Journal of the Formosan Medical Association (JFMA), published continuously since 1902, is an open access international general medical journal of the Formosan Medical Association based in Taipei, Taiwan. It is indexed in Current Contents/ Clinical Medicine, Medline, ciSearch, CAB Abstracts, Embase, SIIC Data Bases, Research Alert, BIOSIS, Biological Abstracts, Scopus and ScienceDirect.
As a general medical journal, research related to clinical practice and research in all fields of medicine and related disciplines are considered for publication. Article types considered include perspectives, reviews, original papers, case reports, brief communications, correspondence and letters to the editor.The Editorial Board requires authors to be in compliance with the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals (URMs), which are compiled by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE); current URMs are available at http://www.icmje.org.
Types of article
The categories of articles that are published in the Journal are listed and described below. Please select the category that best describes your paper. If your paper does not fall into any of these categories, please contact the Editorial Office.
These are comments on recent news or groundbreaking work and should provide a short review of the current state of research and explain the importance of the new findings. Perspectives on papers previously published in the JFMA should add a different viewpoint to the research and should not merely be a repetitive summary of the original paper. Although many of the Perspectives published in the Journal are normally invited, unsolicited Perspectives are welcome and will be given due consideration.
- Author: 3 or less
- Word limit: 800 words
- References: 8 or less
- Tables/Figures: 1 maximum
These should aim to provide the reader with a balanced overview of an important and topical issue in research or clinical practice. They should cover aspects of a topic in which scientific consensus exists as well as aspects that remain controversial and are the subject of ongoing scientific research. All articles and data sources reviewed should include information about the specific type of study or analysis, population, intervention, exposure, and tests or outcomes. All articles or data sources should be selected systematically for inclusion in the review and critically evaluated.
- Word limit: 3500 words
- Abstract : unstructured, up to 250 words
- References: 100 or less
- Tables/Figures: 6 maximum
The format for invited articles is jointly decided by JFMA Editors and the contributing author.
These articles typically include randomized trials, intervention studies, studies of screening and diagnostic tests, laboratory and animal studies, cohort studies, cost-effectiveness analyses, case-control studies, and surveys with high response rates, which represent new and significant contributions to the field.
The Introduction should provide a brief background to the subject of the paper, explain the importance of the study, and state a precise study question or purpose.The Methods section should describe the study design and methods (including the study setting and dates, patients/participants with inclusion and exclusion criteria, patient samples or animal specimens used, the essential features of any interventions, the main outcome measures, the laboratory methods followed, or data sources and how these were selected for the study), and state the statistical procedures employed in the research.
The Results section should comprise the study results presented in a logical sequence, supplemented by tables and/or figures. Take care that the text does not repeat data that are presented in tables and/or figures. Only emphasize and summarize the essential features of the main outcome measures, and the main results.The Discussion section should be used to emphasize the new and important aspects of the study, placing the results in context with published literature, the implications of the findings, and the conclusions that follow from the study results.
- Word limit: 3500 words
- Abstract : structured, up to 250 words
- References: 40 or less
- Tables/Figures: 6 maximum
These are short discussions of a case or case series with unique features not previously described that make an important teaching point or scientific observation. They may describe novel techniques or use of equipment, or new information on diseases of importance. Section headings should be: Abstract, Introduction, Case Report, Discussion, Acknowledgments (if any), and References.
The Introduction should describe the purpose of the present report, the significance of the disease and its specificity, and briefly review the relevant literature.The Case Report should include statements of the problem, patient history, diagnosis, treatment, outcome and any other information pertinent to the case(s).
The Discussion should compare, analyze and discuss the similarities and differences between the reported case and similar cases reported in other published articles. The importance or specificity of the case should be restated when discussing the differential diagnoses. Suggest the prognosis of the disease and possibility of prevention.Note that the rejection rate for case reports is much higher than for other article categories due to the current situation of a large number of case reports being submitted. JFMA Editors may request short case reports to be formatted as correspondence under most circumstances.
- Word limit: 2000 words
- Abstract : unstructured, up to 250 words
- References: 25 or less
- Tables/Figures: 3 maximum
These reports should be concise presentations of preliminary experimental results, instrumentation and analytical techniques, or aspects of clinical or experimental practice that are not fully investigated, verified or perfected but which may be of widespread interest or application. The Editors reserve the right to decide what constitutes a Brief Communication.
- Word limit: 1500 words
- Abstract: unstructured, up to 150 words
- References: 20 or less
- Tables/Figures: 2 maximum
- No subheadings
These include short case reports, technical or clinical notes and short comments on previously published articles. The Editors reserve the right to decide what constitutes a Correspondence.
- Author: 4 or less
- Word limit: 500 words
- References: 5 or less
- Tables/Figures: 1 maximum
Brief letters of constructive comments in response to previously published JFMA articles are welcome. Letters should have a title. Ensure that the corresponding author's mailing and e-mail addresses are included. Letters are edited, sometimes extensively, to sharpen their focus. They may be sent for peer review at the discretion of JFMA Editors. Letters are selected based on clarity, significance, and space.
- Author: 4 or less
- Word limit: 400 words
- References: 4 or less
- Tables/Figures: 1 maximum
Manuscripts (meaning all submission items, including all text, tables, artwork, cover letter, conflicts of interest disclosures, and any other required documents/material) must be submitted online to the JFMA through Elsevier's Editorial System EVISE. This system can be accessed at https://www.evise.com/profile/api/navigate/JFMA. This site will guide authors stepwise through the submission process. If assistance is required, please refer to the tutorials and/or customer support that are available on the EES website; you may also contact the Editorial Office. Please do not post, fax or e-mail your manuscripts to the Editorial Office.
Journal of the Formosan Medical Association
Formosan Medical Association
No.1, Chang-Te Street
Taipei 100, Taiwan
Tel: (+886) (0)2 2381-0367
Fax: (+886) (0)2 2389-6716
- Articles should be in Microsoft Word document format and prepared in the simplest form possible. We will add in the correct font, font size, margins and so on according to the journal's style.
- You may use automatic page numbering, but do NOT use other kinds of automatic formatting such as footnotes, headers and footers.
- The corresponding author is required to provide the email address of all co-authors. Notifications of the following status, "Send Back to Author", "Manuscript number notification" & "Decision letters", will automatically be communicated to all authors.
- Put text, references, table headings and tables, and figure legends in one file.
- Figures must be submitted as separate picture files, at the correct resolution and named according to the figure number, e.g., "Fig1.tif", "Fig2.jpg". Please see section Figures for more information.
For human or animal experimental investigations, appropriate institutional review board or ethics committee approval is required, and such approval, including the official approval code, should be stated in the methods section of the manuscript. For those investigators who do not have formal ethics review committees, the principles outlined in the Declaration of Helsinki should be followed (World Medical Association. Declaration of Helsinki: ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects. Available at: http://www.wma.net/en/30publications/10policies/b3/17c.pdf).
For investigations in humans, state explicitly in the methods section of the manuscript that informed consent was obtained from all participating adults and from parents or legal guardians for minors or incapacitated adults, together with the manner in which informed consent was obtained (ex. oral or written).For work involving animals, the guidelines for their care and use that were followed should be stated in the methods section of the manuscript. For those investigators who do not have formal institutional guidelines relating to animal experiments, the European Commission Directive 86/609/EEC for animal experiments (available at http://ec.europa.eu/environment/chemicals/lab_animals/legislation_en.htm) should be followed and the same should be stated in the methods section of the manuscript.
Studies in humans and animals
If the work involves the use of human subjects, the author should ensure that the work described has been carried out in accordance with The Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association (Declaration of Helsinki) for experiments involving humans. The manuscript should be in line with the Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals and aim for the inclusion of representative human populations (sex, age and ethnicity) as per those recommendations. The terms sex and gender should be used correctly.
All animal experiments should comply with the ARRIVE guidelines and should be carried out in accordance with the U.K. Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act, 1986 and associated guidelines, EU Directive 2010/63/EU for animal experiments, or the National Institutes of Health guide for the care and use of Laboratory animals (NIH Publications No. 8023, revised 1978) and the authors should clearly indicate in the manuscript that such guidelines have been followed. The sex of animals must be indicated, and where appropriate, the influence (or association) of sex on the results of the study.Declaration of interest
All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential competing interests include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. Authors must disclose any interests in two places: 1. A summary declaration of interest statement in the title page file (if double-blind) or the manuscript file (if single-blind). If there are no interests to declare then please state this: 'Declarations of interest: none'. This summary statement will be ultimately published if the article is accepted. 2. Detailed disclosures as part of a separate Declaration of Interest form, which forms part of the journal's official records. It is important for potential interests to be declared in both places and that the information matches. More information.
A conflict of interest occurs when an individual's objectivity is potentially compromised by a desire for financial gain, prominence, professional advancement or a successful outcome. JFMA Editors strive to ensure that what is published in the Journal is as balanced, objective and evidence-based as possible. Since it is difficult to distinguish between an actual conflict of interest and a perceived conflict of interest, the Journal requires authors to disclose all and any potential conflicts of interest.
Conflicts of interest may be financial or non-financial. Financial conflicts include financial relationships such as honoraria; educational grants; participation in speakers' bureaus; membership, employment, consultancies, stock ownership, or other equity interest; expert testimony or patent-licensing arrangements. Non-financial conflicts include personal or professional relationships, affiliations, academic competition, intellectual passion, knowledge or beliefs that might affect objectivity.Please ensure that the name of each author listed in your manuscript appears in either Section I or Section II of the JFMA Conflicts of Interest Statement form (an author’s name cannot appear in both Section I and Section II of the form).
Submission declaration and verification
Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract, a published lecture or academic thesis, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service Crossref Similarity Check.
Inclusive language acknowledges diversity, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and promotes equal opportunities. Articles should make no assumptions about the beliefs or commitments of any reader, should contain nothing which might imply that one individual is superior to another on the grounds of race, sex, culture or any other characteristic, and should use inclusive language throughout. Authors should ensure that writing is free from bias, for instance by using 'he or she', 'his/her' instead of 'he' or 'his', and by making use of job titles that are free of stereotyping (e.g. 'chairperson' instead of 'chairman' and 'flight attendant' instead of 'stewardess').
All authors should have made substantial contributions to all of the following: (1) the conception and design of the study, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data, (2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content, (3) final approval of the version to be submitted.
This policy concerns the addition, deletion, orrearrangement of author names in the authorship ofaccepted manuscripts. Before the accepted manuscript is published online, requests to add or remove an author,or to rearrange the author names, must be sent to theJournal Manager from the corresponding author of theaccepted manuscript and must include: (i) the reasonthe name should be added or removed, or the authornames rearranged; and (ii) an updated Authorship &Conflicts of Interest Statement with signatures from allauthors that they agree with the addition, removal orrearrangement. In the case of addition or removal ofauthor names, this must include confirmation from theauthor(s) being added or removed. Requests that are notsent by the corresponding author will be forwarded bythe Journal Manager to the corresponding author, whomust follow the procedures as described above.
Note that: (1) Journal Managers will inform theJournal Editors of any such requests and (2) onlinepublication of the accepted manuscript is suspendeduntil authorship has been agreed.After the accepted manuscript is published online,any requests to add, remove, or rearrange authornames in an article will follow the same policies asdetailed above and result in a corrigendum.
Reporting Clinical Trials
The JFMA has adopted the ICMJE proposal from the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) that require, as a condition of consideration for publication of clinical trials, registration in a public trials registry. Purely observational studies (those in which the assignment of the medical intervention is not at the discretion of the investigator) do not require registration. Further information can be found at http://www.icmje.org.
A signed statement of informed consent to publish (in print and online) patient descriptions, photographs and pedigrees should be obtained from all persons (parents or legal guardians for minors) who can be identified (including by the patients themselves) in such written descriptions, photographs or pedigrees. Such persons should be shown the manuscript before its submission. Omitting data or making data less specific to de-identify patients is acceptable, but changing any such data is not acceptable. State explicitly in the methods section of the manuscript that informed consent was obtained from all participating adult subjects or from parents or legal guardians for minors or incapacitated adults, together with the manner in which informed consent was obtained (i.e., oral or written).
Previous Publication or Duplicate Submission
Submitted manuscripts are considered with the understanding that they have not been published previously in print or electronic format (except in abstract or poster form) and are not under consideration in totality or in part by another publication or electronic medium.
Articles should be written in English, using American English spelling, and meet the following basic criteria: the material is original, the information is important, the writing is clear and concise, the study methods are appropriate, the data are valid, and the conclusions are reasonable and supported by the data.
For manuscripts that are judged by JFMA Editors to be written in poor English but otherwise worthy of consideration for publication, authors are required to pay for the English polishing of their manuscript. Otherwise, the Editorial Office reserves the right to reject the manuscript.
Item presented at a meeting and published
ThesesAyers AJ. Retention of resin restorations by means of enamel etching and by pins. MSD thesis, Indiana University School of Dentistry, Indianapolis, 1971.
WebsiteGlueckauf RL, Whitton J, Baxter J. Videocounseling for families of rural teens with epilepsy-project update. Telehealth News 1998. Available at http://www.telehealth.net/subscribe/newslettr_4a.html#1. Accessed November 15, 2008.
Company/manufacturer publication/pamphletEastman Kodak Company, Eastman Organic Chemicals. Catalog no. 49. Rochester, NY: Eastman Kodak; 1977, p. 2-3.
Registration of clinical trials
Registration in a public trials registry is a condition for publication of clinical trials in this journal in accordance with International Committee of Medical Journal Editors recommendations. Trials must register at or before the onset of patient enrolment. The clinical trial registration number should be included at the end of the abstract of the article. A clinical trial is defined as any research study that prospectively assigns human participants or groups of humans to one or more health-related interventions to evaluate the effects of health outcomes. Health-related interventions include any intervention used to modify a biomedical or health-related outcome (for example drugs, surgical procedures, devices, behavioural treatments, dietary interventions, and process-of-care changes). Health outcomes include any biomedical or health-related measures obtained in patients or participants, including pharmacokinetic measures and adverse events. Purely observational studies (those in which the assignment of the medical intervention is not at the discretion of the investigator) will not require registration.
Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (see more information on this). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. More information.
The JFMA is the official peer-reviewed publication of the Formosan Medical Association. Manuscripts published in the JFMA become the permanent property of the Formosan Medical Association and Elsevier.
Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.
Role of the funding source
You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.
This is an open access journal: all articles will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download. To provide open access, this journal has an open access fee (also known as an article publishing charge APC) which needs to be paid by the authors or on their behalf e.g. by their research funder or institution. Permitted third party (re)use is defined by the following Creative Commons user licenses:
Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND)
For non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.
This journal has an embargo period of 0 months.
Researcher Academy is a free e-learning platform designed to support early and mid-career researchers throughout their research journey. The "Learn" environment at Researcher Academy offers several interactive modules, webinars, downloadable guides and resources to guide you through the process of writing for research and going through peer review. Feel free to use these free resources to improve your submission and navigate the publication process with ease.
Language (usage and editing services)
Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop.
The following documents must be included in your submission and uploaded to EES (refer also to the Checklist that follows these author instructions). Items (1), (2), and (3) are mandatory. Items (4) and (5) and (7) are required only if they are applicable to your manuscript.
(1) Cover Letter. This must include the following information:
- title of the manuscript
- a statement that the material contained in the manuscript has not been previously published and is not being concurrently submitted elsewhere
- persons who do not fulfill the requirements to be listed as authors but who nevertheless contributed to the manuscript (such as those who provided writing assistance, for example) should be disclosed
- signed by the corresponding author
- Optional: if you have a list of reviewers who you wish to review or not to review your manuscript, you may include this list in the cover letter
(3) Copyright Transfer Agreement. In the event that your manuscript is accepted for publication in the JFMA, you are required to transfer all copyright ownership in and relating to the work to Formosan Medical Association and Elsevier. Please use the JFMA Copyright Transfer Agreement form. Corresponding author's signature must be included.(4) Signed Statement of Informed Consent. Articles where human subjects can be identified in descriptions, photographs or pedigrees must be accompanied by a signed statement of informed consent to publish (in print and online) the descriptions, photographs and pedigrees from each subject who can be identified.
(5) Copyright Permission. If you have reproduced or adapted material from other copyrighted sources, the letter(s) of permission from the copyright holder(s) to reproduce or adapt the copyrighted sources must be supplied. Otherwise, such material must be removed from your manuscript.
Text should be typed double-spaced on one side of white A4 (297 x 210 mm) paper, with outer margins of 2.5 cm. A manuscript should include a title page, abstract, main text, references, acknowledgments (if any), and figures and tables as appropriate. Each section of the manuscript should begin on a new page. Pages should be numbered consecutively, beginning with the title page.
This journal operates a single blind review process. All contributions are typically sent to a minimum of two independent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor's decision is final. More information on types of peer review.
It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier). Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork.
To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.
- article category
- article title
- names (spelled out in full*) of all authors, and the institutions with which they are affiliated; indicate all affiliations with a superscripted number after the author's name and in front of the matching affiliation
- Declaration of any potential financial and nonfinancial conflicts of interest
- corresponding author details (name, e-mail, mailing address, telephone and fax numbers)
- running title not exceeding 50 characters
Abstract and Keywords
An abstract and 3-5 relevant keywords (in alphabetical order) are required for the following article categories: Review Articles, Invited Articles, Original Articles, Case Reports and Brief Communications.
Abstracts for Original Articles should be structured into the sections listed below and be no more than 250 words long.Background/Purpose: briefly explain the importance of the study topic and state a precise study question or purpose.
Methods: briefly introduce the methods used to perform the study; include information on the study design, setting, subjects, interventions, outcome measures and analyses as appropriate.Results: briefly present the significant results, with data and statistical details such as p values where appropriate; be sure that information in the abstract matches that in the main text.
Conclusion: state the meaning of your findings, being careful to address the study question directly and to confine your conclusions to aspects covered in the abstract; give equal emphasis to positive and negative findings.Keywords should be taken from the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) list of Index Medicus (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/meshhome.html).
No abstract or keywords are required for Perspectives, Correspondence and Letters to the Editor.Main Text
The text for Original Articles and Brief Communications should be organized into the following sections: Introduction, Materials (or Patients) and Methods, Results, Discussion, and References. Subheadings in long papers are acceptable if needed for clarification and ease of reading. Sections for Case Reports are: Introduction, Case Report, Discussion, and References. Each section should begin on a new page.
Where a term/definition will be continually referred to, it must be written in full when it first appears in the text, followed by the subsequent abbreviation in parentheses. Thereafter, the abbreviation may be used. An abbreviation should not be first defined in any section heading; if an abbreviation has previously been defined in the text, then the abbreviation may be used in a subsequent section heading. Restrict the number of abbreviations to those that are absolutely necessary.
Numbers that begin a sentence or those that are less than 10 should be spelled out using letters. Centuries and decades should be spelled out, e.g. the Eighties or nineteenth century. Laboratory parameters, time, temperature, length, area, mass, and volume should be expressed using digits.
Système International (SI) units must be used, with the exception of blood pressure values which are to be reported in mmHg. Please use the metric system for the expression of length, area, mass, and volume. Temperatures are to be given in degrees Celsius.
Use the Recommended International Nonproprietary Name (rINN) for medicinal substances, unless the specific trade name of a drug is directly relevant to the discussion. Generic drug names should appear in lowercase letters in the text. If a specific proprietary drug needs to be identified, the brand name may appear only once in the manuscript in parentheses following the generic name the first time the drug is mentioned in the text.
For devices and other products, the specific brand or trade name, the manufacturer and their location (city, state, country) should be provided the first time the device or product is mentioned in the text, for example, "… KSPSS version 11 was used (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA)". Thereafter, the generic term (if appropriate) should be used.Gene nomenclature
Current standard international nomenclature for genes should be adhered to. For human genes, use genetic notation and symbols approved by the HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee (http://www.genenames.org). You may also refer to the resources available on PubMed at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/guide/genes-expression. The Human Genome Variation Society has a useful site that provides guidance in naming mutations at http://www.hgvs.org/mutnomen/index.html. In your manuscript, genes should be typed in italic font and include the accession number.
Statistical analysis is essential for all research papers except Case Reports. Use correct nomenclature of statistical methods (e.g., two sample t test, not unpaired t test). Descriptive statistics should follow the scales used in data description. Inferential statistics are important for interpreting results and should be described in detail. All p values should be presented to the third decimal place for accuracy. The smallest p value that should be expressed is p < 0.001, since additional zeros do not convey useful information; the largest p value that should be expressed is p > 0.99.
These sources cannot be included in the references list but may be described in the text. The author(s) must give the full name and highest academic degree of the person, the date of the communication, and indicate whether it was in oral or written (letter, fax, e-mail) form. A signed statement of permission should be included from each person identified as a source of information in a personal communication or as a source for unpublished data.
All financial and material support for the research, work, writing and editorial assistance from internal or external agencies, including commercial companies, should be clearly and completely identified in a Funding/Support Statement.
General acknowledgments for consultations and statistical analyses should be listed concisely, including the names of the individuals who were directly involved. Consent should be obtained from those individuals before their names are listed in this section. Those acknowledged should not include secretarial, clerical or technical staff whose participation was limited to the performance of their normal duties.
The number of figures should be restricted to the minimum necessary to support the textual material. Figures should have an informative figure legend and be numbered in the order of their citation in the text. All symbols and abbreviations should be defined in the figure legend in alphabetical order. Items requiring explanatory footnotes should follow the same style as that for tables as described in Section Tables
Figures must be submitted as separate picture files at the correct resolution (see Section Formats ). The files should be named according to the figure number, e.g., "Fig1.tif", "Fig2.jpg".Formats
Regardless of the application used, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please "save as" or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
- EPS: Vector drawings. Embed the font or save the text as "graphics".
- TIFF: Color or grayscale photographs (halftones) — always use a minimum of 300 dpi.
- TIFF: Bitmapped line drawings - use a minimum of 1000 dpi.
- TIFF: Combination of bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale) - a minimum of 600 dpi.
- DOC, XLS or PPT: If your electronic artwork is created in any of these Microsoft Office applications, please supply “as is”.
Please do not:
- Supply files that do not meet the resolution requirements detailed above;
- Supply files that are optimized for screen use (such as GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG) as the resolution is too low;
- Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.
Please note that the cost of color illustrations will be charged to the author.Tables
Tables should supplement, not duplicate, the text. They should have a concise table heading, be self-explanatory, and numbered consecutively in the order of their citation in the text. Items requiring explanatory footnotes should be denoted using superscripted lowercase letters (a, b, c, etc.), with the footnotes arranged under the table in alphabetical order. Asterisks (*, **) are used only to indicate the probability level of tests of significance. Abbreviations used in the table must be defined and placed after the footnotes in alphabetical order. If you include a block of data or table from another source, whether published or unpublished, you must acknowledge the original source. In the main text, tables, figure legends
- References should be indicated by superscripted numbers according to order of appearance in the text, and placed after punctuation. [The actual authors can be referred to, but the reference number(s) must always be given.]
- References cited in tables or figure legends should be included in sequence at the point where the table or figure is first mentioned in the main text.
- Do not cite abstracts unless they are the only available reference to an important concept.
- Do not cite uncompleted work or work that has not yet been accepted for publication (i.e., “unpublished observation”, “personal communication”)
This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in your published article.
Most Elsevier journals have their reference template available in many of the most popular reference management software products. These include all products that support Citation Style Language styles, such as Mendeley. Using citation plug-ins from these products, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article, after which citations and bibliographies will be automatically formatted in the journal's style. If no template is yet available for this journal, please follow the format of the sample references and citations as shown in this Guide. If you use reference management software, please ensure that you remove all field codes before submitting the electronic manuscript. More information on how to remove field codes from different reference management software.
Users of Mendeley Desktop can easily install the reference style for this journal by clicking the following link:
When preparing your manuscript, you will then be able to select this style using the Mendeley plug-ins for Microsoft Word or LibreOffice.
- References should be limited to those cited in the text and listed in numerical order, NOT alphabetical order.
- References should include, in order, authors’ surnames and initials, article title, abbreviated journal name, year, volume and inclusive page numbers.
- The surnames and initials of all the authors up to 6 should be included, but when authors number 7 or more, list the first 6 authors only followed by “et al”.
- Abbreviations for journal names should conform to those used in MEDLINE.
- If citing a website, provide the author information, article title, website address and the date you accessed the information.
- Reference to an article that is in press must state the journal name and, if possible, the year and volume.
- Authors are responsible for the accuracy and completeness of their references and for correct text citation.
Standard journal articlesWu UI, Wang JT, Ho YC, Pan SC, Chen YC, Chang SC. Factors associated with development of complications among adults with influenza: a 3-year prospective analysis. J Formos Med Assoc 2012;111:364-9.
Chen JC, Huang AJ, Chen SC, Wu JL, Wu WM, Chiang HS, et al. Interleukin-27 and interleukin-12 augment activation of distinct cord blood natural killer cells responses via STAT3 pathways. J Formos Med Assoc 2012;111:275-83.Journal supplement
Kaplan NM. The endothelium as prognostic factor and therapeutic target: what criteria should we apply? J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 1998;32(Suppl 3):S78-80. Journal article not in English but with English abstractHofele C, Schwager-Schmitt M, Volkmann M. Prognostic value of antibodies against p53 in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma-five years survival rate. Laryngorhinootologie 2002;81:342-5. [In German, English abstract]
Book with editionBradley EL. Medical and surgical management. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Saunders; 1982, p. 72-95.
Book with editorsLetheridge S, Cannon CR, editors. Bilingual education: Teaching English as a second language. New York: Praeger; 1980.
Book chapter in book with editor and editionGreaves M, Culligan DJ. Blood and bone marrow. In: Underwood JCE, editor. General and systematic pathology. 4th ed. London: Churchill Livingstone; 2004, p. 615-72.
Book series with editorsWilson JG, Fraser FC, editors. Handbook of teratology, vols. 1-4. New York: Plenum Press; 1977-1978.
BulletinWorld Health Organization. World health report 2002: reducing risk, promoting healthy life. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2002.
Electronic publicationsDuchin JS. Can preparedness for biological terrorism save us from pertussis? Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2004;158(2). Available from: http://archpedi.amaassn. org/cgi/content/full/158/2/106. Accessed June 12, 2004.
Smeeth L, Iliffe S. Community screening for visual impairment in the elderly. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2002(2):CD001054. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858. CD1001054.Items presented at a meeting but not yet published
Khuri FR, Lee JJ, Lippman SM. Isotretinoin effects on head and neck cancer recurrence and second primary tumors. In: Proceedings from the American Society of Clinical Oncology; May 31 –June 3, 2003; Chicago, IL. Abstract 359.Supplementary material
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