elsevier product in a different Elsevier product, permission must be obtained directly from the named individual or institution. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service CrossCheck


Requirements for all categories of articles should conform to the "Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals," developed by the ICMJE (

Each author must have contributed sufficiently to the intellectual content of the submission. The corresponding author should list all authors and their contributions to the work. The corresponding author must confirm that he or she has had full access to the data in the study and final responsibility for the decision to submit for publication. To qualify as a contributing author, one must meet all of the following criteria:

  1. Conceived and/or designed the work that led to the submission, acquired data, and/or played an important role in interpreting the results.
  2. Drafted or revised the manuscript.
  3. Approved the final version.
Contributions by individuals who made direct contributions to the work but do not meet all of the above criteria should be noted in the Acknowledgments section of the manuscript. Medical writers and industry employees can be contributors. Their roles, affiliations, and potential conflicts of interest should be included in the author list or noted in the Acknowledgments and/or Contributors section concurrent with their contribution to the work submitted. Signed statements from any medical writers or editors declaring that they have given permission to be named as an author, as a contributor, or in the Acknowledgments section is also required. Failure to acknowledge these contributors can be considered inappropriate, which conflicts with the journal's editorial policy.

Although the editors and referees make every effort to ensure the validity of published manuscripts, the final responsibility rests with the authors, not with Kidney International, its editors, the International Society of Nephrology, or Elsevier.

Changes to authorship

This policy concerns the addition, deletion, or rearrangement of author names in the authorship of accepted manuscripts:
Before the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Requests to add or remove an author, or to rearrange the author names, must be sent to the Journal Manager from the corresponding author of the accepted manuscript and must include: (a) the reason the name should be added or removed, or the author names rearranged and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, fax, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed. Requests that are not sent by the corresponding author will be forwarded by the Journal Manager to the corresponding author, who must follow the procedure as described above. Note that: (1) Journal Managers will inform the Journal Editors of any such requests and (2) publication of the accepted manuscript in an online issue is suspended until authorship has been agreed.
After the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Any requests to add, delete, or rearrange author names in an article published in an online issue will follow the same policies as noted above and result in a corrigendum.

Informed consent and patient details

Studies on patients or volunteers require ethics committee approval and informed consent, which should be documented in the paper. Appropriate consents, permissions and releases must be obtained where an author wishes to include case details or other personal information or images of patients and any other individuals in an Elsevier publication. Written consents must be retained by the author but copies should not be provided to the journal. Only if specifically requested by the journal in exceptional circumstances (for example if a legal issue arises) the author must provide copies of the consents or evidence that such consents have been obtained. For more information, please review the Elsevier Policy on the Use of Images or Personal Information of Patients or other Individuals. Unless you have written permission from the patient (or, where applicable, the next of kin), the personal details of any patient included in any part of the article and in any supplementary materials (including all illustrations and videos) must be removed before submission.

Ethics in publishing

Please see our information pages on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication.

This journal is a member of, and subscribes to the principles of, the Committee on Publications Ethics (COPE)

Human and animal rights

If the work involves the use of animal or human subjects, the author should ensure that the work described has been carried out in accordance with The Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association (Declaration of Helsinki) for experiments involving humans; EU Directive 2010/63/EU for animal experiments; Uniform Requirements for manuscripts submitted to Biomedical journals, and in the case of renal transplant the Declaration of Istanbul (as published in KI Vol. 74 No. 7 [2008]). Kidney International will not consider manuscripts containing data derived from transplants obtained from executed prisoners. If authors wish to submit a manuscript related to this issue such as an editorial or review examining the consequences of such practices, they must contact the Editorial Office to obtain permission prior to submitting the manuscript. All manuscripts dealing with transplanted patients must conform to the Declaration of Istanbul and be acknowledged in the submission questions by ticking the appropriate box. In addition, a statement that “the paper adheres to the Declaration of Istanbul” must be placed in the Methods section, and the source of donor kidneys must be clearly identified in the Methods section of the paper as well. Authors should include a statement in the manuscript that informed consent was obtained for experimentation with human subjects. The privacy rights of human subjects must always be observed.

Guidelines for studies of DNA polymorphisms

For case-control studies investigating associations between DNA sequence polymorphisms and renal phenotypes, the following review criteria will be considered in prioritizing manuscripts for publication:

  1. Adequate sample size and explicit power calculation are required for all submitted manuscripts. Negative studies have to be adequately powered in order to be considered for publication.
  2. Appropriate correction of P values for multiple comparisons is also required. In many cases this will involve calculation of empiric P values by permutation.
  3. Typing multiple markers within a locus of interest is preferred over studies that examine a single polymorphism. Defining risk haplotypes and performing haplotypic association tests is encouraged.
  4. Assessment and correction for possible population stratification are strongly encouraged, unless the analysis involves a method that is robust to stratification effects (e.g., transmission-disequilibrium testing).
  5. Replication of the association in an independent cohort is required for new association findings.
  6. Priority will be given to studies that demonstrate a specific effect of the associated polymorphism on the expression or function of the relevant genes. A convincing biological validation will be considered in lieu of the replication requirement.

Microarray data

Authors submitting manuscripts containing microarray data must submit the data to the Gene Expression Omnibus ( or ArrayExpress ( databases and provide the accession number(s) upon submission to the journal. The data must be MIAME-compliant, with all variables completed.

Biomarker Guidelines

Background: The field of biomarkers is continuously expanding for all disease states, including kidney disease. Over the last two decades, a number of novel and traditional biomarkers have been discovered and tested in the setting of kidney disease with a wide a range disease spectrum. There are also an increasing number of cohort studies and randomized clinical trials examining kidney-related outcomes providing a rich environment for biomarker testing. In order to select and publish the most impactful papers on this subject, it is necessary to set some criteria that standardize the quality of manuscripts submitted to Kidney International and Kidney International Reports.

The biomarker manuscript could include one or more of the following features:

  • diagnostic,
  • prognostic, or
  • mechanistic (relevant to disease pathogenesis).

The biomarker(s) under study could be in one of the following phases:
  • Early phases include both discovery and proof-of-concept studies (phase 1) demonstrating differences in biomarker levels between patients with and without the outcome of interest (i.e., CKD, AKI, and CVD) and prospective studies (phase 2) to determine the association between levels, disease behavior, and future outcomes.
  • Later phases consider aspects of clinical incorporation, including determining the incremental predictive value of a candidate marker beyond established risk predictors (phase 3) and if biomarker use changes therapy for at-risk patients, improves outcomes, and is cost-effective (phases 4 to 6).

Proposed evaluation criteria for biomarker studies submitted to KI for publication:
  • Early-phase (discovery or POC) studies should include
    • a novel biomarker with a well-defined case control or cohort design and a validation cohort that is linked to the exposure or endpoint being measured, or
    • a novel discovery biomarker with potential mechanistic relevance.
  • Later-phase (clinical) studies should
    • outperform traditional risk factors in diagnosing the disease, or
    • add prognostic information over and above the combined information obtained from all other known predictors at both the group- and individual-patient level, or
    • prove that the biomarker(s) are cost-effective, and
    • preferably include a validation cohort.

Data Sharing Statement—Large biological datasets

Kidney International endorses the FAIR (findable, accessible, interoperable and re-usable) Data Principles as a framework to promote the broadest reuse of research data. We strongly encourage the authors to deposit large datasets based on DNA (e.g., GWAS, next-generation sequencing), RNA (e.g., micro-arrays, RNASeq), metabolomics, proteomics, etc., in an appropriate public repository. For instance, microarray data should be deposited in an MIAME-compliant database. The deposited datasets should include the primary data and appropriate summary statistics. Relevant accession numbers and links to these datasets should appear in the Methods section of the accepted manuscript. Restrictions of data access may exist for ethical and security considerations, data protection issues, or data obtained from a third party.
A “Data availability statement” should appear at the end of the manuscript.

Sample statement(s):
The data supporting the findings of this study are openly available in repository (XXXName) at URL/DOI, reference number (if any).
The data were derived from the following resources available in the public domain: [list resources and URLs].


The American Medical Association Manual of Style (10th edition), Stedman's Medical Dictionary (27th edition) and Merriam Webster's Collegiate Dictionary (10th edition) should be used as standard references. Refer to drugs and therapeutic agents by their accepted generic or chemical name, and do not abbreviate them (a proprietary name may be given only with the first use of the generic name). Code numbers should be used only when a generic name is not yet available (the chemical name and a figure giving the chemical structure of the drug are required). Copyright or trade names of drugs should be capitalized and placed in parentheses after the name of the drug. Names and locations (city and state in USA; city and country outside USA) of manufacturers of drugs, supplies, or equipment cited in a manuscript are required to comply with trademark law and should be provided in parentheses. Quantitative data may be reported in the units used in the original measurement, but SI units are preferred, including those applicable to body weight, mass (weight), and temperature.

Journal style

As the electronic submission will provide the basic material for typesetting, it is important that papers are prepared in the general editorial style of the journal.

  1. For information on labeling figures, see the artwork guidelines:
  2. Do not make rules thinner than 1 pt (0.36 mm).
  3. Use a coarse hatching pattern rather than shading for tints in graphs.
  4. Color should be distinct when used as an identifying tool.
  5. Use SI units throughout.
  6. Spaces, not commas, should be used to separate thousands.
  7. Abbreviations should be preceded by the words for which they stand in the first instance of use in the text. Overuse of abbreviations in the text is discouraged.
  8. No abbreviations should be used in the title or the abstract.
  9. The abstract should be written as a single paragraph; do not include headings.
  10. Text should be double spaced with a wide margin.
  11. At the first mention of a manufacturer, the town (state if USA) and country should be provided.

Follow internationally accepted rules and conventions: use the international system of units (SI). If other units are mentioned, please give their equivalent in SI.


Electronic artwork
General points

  • Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
  • Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.
  • Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, or Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.
  • Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
  • Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
  • Provide captions to illustrations separately.
  • Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the published version.
  • Submit each illustration as a separate file.

Please be mindful that histological images look darker in print than online so please ensure they are submitted in as bright a format as possible.

All microscopy figures must contain scale bars, which must be defined in the legends.

It is strongly encouraged that data be displayed in their raw form and not in a way that conceals their distribution. We recommend that individual data be presented as dot plots next to the average for the group with appropriate error bars, as shown in this sample from PLOS Biology. Presenting data as columns with error bars (dynamite plunger plots) is NOT ALLOWED.

For Western blots and other gels, uncropped, annotated, full-length images with MW markers should be submitted as “Review Files” together with the figures at the time of the first submission. These full-length images will be used by the reviewers during the reviewing process but will not be published. Kidney International reserves the right to assess digital figures with image forensics software.

A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available on our website: You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here. Our policy is that no specific feature within an image may be enhanced, obscured, moved, removed, or introduced. Adjustments of brightness, contrast, or color balance are acceptable if and as long as they do not obscure or eliminate any information present in the original. Manipulating images for improved clarity is accepted, but manipulation for other purposes could be seen as scientific ethical abuse and will be dealt with accordingly.

If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply ‘as is’ in the native document format.
Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please ‘Save as’ or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):

  • EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
  • TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
  • TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black and white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1,000 dpi.
  • TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/halftone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.
Please do not:
  • supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
  • supply files that are too low in resolution; and
  • submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

Color artwork
Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF) or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color online (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) in addition to color reproduction in print. Further information on the preparation of electronic artwork.

Illustration services
Elsevier's Author Services offers Illustration Services to authors preparing to submit a manuscript but concerned about the quality of the images accompanying their article. Elsevier's expert illustrators can produce scientific, technical and medical-style images, as well as a full range of charts, tables and graphs. Image 'polishing' is also available, where our illustrators take your image(s) and improve them to a professional standard. Please visit the website to find out more.

Figure captions
Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used. Use scale markers in the image for electron micrographs and indicate the type of stain used.

Text graphics
Text graphics may be embedded in the text at the appropriate position. See further under Electronic artwork.


Please submit tables as editable text and not as images. Tables can be placed either next to the relevant text in the article, or on separate page(s) at the end. Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text and place any table notes below the table body. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in them do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article. Please avoid using vertical rules. Place explanatory matter of tables in the footnotes rather than in the titles.


Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the file in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 150 MB per file, 1 GB in total. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect. Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages. Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.

Supplementary material

Supplementary material such as applications, images and sound clips, can be published with your article to enhance it. Submitted supplementary items are published exactly as they are received (Excel or PowerPoint files will appear as such online). Please submit your material together with the article and supply a concise, descriptive caption for each supplementary file. If you wish to make changes to supplementary material during any stage of the process, please make sure to provide an updated file. Do not annotate any corrections on a previous version. Please switch off the 'Track Changes' option in Microsoft Office files as these will appear in the published version.

Data linking
If you have made your research data available in a data repository, you can link your article directly to the dataset. Elsevier collaborates with a number of repositories to link articles on ScienceDirect with relevant repositories, giving readers access to underlying data that gives them a better understanding of the research described.

There are different ways to link your datasets to your article. When available, you can directly link your dataset to your article by providing the relevant information in the submission system. For more information, visit the database linking page.

For supported data repositories a repository banner will automatically appear next to your published article on ScienceDirect.

In addition, you can link to relevant data or entities through identifiers within the text of your manuscript, using the following format: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN).

Supplementary information is peer-reviewed material directly relevant to the conclusion of an article that cannot be included in the printed version owing to space or format constraints. It is posted on the journal's web site and linked to the article when the article is published and may consist of data files, graphics, movies, or extensive tables. The printed article must be complete and self-explanatory without the supplementary information. Supplementary information enhances a reader's understanding of the paper but is not essential to that understanding. Supplementary information must be supplied to the editorial office in its final form for peer review. On acceptance, the final version of the peer-reviewed supplementary information should be submitted with the accepted paper. To ensure that the contents of the supplementary information files can be viewed by the editor(s), referees, and readers, please also submit a ‘read-me’ file containing brief instructions on how to use the file.

If your manuscript or any significant part of it has been under consideration for publication elsewhere, or has appeared elsewhere in a manner that could be construed as a prior or duplication publication of the same, or very similar, work, the said material must be included and marked appropriately as a supplemental file.

Authors should ensure that supplementary information is supplied in its FINAL format as it is not copyedited and will appear online exactly as originally submitted. It cannot be altered, nor can new supplementary information be added, after the paper has been accepted for publication. Please supply the supplementary information via the electronic manuscript submission and tracking system, in an acceptable file format.

Provide an individual file of each supplementary item; the label “Supplementary” should be included in each file name. Supplementary figures file should contain a legend in addition to the figure. Supplementary Tables should include a table title in addition to the table. Please use the S prefix (e.g., Figure S1, Table S1) to differentiate the material from that of the regular article. All supplementary references should start with the “S” prefix to be differentiated from regular references. Copy and paste the supplementary figure legend, supplementary table title, and description of other supplementary material (e.g., Supplementary Data Set, Supplementary Methods, Supplementary References, etc.) into the manuscript file under the “Supplementary Material” heading and before the references. Authors should include the text ‘Supplementary information is available at Kidney International's website’ at the end of the section.

Accepted file formats
Quick Time files (.mov), graphical image files (.gif), HTML files (.html), MPEG movie files (.mpg), JPEG image files (.jpg), sound files (.wav), plain ASCII text (.txt), MS Word documents (.doc), Postscript files (.ps), MS Excel spreadsheet documents (.xls), and PowerPoint files (.ppt). We cannot accept TeX and LaTeX.

File sizes must be as small as possible so that they can be downloaded quickly. Images should not exceed 640 × 480 pixels but we would recommend 480 × 360 pixels as the maximum frame size for movies. We would also recommend a frame rate of 15 frames per second. If applicable to the presentation of the supplementary information, use a 256-color palette. Please consider the use of lower specification for all of these points if the supplementary information can still be represented clearly. Our recommended maximum data rate is 150 KB/s.

The number of files should be limited to eight, and the total file size should not exceed 8 MB. Individual files should not exceed 1 MB. Please seek advice from the editorial office before sending files larger than our maximum size to avoid delays in publication.

Further questions about the submission or preparation of supplementary information should be directed to the editorial office.


Submission of papers

If you are ready to submit an article please visit the Online Submission page:
All text should be submitted in Microsoft Word (.doc) and figures as .tif or .jpg files.
Figures appearing in the online version of manuscripts will be published in 72 dpi as is standard for all .pdf files on the internet. All figures published in print are at least 300 dpi.

Please add your Twitter Handle (“@+twitter user name”) and ORCID (Open Researcher and Contributor ID) to your user account in manuscript central. If you don’t have an ORCID, you can sign up for free at

Submission checklist

You can use this list to carry out a final check of your submission before you send it to the journal for review. Please check the relevant section in this Guide for Authors for more details.

Ensure that the following items are present:

One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
• E-mail address
• Full postal address

All necessary files have been uploaded:
• Include keywords
• All figures (include relevant captions)
• All tables (including titles, description, footnotes)
• Ensure all figure and table citations in the text match the files provided
• Indicate clearly if color should be used for any figures in print
Graphical Abstracts / Highlights files (where applicable)
Supplemental files (where applicable)

Further considerations
• Manuscript has been 'spell checked' and 'grammar checked'
• All references mentioned in the Reference List are cited in the text, and vice versa
• Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Internet)
• A competing interests statement is provided, even if the authors have no competing interests to declare
• Journal policies detailed in this guide have been reviewed
• Referee suggestions and contact details provided, based on journal requirements

For further information, visit our Support Center.

Format for Revised Manuscripts

We ask that two versions of a revised manuscript be uploaded, one with “tracked” changes and one “clean” version with all changes accepted and track changes turned off.

Article transfer service
This journal is part of our Article Transfer Service. This means that if the Editor feels your article is more suitable in one of our other participating journals, then you may be asked to consider transferring the article to one of those. If you agree, your article will be transferred automatically on your behalf with no need to reformat. Please note that your article will be reviewed again by the new journal. More information.


Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (see more information on this). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.

Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations. If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases.

Author rights
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. More information.

Elsevier supports responsible sharing
Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.

Role of the funding source

You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.

Formatting of funding sources
List funding sources in this standard way to facilitate compliance to funder's requirements:

Funding: This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health [grant numbers xxxx, yyyy]; the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, WA [grant number zzzz]; and the United States Institutes of Peace [grant number aaaa].

It is not necessary to include detailed descriptions on the program or type of grants and awards. When funding is from a block grant or other resources available to a university, college, or other research institution, submit the name of the institute or organization that provided the funding.

If no funding has been provided for the research, please include the following sentence:

This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

For authors requiring a commercial CC BY license, you can apply after your manuscript is accepted for publication.

The open access fee for this journal is $2,600 for ISN members and $3,200 for non-ISN members, excluding taxes.

This journal has an embargo period of 12 months.

Article-in-press publication

This journal makes articles available online as soon as possible after acceptance. This concerns the accepted article (both in HTML and PDF format), which has not yet been copyedited, typeset, or proofread. A Digital Object Identifier (DOI) is allocated, thereby making it fully citable and searchable by title, author name(s), and the full text. The article's PDF also carries a disclaimer stating that it is an unedited article. Subsequent production stages will simply replace this version.

Manuscript deposition service

Elsevier's automated manuscript deposition service enables authors to meet the open access or public access policies of all of the participating funders, making it simple and free for researchers to comply.

Online proof correction

To ensure a fast publication process of the article, we kindly ask authors to provide us with their proof corrections within two days. Corresponding authors will receive an e-mail with a link to our online proofing system, allowing annotation and correction of proofs online. The environment is similar to MS Word: in addition to editing text, you can also comment on figures/tables and answer questions from the Copy Editor. Web-based proofing provides a faster and less error-prone process by allowing you to directly type your corrections, eliminating the potential introduction of errors.
If preferred, you can still choose to annotate and upload your edits on the PDF version. All instructions for proofing will be given in the e-mail we send to authors, including alternative methods to the online version and PDF.
We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication. Please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.


Authors will see the CrossMark logo with their articles upon publication in an issue. CrossMark is a multipublisher initiative to provide a standard way for readers to locate the current version of a piece of content. By applying the CrossMark logo Elsevier Inc. is committing to maintaining the content it publishes and to alerting readers to changes if and when they occur. Clicking on the CrossMark logo will tell you the current status of a document and may also give you additional publication record information about the document.


The corresponding author will, at no cost, receive a customized Share Link providing 50 days free access to the final published version of the article on ScienceDirect. The Share Link can be used for sharing the article via any communication channel, including email and social media. For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's Author Services. Corresponding authors who have published their article gold open access do not receive a Share Link as their final published version of the article is available open access on ScienceDirect and can be shared through the article DOI link.

Visit the Elsevier Support Center to find the answers you need. Here you will find everything from Frequently Asked Questions to ways to get in touch.
You can also find out when your accepted article will be published.