Guide for Authors

The Journal of Veterinary Cardiology (JVC) publishes peer-reviewed articles of the highest quality involving research and clinical practice that promote greater understanding of cardiovascular diseases, and enhance the health and well-being of animals. The JVC presents original contributions that cover the spectrum of cardiology including prospective and retrospective studies, clinical trials, epidemiology, observational studies, interventional imaging, cardiovascular techniques, and advances in applied research in animals. In addition to scientific investigations we will publish manuscripts that will advance veterinary cardiology through exceptional illustrations of clinical and research endeavors that provide teaching of clinical material, descriptions of cardiovascular techniques/analysis, and application of fundamental knowledge to clinical understanding. Manuscripts that involve animal modeling of human disease or animal modeling with no clear impact on clinical veterinary cardiology are discouraged and unlikely to be accepted for publication. Manuscripts that report findings in non-domestic species are generally regarded as low-interest for this journal and are unlikely to be accepted for publication.

A unique aspect of the JVC is the integration of multimedia and graphic files that add considerable value to manuscripts. The JVC accepts video and sound files which permits the detailing of clinical procedures, diagnostics, and techniques. (See details under Supplementary Material).


Ethical Policy
Submission of a manuscript implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract that does not exceed 250 words, or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis), is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, has approval from all authors and by responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the Publisher.

Ethical Use of Animals
Submitted manuscripts involving the use of animals must contain a statement that the work was approved by an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee, including protocol number, or an equivalent committee or institution. Where national or institutional guidelines do not exist, the international guidelines followed for humane animal care must be indicated, (e.g., National Institutes of Health (NIH) or Euroguide). For prospective studies using client-owned animals, highest standard (best practice) of veterinary care must have been conducted and informed client consent must be indicated.

Conflicts of interest
A "Conflict of Interest" statement must be included at the end of the main body of the manuscript. Each author must disclose if they have any financial or personal relationships with people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) the submitted work. To assist authors with an understanding of the types of conflict of interests they are encouraged to review the Conflict of Interest statement prepared by the American Heart Association (AHA) or the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). Editors of the JVC have a completed conflict of interest statement on file.

Guidelines from the ICMJE regarding authorship ( are followed. For an individual to be included as an author of a manuscript, the individual should have made substantial contributions to the ideas, study conception or design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data. In addition, the individual must have been involved in drafting and revising the manuscript and must have approved the final version. The corresponding author accepts responsibility for all authors with regards to the ethics policy, ethical treatment of animals, and conflict of interest. Please download the Authorship Agreement form here

Peer Review
This journal operates a single blind review process. All contributions will be initially assessed by the editor for suitability for the journal. Papers deemed suitable are then sent to a minimum of two independent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor's decision is final. More information on types of peer review.


Manuscripts submitted to the JVC must conform to the style and format of the JVC. Manuscripts which have format problems or contain extensive faulty English syntax or composition issues will be returned to the authors prior to consideration for publication. For guidance on language editing, including available Elsevier language editing services, please visit The JVC will not publish poor quality images or illustrations. When such images or illustrations are central or critical to a manuscript, this could result in rejection of the manuscript.

The JVC publishes several types of manuscripts including Original Research and Clinical Studies, Cardiovascular Methods, Cardiovascular Images, Case Reports, Review Articles and Letters to the Editor. Authors are advised to consult the most recently published issue for examples of formatting specific manuscript types. Authors who are conducting clinical trials, observational studies, and association studies are encouraged to review the guidelines for such investigations

Original Research and Clinical Studies Original research and clinical studies must include at least six animals and can include studies that establish normal breed or species-specific echocardiographic, electrocardiographic, radiographic, and biochemical data for animals. Original Research and Clinical Studies manuscripts must include the following sections identified by headings: Abstract; Introduction/Objectives; Animals, Materials and Methods; Results; Discussion; and Conclusions. Manuscripts must not exceed 5000 words (excluding references, table, or figure legends). Typical manuscripts will not exceed 50 references and 6 figures.

Abstract: Structured abstract that includes the headings Introduction/Objectives; Animals, Materials and Methods; Results; and Conclusions. The abstract must not exceed 250 words.
Introduction/Objectives: The introduction should provide a brief and concise description of the background and reason for the study citing relevant literature overview, and a clear statement of hypothesis, and study objectives. The introduction should not be an exhaustive review of the literature.
Animals, Materials and Methods: This section provides a description of the study population including exclusion and inclusion criteria (demographic data should not be reported here but in the Results section), procedural, experimental, and statistical methods in sufficient detail to allow other investigators to reproduce the study. Methods that are already published should be summarized, and indicated by a reference. If quoting directly from a previously published method, use quotation marks and also cite the source. Any modifications to existing methods should also be described.
Results: State concisely the results of the study. Present data in the body of the text or within graphs, tables, or figures, but not both. If the authors have large tables or multiple tables or figures that they wish to include but are not critical for the printed version, they are encouraged to include these as supplemental data for on-line viewing.
Discussion: Provide a concise discussion of the investigation beginning with the results of the study. Emphasize new and important implications of the findings, how these observations relate to other relevant studies, and relevance to the literature. Limitations of the study must be mentioned. Excessively long discussions are strongly discouraged.
Conclusions: Briefly summarize the major conclusions of the investigation.

Cardiovascular Methods
This type of manuscript is to provide an avenue for those with extensive experience in performing or analyzing cardiovascular procedures. Such manuscripts should be the constellation of experience and not a single case report. Manuscripts should include images or videos of the procedures and/or the generated data. Manuscripts must not exceed 2500 words (excluding figures, tables, and references) and must include an unstructured abstract less than 250 words. Typical manuscripts will not exceed 25 references and 4 figures. If the authors have large tables or multiple tables or figures that they wish to include but are not critical for the printed version, they are encouraged to include these as supplemental data for on-line viewing.

Cardiovascular Images
Manuscripts for this section will be considered for publication if the images provide insight into clinical medicine. Only high quality still or video images will be considered. Images may be of electrocardiograms (ECG), echocardiograms electrophysiological studies, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), radiographs, pathology, or others. Submissions to this section should begin with an untitled brief description of the case followed by the headings Image Interpretation and Discussion. The discussion should focus on the assessment of the image and its meaning. Manuscripts must not exceed 1500 words (excluding figures, tables, and references) and must include an unstructured abstract less than 250 words. Typical manuscripts will not exceed 10 references and 6 figures. If the authors have figures that they wish to include but are not critical for the printed version, they are encouraged to include these as supplemental data for on-line viewing.

Case Reports/Case Series
Case reports will be considered for publication if they contain information not previously reported, if they have sufficient merit to lead to future studies, expand the understanding of disease, or provide insights to more effective therapies. Case series comprising 5 or fewer animals should also be reported as a case report. The manuscript should be formatted where the manuscript begins with an untitled description of the case(s) followed by a section titled Discussion that contains a concise review of the pertinent literature and clinical impact of the case. Please report institutional or laboratory reference ranges for data when first presented. Manuscripts must not exceed 2500 words (excluding figures, tables, and references) and must include an unstructured abstract less than 250 words. Typical manuscripts will not exceed 25 references and 4 figures. If the authors have figures or tables that they wish to include but are not critical for the printed version, they are encouraged to include these as supplemental data for on-line viewing.


All types of manuscripts must be double-spaced with margins of 2.5 cm (1 in.) using Arial font at 12 font size. The text should be in single-column format. Do not embed "graphically designed" equations, but prepare these using Microsoft Word. Pages are to be numbered consecutively in the lower center, beginning with the title page. Use consecutive line numbers starting from the beginning of the title page. Format manuscripts and tables in Microsoft Word. Save your files using the default extension of the program used. Non-data values less than 11 should be reported in letters, for example: 'three measurements', 'five Doberman'. Data values should be reported in numbers.. The 'p' for p-values should be written in lower case, e.g.: p=0.001. The exact p-value for a results should be reported, 3 decimal should be provided.

Title Page
The first page should include the title of the manuscript (do not include abbreviations), the first and last names of the authors, their highest degrees, institutions or affiliations, and a short title for use as running head. Diplomat status should not be included. Following the list of authors, present the addresses of the authors' affiliations at the time the actual work was done. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address if authors are from different departments or institutions. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name. Corresponding author: specify the name and email address of the person who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Please state when and where data was presented, if applicable, at the bottom of the page; do not use a footnote.

Acknowledgements: Specify all sources of research support and list all individuals who made meaningful contributions to the manuscript that are not authors.

Abstract, Key Words, Abbreviation Table
Include the abstract and key words on a separate sheet that follows the Title Page. For the abstract see specific instructions under the appropriate manuscript category.

Key words
Provide 3 to 5 key words (no abbreviations) that are not in the manuscript title, which will assist identifying your article in literature searches.

Abbreviations and Abbreviation Table
Abbreviations should not be used in the manuscript title and headings. Sentences within the manuscript cannot start with an abbreviation; the written term should be used. Abbreviations that are used in figures or tables should be provided with their definition in the according legend. The abbreviation and definition should be separated by a colon, multiple abbreviations by a semicolon (e.g. AF: atrial fibrillation; CHF: congestive heart failure). Abbreviations in the legends should be listed alphabetically.

Authors are encouraged to limit abbreviations to a number necessary to facilitate ease of reading. An abbreviation should only be used if it appears three or more times in the manuscript, not including where the abbreviation is initially defined; for example, "congestive heart failure (CHF)" would be the first of a total of four uses of CHF. If more than three abbreviations are used, the authors must include an abbreviations table. The authors must use standard abbreviations for echocardiographic parameters ( ), established by the JVC. The abbreviation table should include the abbreviations in alphabetical order in the left hand column (left justified) and the definition for the abbreviations in the right hand column (left justified); definitions should begin with lowercase letters unless it is a proper noun.

Footnotes should be used sparingly. Cite footnotes by superscript, lowercase letters in the order in which they appear in the text. Indicate the position of footnotes in the text and present the footnotes themselves on a separate sheet after the end of the main body of the manuscript, listing footnotes alphabetically. Use continuous footnotes for author affiliations and products and equipment, starting with author affiliations, and continue the listing for products and equipment. If there are authors with different affiliations, present the different affiliations with a footnote immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name. Do not use a footnote for the affiliation address if all authors have the same affiliation. For products and equipment, provide complete information in the footnote, including manufacturer's name and location (i.e., city, state, and country). Footnotes are not necessary for drugs that are available in generic form. Abstracts and personal communications should also be cited as footnotes.

Indicate references by numbers in square brackets in line with the text in the order in which they appear in the manuscript. In line reference- example"...measured according to the Smith method [4]." This referencing format is Vancouver Numbered. For in-line referencing the bracketed reference number needs to be placed within the sentence, immediately following the word of your choice, with a single space between that word and the opening bracket, and before (not after) a comma or period if either is present after the referenced phrase or sentence, respectively. References must be verified by the author(s) against the original documents. Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Unpublished observations, personal communications, abstracts, and submitted papers not yet accepted should be included as footnotes. Please follow the formatting guidelines below carefully.

Journal article- example [1] Santilli RA, Spadacini G, Moretti P, Perego M, Perini A, Tarducci A, Crosara S, Salerno-Uriarte JA. Radiofrequency catheter ablation of concealed accessory pathways in two dogs with symptomatic atrioventricular reciprocating tachycardia. J Vet Cardiol 2006;8:157-65.

Chapter in a Book- example [1] Sisson D. Medical management of refractory congestive heart failure in dogs. In: Bonagura JD, editor. Kirk's Current Veterinary Therapy XIII. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 2000, p. 752-6.

Data references This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. This identifier will not appear in your published article.

Reference Style
[dataset] [5] Oguro M, Imahiro S, Saito S, Nakashizuka T. Mortality data for Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions, Mendeley Data, v1; 2015.

Data in tables should be complementary to the text; redundancy between data presented in the text and tables should be avoided. Tables must be prepared using Microsoft Word (not Excel) and numbered consecutively according to their appearance in the manuscript. Each table should be uploaded as a separate one-page document with the same name as it appears in the manuscript (e.g., Table 1, Table 2, etc.). Use Arial font (at least 10 point) with data centered under each column heading. Abbreviations that are used in tables should be provided with their definition in the according legend. The abbreviation and definition should be separated by a colon, multiple abbreviations by a semicolon (e.g. AF: atrial fibrillation; CHF: congestive heart failure). Abbreviations in the legends should be listed alphabetically.

Figures must be of high quality in order to meet publication standards. Each figure should be uploaded as a separate file with the same name as it appears in the manuscript (e.g., Figure 1, Figure 2, etc.). Number figures consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text. Acceptable figure formats include:

  • EPS: Vector drawings. Embed the font or save the text as "graphics".
  • TIFF: Color or grey scale photographs (halftones): always use a minimum of 300 dpi.
  • TIFF: Bitmapped line drawings: use a minimum of 1000 dpi.
  • TIFF: Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grey scale): use a minimum of 500 dpi.
  • Save text and graphics in separate layers.
  • Use Arial font (at least 10 point) when text is included.

Supply Figure captions on a separate page at the end of the manuscript. A caption should comprise a brief title followed by a description of the figure. All symbols must be defined in the figure legend. Abbreviations that are used in figures should be provided with their definition in the according legend. The abbreviation and definition should be separated by a colon, multiple abbreviations by a semicolon (e.g. AF: atrial fibrillation; CHF: congestive heart failure). Abbreviations in the legends should be listed alphabetically. Information concerning the preparation of figures can be found at

Supplementary Material
Elsevier accepts electronic supplementary material to support and enhance your scientific research. Supplementary files offer the author additional possibilities to publish background datasets, high-resolution images, videos, animation sequences, sound clips, and more. Supplementary files supplied will be published online alongside the electronic version of your article in Elsevier web products, including ScienceDirect:

This journal encourages and enables you to share data that supports your research publication where appropriate, and enables you to interlink the data with your published articles. Research data refers to the results of observations or experimentation that validate research findings. To facilitate reproducibility and data reuse, this journal also encourages you to share your software, code, models, algorithms, protocols, methods and other useful materials related to the project.

Below are a number of ways in which you can associate data with your article or make a statement about the availability of your data when submitting your manuscript. If you are sharing data in one of these ways, you are encouraged to cite the data in your manuscript and reference list. Please refer to the "References" section for more information about data citation. For more information on depositing, sharing and using research data and other relevant research materials, visit the research data page.

Data linking
If you have made your research data available in a data repository, you can link your article directly to the dataset. Elsevier collaborates with a number of repositories to link articles on ScienceDirect with relevant repositories, giving readers access to underlying data that give them a better understanding of the research described.

There are different ways to link your datasets to your article.

When available, you can directly link your dataset to your article by providing the relevant information in the submission system. For more information, visit the database linking page .For supported data repositories a repository banner will automatically appear next to your published article on ScienceDirect.In addition, you can link to relevant data or entities through identifiers within the text of your manuscript, using the following format: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN).

Mendeley Data
This journal supports Mendeley Data, enabling you to deposit any research data (including raw and processed data, video, code, software, algorithms, protocols, and methods) associated with your manuscript in a free-to-use, open access repository. During the submission process, after uploading your manuscript, you will have the opportunity to upload your relevant datasets directly to Mendeley Data. The datasets will be listed and directly accessible to readers next to your published article online.

For more information, visit the Mendeley Data for journals page.

Data statement
To foster transparency, we encourage you to state the availability of your data in your submission. This may be a requirement of your funding body or institution. If your data is unavailable to access or unsuitable to post, you will have the opportunity to indicate why during the submission process, for example by stating that the research data is confidential. The statement will appear with your published article on ScienceDirect. For more information, visit the Data statement page.

Supplementary Tables and Figures
Background data or data the authors wish to present that is not critical to be in printed form can be presented as Supplemental tables which are identified within the text by use of upper case letters (e.g. A, B, C) in the order that they appear in the body of the text. In the text of the manuscript, and placed in parentheses, a statement identifying the table as being available in the on-line version should be made (e.g. data available in Supplemental Material on-line). The Editorial Board may request some tables be moved to supplementary material.

Supplemental figures should follow the same format guidelines as indicated for figures and be identified with Roman numerals (e.g. I, II, III) in the order that they appear in the body of the text. In the text of the manuscript, and placed in parentheses, a statement identifying the figure as being available in the on-line version should be made (e.g. figures available in Supplemental Material on-line).

Videos and Sound Files

  • Videos should be of high quality and submitted in .mov or .avi format.
    Sound files should be submitted in .wav or mp3 format.
  • A Table for the videos and/or sounds must be included and this will appear in the published manuscript.The table must include the video or sound number in the first column, a brief title in the second column, and a brief description in the third column.
  • Number the videos or sounds consecutively as they appear in the text.


Manuscripts submitted to the JVC are processed via our online editorial system , which will guide the authors on the process for uploading the manuscript and figure files. For queries concerning the submission process or procedures, please visit the Elsevier Support Center. Authors can check the status of their manuscript within the review procedure using the editorial system. Upon acceptance of the article by the journal, the author(s) will be asked to transfer the copyright of the article to the publisher. This transfer will ensure the widest possible dissemination of information. Special arrangements can be made with the publisher on a case by case basis concerning original artwork.

This journal offers authors a choice in publishing their research:

• Articles are made available to subscribers as well as developing countries and patient groups through our universal access programs.
• No open access publication fee payable by authors.
• The Author is entitled to post the accepted manuscript in their institution's repository and make this public after an embargo period (known as green Open Access). The published journal article cannot be shared publicly, for example on ResearchGate or, to ensure the sustainability of peer-reviewed research in journal publications. The embargo period for this journal can be found below.
Gold open access
• Articles are freely available to both subscribers and the wider public with permitted reuse.
• A gold open access publication fee is payable by authors or on their behalf, e.g. by their research funder or institution.

Regardless of how you choose to publish your article, the journal will apply the same peer review criteria and acceptance standards.

For gold open access articles, permitted third party (re)use is defined by the following Creative Commons user licenses:
Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND)
For non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.

Elsevier has established agreements with funding bodies ( This ensures authors can comply with funding body Open Access requirements, including specific user licenses such as CC BY. Some authors may also be reimbursed for associated publication fees. If you need to comply with your funding body policy, you can apply for the CC BY license after your manuscript is accepted for publication.

The gold open access publication fee for this journal is USD 3000, excluding taxes. The discounted gold open access fee for members of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology (ESVC), American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine (ACVIM) and European College of Veterinary Internal Medicine (ECVIM) is USD 2400, excluding taxes. Learn more about Elsevier's pricing policy:

Authors can share their research in a variety of different ways and Elsevier has a number of green open access options available. We recommend authors see our open access page for further information. Authors can also self-archive their manuscripts immediately and enable public access from their institution's repository after an embargo period. This is the version that has been accepted for publication and which typically includes author-incorporated changes suggested during submission, peer review and in editor-author communications. Embargo period: For subscription articles, an appropriate amount of time is needed for journals to deliver value to subscribing customers before an article becomes freely available to the public. This is the embargo period, which is 12 months, and it begins from the date the article is formally published online in its final and fully citable form. Find out more

Under traditional Subscription Access, articles are made available to subscribers as well as developing countries and patient groups through our access programs ( and there is no Open Access publication fee.


Use of the Digital Object Identifier
The Digital Object Identifier (DOI) may be used to cite and link to electronic documents. The DOI consists of a unique alpha-numeric character string which is assigned to a document by the publisher upon the initial electronic publication. The assigned DOI never changes. Therefore, it is an ideal medium for citing a document, particularly 'Articles in press' because they have not yet received their full bibliographic information. Example of a correctly given DOI (in URL format; here an article in the journal Physics Letters B): When you use a DOI to create links to documents on the web, the DOIs are guaranteed never to change.

Elsevier supports responsible sharing

Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.

Proof Correction
Corresponding authors and the Editor in Chief will receive an e-mail with a link to the PDF version of your manuscript, allowing you an opportunity to annotate any amendments. All instructions for proofing will be given in the e-mail we send to authors. We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication. Please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.

The corresponding author, at no cost, will be provided with a personalized link providing 50 days free access to the final published version of the article on ScienceDirect. This link can also be used for sharing via email and social networks. In addition, the corresponding authorwill be provided with a PDF file of the article via e-mail or, alternatively, 25 free paper offprints. The PDF file is a watermarked version of the published article and includes a cover sheet with the journal cover image and a disclaimer outlining the terms and conditions of use. For an extra charge, more paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's WebShop Authors requiring printed copies of multiple articles may use Elsevier WebShop's 'Create Your Own Book' service to collate multiple articles within a single cover

Additional information
Authors can also keep track of the progress of their accepted article, and set up e-mail alerts informing them of changes to their manuscript's status, by using the "Track your accepted article" option on the journal's homepage For privacy, information on each article is password-protected. The author should key in the "Our Reference" code (which is in the letter of acknowledgement sent by the Publisher on receipt of the accepted article) and the name of the corresponding author.


You can track your submitted article at You can track your accepted article at You are also welcome to contact Customer Support via