Guide for Authors

All journal information and instructions compiled in one document (PDF) in just one mouse-click Author information pack

• Main article categories
• Ethics in publishing
• Human and animal rights
• Declaration of interest
• Submission declaration and verification
• Authorship
• Changes to authorship
• Copyright
• Role of the funding source
• Open access
• Informed consent and patient details
• Submission
• Permission and consents
• Double-blind review
• Article structure
• Artwork
• Tables
• References
• Video
• Supplementary material
• AudioSlides
• Checklist for authors
• Proofs
• Offprints
• Disclaimers

The Journal of the Association for Vascular Access (JAVA) welcomes scholarly original articles on clinical practice, education, and research related to vascular access including articles on vascular access manufacturing and technology and vascular access insertion, care, and maintenance issues in hospitals, ambulatory, home, hospice, and other alternative care settings. Articles must not be previously published or under consideration by another journal at the time of submission. JAVA is a multidisciplinary, international journal and invites submissions from authors in all relevant disciplines and settings. Current topics of interest to the journal include: evidence-based practice, new initiatives, outcomes research, patient/family satisfaction, patient and family instruction, international and multidisciplinary issues, use of devices, implementation of new technologies, financial implications of devices, and issues confronted in clinical practice.

Main article categories

The following is a description of the main article categories. They include but are not limited to:

Original Articles
Articles in this category usually present results of original research undertaken by the author. Authors must include a structured abstract not to exceed 250 words. Structured abstracts should include Background, Methods, Results (including some data), and Conclusions. The maximum length is 6,000 words, including references, tables, photographs, and figures. The Abstract and Title page are not included in this word count. Articles that report original research should include the following headings as appropriate: Background (literature), Methods (design, data collection and analysis), Results, Discussion, Conclusions, Limitations, and Recommendations for Practice. Qualitative studies are also encouraged and should adhere to the above research guidelines as appropriate. Research articles that involved human participants require Internal Review Board (IRB) approval to be considered for publication. This should be noted in the “methods” section.

Review Articles
Review articles collate and summarize the available information about a particular topic. Qualitative and quantitative literature reviews on any area of research relevant to the practice involving vascular access are welcomed. Authors are advised to specify the methodology clearly (eg, overall approach, literature search strategies, data analysis). Authors should include a structured abstract not to exceed 250 words. The main text should be structured as follows: Introduction, Aims, Methods, Results, Discussion, Conclusion, and Relevance to Clinical Practice.

Full Length Articles
Full length articles present new skills or knowledge related to vascular access and patient care, provide an empirically or clinically based review or analyze current literature related to a topic. Full length articles may review new procedures or new products.

Full length articles can also include quality improvement projects that describe a project that was carried out at the author's place of employment. The results of QI projects are not considered research manuscripts. However, QI projects should include evidence of Institutional Review Board (IRB) review if human participants were involved, and should adhere to accepted scientific standards for data collection, including evidence of measurement reliability and validity.

Case Studies
Case studies are detailed description of the management of a unique clinical case problem. The description of the case includes but not limited to the relevant patient characteristics, examination/ evaluation, diagnosis, and a description of the interventions that were provided.

Patient/Consumer Perspective
In this unique column we ask you to share personal stories or “lessons learned” about caring for, living with, or having a vascular access device. In about 1,000 words and in conversational style, present your story. You can submit on behalf of someone or encourage them to write it themselves. Patient/Consumer Perspective submissions should be sent to as an attachment.

Letters to the Editor
Letters to the Editor are welcomed and encouraged as a form of collegial exchange. Letters must be sent to the journal and written in response to content published in JAVA within six months of the original appearance of the material. Letters should not exceed 400 words of text and include no more than three references.

For acceptance, letters must be signed. Authors must include their city and state of residence or work. No other affiliations will be included unless the authors are writing on behalf of an organization. In such cases, the authors should include a statement that the letter has been approved by the organization they are representing. A letter can appear anonymously if requested by the author. Such requests will be considered on a case-by-case basis.

A letter that questions, criticizes, or responds to a previously published article will automatically be sent to the author of that article for a reply. Authors must provide contact information to allow editors to follow up with any questions about a letter. Include city and state of residence or work and contact information—either an e-mail address or a phone number. Letters to the Editor submissions should be sent to as an attachment.

Correspondence and editorial inquiries should be addressed to

Ethics in publishing

Please see our information pages on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication.

Human and animal rights

If the work involves the use of human subjects, the author should ensure that the work described has been carried out in accordance with The Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association (Declaration of Helsinki) for experiments involving humans; Uniform Requirements for manuscripts submitted to Biomedical journals. Authors should include a statement in the manuscript that informed consent was obtained for experimentation with human subjects. The privacy rights of human subjects must always be observed.

All animal experiments should comply with the ARRIVE guidelines and should be carried out in accordance with the U.K. Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act, 1986 and associated guidelines, EU Directive 2010/63/EU for animal experiments, or the National Institutes of Health guide for the care and use of Laboratory animals (NIH Publications No. 8023, revised 1978) and the authors should clearly indicate in the manuscript that such guidelines have been followed.

Declaration of interest

All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. If there are no conflicts of interest then please state this: 'Conflicts of interest: none'. More information.

Submission declaration and verification

Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' section of our ethics policy for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service CrossCheck.


All authors should have made substantial contributions to all of the following: (1) the conception and design of the study, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data, (2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content, (3) final approval of the version to be submitted.

Changes to authorship

Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the journal Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed.
Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted. While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the Editor will result in a corrigendum.

Article transfer service
This journal is part of our Article Transfer Service. This means that if the Editor feels your article is more suitable in one of our other participating journals, then you may be asked to consider transferring the article to one of those. If you agree, your article will be transferred automatically on your behalf with no need to reformat. Please note that your article will be reviewed again by the new journal. More information.


Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (see more information on this). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.

Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations. If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases.

For open access articles: Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an 'Exclusive License Agreement' (more information). Permitted third party reuse of open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license.

Author rights
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. More information.

Elsevier supports responsible sharing
Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.

Role of the funding source

You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.

Funding body agreements and policies
Elsevier has established a number of agreements with funding bodies which allow authors to comply with their funder's open access policies. Some funding bodies will reimburse the author for the Open Access Publication Fee. Details of existing agreements are available online.
After acceptance, open access papers will be published under a noncommercial license. For authors requiring a commercial CC BY license, you can apply after your manuscript is accepted for publication.

Open access

This journal offers authors a choice in publishing their research:

Open access
• Articles are freely available to both subscribers and the wider public with permitted reuse.
• An open access publication fee is payable by authors or on their behalf, e.g. by their research funder or institution.
• Articles are made available to subscribers as well as developing countries and patient groups through our universal access programs.
• No open access publication fee payable by authors.

Regardless of how you choose to publish your article, the journal will apply the same peer review criteria and acceptance standards.

For open access articles, permitted third party (re)use is defined by the following Creative Commons user licenses:

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND)
For non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.

The open access publication fee for this journal is USD 2500, excluding taxes. Learn more about Elsevier's pricing policy:

Green open access
Authors can share their research in a variety of different ways and Elsevier has a number of green open access options available. We recommend authors see our green open access page for further information. Authors can also self-archive their manuscripts immediately and enable public access from their institution's repository after an embargo period. This is the version that has been accepted for publication and which typically includes author-incorporated changes suggested during submission, peer review and in editor-author communications. Embargo period: For subscription articles, an appropriate amount of time is needed for journals to deliver value to subscribing customers before an article becomes freely available to the public. This is the embargo period and it begins from the date the article is formally published online in its final and fully citable form. Find out more.

This journal has an embargo period of 12 months.

Language (usage and editing services)
Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop.

Informed consent and patient details

Studies on patients or volunteers require ethics committee approval and informed consent, which should be documented in the paper. Appropriate consents, permissions and releases must be obtained where an author wishes to include case details or other personal information or images of patients and any other individuals in an Elsevier publication. Written consents must be retained by the author and copies of the consents or evidence that such consents have been obtained must be provided to Elsevier on request. For more information, please review the Elsevier Policy on the Use of Images or Personal Information of Patients or other Individuals. Unless you have written permission from the patient (or, where applicable, the next of kin), the personal details of any patient included in any part of the article and in any supplementary materials (including all illustrations and videos) must be removed before submission.


Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files (e.g., Word, LaTeX) are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.

Submit your article
Please submit your article via

JAVA is a peer-reviewed journal. Manuscripts are reviewed by the Editorial Board for accuracy, clarity, and significance to the practice of vascular access. The review process takes approximately 2-3 months. Accepted manuscripts are subject to copyediting to conform to the Journal's standards. Editorial revisions may be made to improve presentation without altering meaning. Editing changes and recommendations are subject to author approval before publication.

Proofs of the final manuscript will be sent to the principal author for approval. No significant changes will be accepted at that time. A signed contract with transfer copyright of the published article to the Association of Vascular Access is required prior to final publication. Publication dates depend on numerous factors, including the timeliness of the article and space availability in the journal. It is the responsibility of the principal author to maintain current contact information with the editorial staff. Manuscripts can be withdrawn any time prior to publication, provided that the manuscript is not in press, by notifying the editorial staff.

Permission and consents

Written permission of the copyright holder and author of figures, tables, or quotation (200 words or more) taken from copyrighted material must accompany the submitted manuscript. The credit line should appear in the figure legend, as a footnote to the table, or as a footnote to the text, and should be worded according to the copyright holder's specifications.

Subject or guardian consent must accompany any photograph that shows a recognizable likeness of a subject.

Double-blind review

This journal uses double-blind review, which means that both the reviewer and author name(s) are not allowed to be revealed to one another for a manuscript under review. The identities of the authors are concealed from the reviewers, and vice versa. More information is available on our website. To facilitate this, please include the following separately:
Title page (with author details): This should include the title, authors' names and affiliations, and a complete address for the corresponding author including an e-mail address.
Blinded manuscript (no author details): The main body of the paper (including the references, figures, tables and any Acknowledgements) should not include any identifying information, such as the authors' names or affiliations.

Article structure

All manuscripts should be in MS Word format and conform to word length specifications. All content, including tables, should have one-inch margins on all four sides, be double-spaced, and be in Times New Roman 12 point font. All legends for Tables and Figures are to be included at the end of the manuscript, after the list of references. Tables and Figures are attached as separate files when you reach "attach files" in the submission process.

Do not include any author identifying material in the body of the manuscript. The use of jargon and unfamiliar abbreviations is discouraged. The use of headings and subheadings to organize the text is encouraged. The use of generic drug names and product descriptions should be used whenever possible. If the brand name is required to aid the readers' understanding, the manufacturer's name and city and state location are to be provided in parentheses within the text.

Cover letter
A cover letter introduces your manuscript to the editor and should include any specific information you would like the editor to know. Authors should state that any manuscript, or parts of it, have not been and will not be submitted elsewhere for publication.

Title page

  • Title - Be concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
  • Author names, credentials, and affiliations - Where the family name may be ambiguous (eg, a double name), please clearly indicate given names and surnames. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations, institutional and corporate, with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
  • Corresponding author - Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that phone numbers (with country and area code) are provided in addition to the e-mail address and the complete postal address. Contact details must be kept up to date by the corresponding author.
  • Present/permanent address - If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.
  • Funding - Report all funding sources and/or granting agencies that supported your work, as well as all institutional or corporate affiliations of all the authors.
  • Acknowledgments - Include acknowledgments as applicable.
  • Word count - Include the word count for the Abstract and the paper (excluding the Title page).
Submit the Title page separately as instructed. Do not include any author identifying material in the body of the manuscript.

Abstract and key words
An informative abstract follows the manuscript's outline and summarizes the research results (if applicable). The abstract should also be included in the main manuscript. Identify three (3) to five (5) key words related to your article. These key words help categorize your article in search engines after it is published.

Graphical abstract
Although a graphical abstract is optional, its use is encouraged as it draws more attention to the online article. The graphical abstract should summarize the contents of the article in a concise, pictorial form designed to capture the attention of a wide readership. Graphical abstracts should be submitted as a separate file in the online submission system. Image size: Please provide an image with a minimum of 531 × 1328 pixels (h × w) or proportionally more. The image should be readable at a size of 5 × 13 cm using a regular screen resolution of 96 dpi. Preferred file types: TIFF, EPS, PDF or MS Office files. You can view Example Graphical Abstracts on our information site.
Authors can make use of Elsevier's Illustration and Enhancement service to ensure the best presentation of their images and in accordance with all technical requirements: Illustration Service.

Highlights are mandatory for this journal. They consist of a short collection of bullet points that convey the core findings of the article and should be submitted in a separate editable file in the online submission system. Please use 'Highlights' in the file name and include 3 to 5 bullet points (maximum 85 characters, including spaces, per bullet point). You can view example Highlights on our information site.

Formatting of funding sources
List funding sources in this standard way to facilitate compliance to funder's requirements:

Funding: This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health [grant numbers xxxx, yyyy]; the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, WA [grant number zzzz]; and the United States Institutes of Peace [grant number aaaa].

It is not necessary to include detailed descriptions on the program or type of grants and awards. When funding is from a block grant or other resources available to a university, college, or other research institution, submit the name of the institute or organization that provided the funding.

If no funding has been provided for the research, please include the following sentence:

This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.


Electronic artwork
General points
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.
• Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
• Provide captions to illustrations separately.
• Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the published version.
• Submit each illustration as a separate file.
A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available.
You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format.
Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.
Please do not:
• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
• Supply files that are too low in resolution;
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

Slides and poor resolution photographs, illustrations, or images will not be accepted. Note that permission has been granted for use, noting by whom and where for each photograph, illustration, and image. Use of photographs, illustrations, or images that are not accompanied by full permission and/or include identifiers (eg, name badges, patient name on x-ray) will not be used.

Color artwork
Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF) or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color online (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) in addition to color reproduction in print. Further information on the preparation of electronic artwork.

Illustration services
Elsevier's WebShop offers Illustration Services to authors preparing to submit a manuscript but concerned about the quality of the images accompanying their article. Elsevier's expert illustrators can produce scientific, technical and medical-style images, as well as a full range of charts, tables and graphs. Image 'polishing' is also available, where our illustrators take your image(s) and improve them to a professional standard. Please visit the website to find out more.

Figure captions
Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.


Please submit tables as editable text and not as images. Tables can be placed either next to the relevant text in the article, or on separate page(s) at the end. Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text and place any table notes below the table body. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in them do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article. Please avoid using vertical rules.


Citation in text
Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.

Reference links
Increased discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, CrossRef and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the DOI is encouraged.

A DOI can be used to cite and link to electronic articles where an article is in-press and full citation details are not yet known, but the article is available online. A DOI is guaranteed never to change, so you can use it as a permanent link to any electronic article. An example of a citation using DOI for an article not yet in an issue is: VanDecar J.C., Russo R.M., James D.E., Ambeh W.B., Franke M. (2003). Aseismic continuation of the Lesser Antilles slab beneath northeastern Venezuela. Journal of Geophysical Research, Please note the format of such citations should be in the same style as all other references in the paper.

Web references
At a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc), should also be given. Web references should be included in the reference list.

References in a special issue
Please ensure that the words 'this issue' are added to any references in the list (and any citations in the text) to other articles in the same Special Issue.

Reference management software
Most Elsevier journals have their reference template available in many of the most popular reference management software products. These include all products that support Citation Style Language styles, such as Mendeley and Zotero, as well as EndNote. Using the word processor plug-ins from these products, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article, after which citations and bibliographies will be automatically formatted in the journal's style. If no template is yet available for this journal, please follow the format of the sample references and citations as shown in this Guide.

Users of Mendeley Desktop can easily install the reference style for this journal by clicking the following link:
When preparing your manuscript, you will then be able to select this style using the Mendeley plug-ins for Microsoft Word or LibreOffice.

Reference style
In the text, indicate references by (consecutive) superscript arabic numerals in the order in which they appear in the text. The numerals are to be used outside periods and commas, and inside colons and semicolons, following the paraphrased or summarized reference. In the reference list, number the references in the order in which they appear in the text. Please do not use any linking programs to set up references. Authors are responsible for validating the accuracy of references and for making sure that all websites used are current and working in original and revised manuscripts. For further detail and examples you are referred to the AMA Manual of Style, A Guide for Authors and Editors, Tenth Edition, ISBN 0-978-0-19-517633-9 (see

Examples of journal article references:
Smith J, Canton EM. Weight-based administration of dalteparin in obese patients. Am J Health-Syst Pharm. 2003;60(7):683-687.
(Note: If the journal does not have a volume or issue number, use the issue date.)

Hunter DJ, Hankinson SE Jr, Laden F, et al. Plasma organochlorine levels and the risk of breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 1997;337(18):1253-1258.
(Note: In the case of multiple authors, include up to six (6) authors. If there are more than six (6) authors, list the first three (3) followed by "et al." )

Examples of book and book chapter references:
Davis NM. Medical Abbreviations: 26,000 Conveniences at the Expense of Communications and Safety. 12th ed. Huntingdon Valley, PA: Neil M. Davis Associates; 2005:173.

Johannsen EC, Madoff LC. Infections of the liver and biliary system. In: Mandell GL, Bennett JC, Dolin R, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett’s: Principles and Practice of Infectious Disease. Vol 1. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2005:951-952.

Example of an online scholarly journal reference:
Seal A, Kerac M. Operational implications of using 2006 World Health Organization growth standards in nutrition programs: secondary data analysis. BMJ. 2007;334:733. Accessed April 12, 2007.

Journal abbreviations source
Journal names should be abbreviated according to the List of Title Word Abbreviations.


Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the files in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 150 MB. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect. Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages. Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.

Supplementary material

Supplementary material can support and enhance your scientific research. Supplementary files offer the author additional possibilities to publish supporting applications, high-resolution images, background datasets, sound clips and more. Please note that such items are published online exactly as they are submitted; there is no typesetting involved (supplementary data supplied as an Excel file or as a PowerPoint slide will appear as such online). Please submit the material together with the article and supply a concise and descriptive caption for each file. If you wish to make any changes to supplementary data during any stage of the process, then please make sure to provide an updated file, and do not annotate any corrections on a previous version. Please also make sure to switch off the 'Track Changes' option in any Microsoft Office files as these will appear in the published supplementary file(s). For more detailed instructions please visit our artwork instruction pages.


The journal encourages authors to create an AudioSlides presentation with their published article. AudioSlides are brief, webinar-style presentations that are shown next to the online article on ScienceDirect. This gives authors the opportunity to summarize their research in their own words and to help readers understand what the paper is about. More information and examples are available. Authors of this journal will automatically receive an invitation e-mail to create an AudioSlides presentation after acceptance of their paper.

Checklist for authors

  1. Cover letter of submission
  2. Title page (including all identifying information and word counts)
  3. One double-spaced original manuscript consisting of:
    • Abstract (250-word limit)
    • Keywords (3 to 5)
    • Article text/content (note word limits)
    • List of references
    • Figure, photograph, and image legend(s)
    • Table(s)
  4. Copies of written permission to reproduce previously published materials and photographs, illustrations, and images of identifiable individuals or copyrights including trade names
  5. Figure, photograph, and image files: each figure should constitute a separate, hi resolution file (not embedded within the manuscript text file)


One set of page proofs (as PDF files) will be sent by e-mail to the corresponding author (if we do not have an e-mail address then paper proofs will be sent by post) or, a link will be provided in the e-mail so that authors can download the files themselves. Elsevier now provides authors with PDF proofs which can be annotated; for this you will need to download the free Adobe Reader, version 9 (or higher). Instructions on how to annotate PDF files will accompany the proofs (also given online). The exact system requirements are given at the Adobe site.
If you do not wish to use the PDF annotations function, you may list the corrections (including replies to the Query Form) and return them to Elsevier in an e-mail. Please list your corrections quoting line number. If, for any reason, this is not possible, then mark the corrections and any other comments (including replies to the Query Form) on a printout of your proof and scan the pages and return via e-mail. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication: please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.


The corresponding author will, at no cost, receive a customized Share Link providing 50 days free access to the final published version of the article on ScienceDirect. The Share Link can be used for sharing the article via any communication channel, including email and social media. For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's Webshop. Corresponding authors who have published their article open access do not receive a Share Link as their final published version of the article is available open access on ScienceDirect and can be shared through the article DOI link.


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