Guide for Authors

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• Declaration of interest
• Submission declaration
• Use of inclusive language
• Changes to authorship
• Role of the funding source
• Open access
• Submission
• Article Structure
• Essential Title Page Information
• Abstract
• Key Points
• Article Text
• Institutional Review Board (IRB)
• Abbreviations, Units, Proprietary (brand) Names, and Symbols
• References
• Artwork
• Supplementary material
• Proofs
• Offprints

The Journal of the American Pharmacists Association (JAPhA) is a peer-reviewed forum to improve medication use and health outcomes, inform health care policies and advance pharmacist-provided services. JAPhA welcomes original research, experience, systematic review, and opinion articles that concisely report meaningful developments and advances in the drug use process and pharmacy practice. Articles may introduce new information about improving pharmacists' patient care services, medication use, and health outcomes. Also of interest are articles on new medications and emerging therapeutic trends, new technologies, and research methods with applicability to pharmacy practice. These guidelines serve to maintain and improve the quality of the Journal. Questions regarding these guidelines or inquiries can be directed to the JAPhA Managing Editor, Liz Haberkorn, at

Submission checklist
You can use this list to carry out a final check of your submission before you send it to the journal for review. Please check the relevant section in this Guide for Authors for more details.

Ensure that the following items are present:

One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
• E-mail address
• Full postal address

All necessary files have been uploaded:
• All figures (include relevant captions)
• All tables (including titles, description, legends)
• Ensure all figure and table citations in the text match the files provided
• Indicate clearly if color should be used for any figures in print
Graphical Abstracts / Highlights files (where applicable)
Supplemental files (where applicable)

Further considerations
• Manuscript has been 'spell checked' and 'grammar checked'
• All references mentioned in the Reference List are cited in the text, and vice versa
• Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Internet)
• Relevant declarations of interest have been made
• Journal policies detailed in this guide have been reviewed
• Referee suggestions and contact details provided, based on journal requirements

For further information, visit our Support Center.

Web-based Manuscript Submission
The Journal has a Web-based manuscript submission and author communication system (Editorial Manager; located online at This system prompts authors to enter required information in a standardized way to increase the consistency of information available during peer review. A help center for the site has answers to frequently asked questions and an author guide; it is accessed by clicking on "Help" in the left hand corner of the site. All submissions must be made through this website.

The Editorial Manager system allows the manuscript submission package to be created gradually during multiple visits. Authors should access the site early in the writing process to register in the Author Center and become familiar with the way that information is requested. Authors receive information about manuscripts by accessing the website at any time as the submission moves through the staff review, peer review, and decision-making steps.

Declaration of interest

All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential competing interests include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. Authors must disclose any interests in two places: 1. A summary declaration of interest statement in the title page file (if double-blind) or the manuscript file (if single-blind). If there are no interests to declare then please state this: 'Declarations of interest: none'. This summary statement will be ultimately published if the article is accepted. 2. Detailed disclosures as part of a separate Declaration of Interest form, which forms part of the journal's official records. It is important for potential interests to be declared in both places and that the information matches. More information.

Submission declaration

Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract, a published lecture or academic thesis, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder.

Data Transparency
To foster transparency, we ask that you state the availability of your data as part of the acknowledgement section of your submission and encourage you to share your data with other scientists. For more information, visit

Use of inclusive language

Inclusive language acknowledges diversity, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and promotes equal opportunities. Articles should make no assumptions about the beliefs or commitments of any reader, should contain nothing which might imply that one individual is superior to another on the grounds of race, sex, culture or any other characteristic, and should use inclusive language throughout. Authors should ensure that writing is free from bias, for instance by using 'he or she', 'his/her' instead of 'he' or 'his', and by making use of job titles that are free of stereotyping (e.g. 'chairperson' instead of 'chairman' and 'flight attendant' instead of 'stewardess').

Author Contributions
To make author contributions transparent, all research articles should include an Author Contributions section. Please describe the contributions concisely and use initials to indicate author identity. We encourage you to use the CRediT taxonomy, which offers standardized descriptions of author contributions. (Further information on CRediT and the full list of roles can be viewed at

Changes to authorship

Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the journal Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed.
Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted. While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the Editor will result in a corrigendum.

Elsevier supports responsible sharing
Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.

Role of the funding source

You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.

Funding body agreements and policies
Elsevier has established a number of agreements with funding bodies which allow authors to comply with their funder's open access policies. Some funding bodies will reimburse the author for the gold open access publication fee. Details of existing agreements are available online.

Open access

This journal offers authors a choice in publishing their research:

• Articles are made available to subscribers as well as developing countries and patient groups through our universal access programs.
• No open access publication fee payable by authors.
• The Author is entitled to post the accepted manuscript in their institution's repository and make this public after an embargo period (known as green Open Access). The published journal article cannot be shared publicly, for example on ResearchGate or, to ensure the sustainability of peer-reviewed research in journal publications. The embargo period for this journal can be found below.
Gold open access
• Articles are freely available to both subscribers and the wider public with permitted reuse.
• A gold open access publication fee is payable by authors or on their behalf, e.g. by their research funder or institution.

Regardless of how you choose to publish your article, the journal will apply the same peer review criteria and acceptance standards.

For gold open access articles, permitted third party (re)use is defined by the following Creative Commons user licenses:

CC BY is only available for funded authors.

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND)
For non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.


Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files (e.g., Word, LaTeX) are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.

Before submission, articles should be reviewed for accuracy, clarity, and completeness by all contributing authors.

Language (usage and editing services)
Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's Author Services.

Use of word processing software
It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier). Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork.
To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.

Basic Format
JAPhA will consider papers prepared in accordance with the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors' Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals (available at: files that do not meet the requirements detailed below may result in immediate rejection. For guidance in manuscript preparation, refer to the American Medical Association Manual of Style, 10th ed. (; Chicago Manual of Style, 16th ed. (2010); and Stedman's Medical Dictionary, 28th ed. ( All accepted manuscripts are edited to conform to JAPhA style.

Journal Sections
JAPH Table 1 Table 1
Manuscripts are considered for peer-reviewed sections within the Science & Practice section of JAPhA (Table 1). Following completion of peer review, articles may be pursued and accepted as either print or online publications. Abstracts of online-only articles are provided in the print edition's JAPhA stat! department. A summary of the sections of JAPhA and corresponding requirements is shown in Table 1.

Article Types
Journal articles should link science with pharmacy practice in these general content areas: pharmacists' patient care services, medication use, pharmacy services, health outcomes, new medications, emerging therapeutic trends, new technologies in health care, and research methods with applicability to pharmacy practice. Other content areas relevant to pharmacy practice may also be considered.

Care should be taken by the author(s) to include sufficient methodological information to evaluate the quality of the research. The word count does not include the title page, abstract and references. Survey instruments, data sets, and data-heavy tables not necessary for interpretation of study results should be included in the submission and cited in the text as online-only supplemental content (e.g., "the survey instrument is in Appendix 1, available on as supplemental content").

Article Structure

JAPhA articles must be submitted in a single word-processing file as follows (additional detail is provided in the subsequent text):

  • Title page (include word counts; see Table 1)
  • Abstract
  • Key points
  • Article text
  • References
Tables and figures for all categories of submission should be uploaded as separate, editable files.

Table 2

Essential Title Page Information

Specific information contained in the title page should include names of authors; corresponding degree abbreviations; job titles; current and past affiliations at the time of the manuscript and/ or project completion; funding support (financial or material); acknowledgments; previous presentations of the work (e.g., professional meetings); and any present conflicts of interest. Conflicts of interest may include but are not limited to involvement in peer-reviewed publication and personal or financial interests that may bias the writing. Financial interests consist of grants, employment, gifts, stock holdings, honoraria, consultancies, expert testimonies, patents, and/or royalties. Potential conflicts of interest must be clearly stated. For guidance on conflicts of interest, authors are referred to the website of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors ( Correspondence-related information should be provided for one author and should include current mail and e-mail addresses.

Word counts for the abstract and the manuscript should be specified on the title page. These counts allow editors and reviewers to determine whether the information in the submission warrants the amount of space required and if the submitted manuscript fits within the word limits. Table 1 provides detailed information on word count criteria for each section.

Article Title
Article titles are subject to editing by Journal staff after articles are accepted. Although longer titles may sometimes be allowed, authors should make an effort to restrict titles to no more than 95 characters and spaces (approximately 12 words) in length. In addition, use of acronyms in titles should be avoided whenever possible.


A concise and factual abstract is required with the exception of Letters. Abstracts are limited to 300 words total. Specific subheadings are required in the abstract depending on the section of manuscript submitted (See Table 1); if one does not apply, include it and write "not applicable" for that subsection.

Key Points

For manuscripts in the Research, Reviews, Advances in Pharmacy Practice, Experience, and Commentary sections, authors are required to prepare key points in a bulleted format that describe the article's relevance and contribution to the literature. These are presented under two separate headings: Background and Findings. Two or three key points under each of these headings should provide the context for the article (what is already known on the topic, other relevant background) and what the manuscript findings adds to existing knowledge on the topic.

Article Text

Headings used by JAPhA to introduce an article's main sections are described in Table 1.

Institutional Review Board (IRB)

Articles involving human participants are required to state within the article text as well as in the cover letter that approval or exemption has been granted by an institutional review board (IRB) or similar body. Articles not containing this statement will not be considered for peer review until IRB status is determined. If IRB review information cannot be provided or is refused, the article will be rejected. If a waiver or modification of consent was previously granted by an IRB, briefly describe in the text the rationale for the modification.

Abbreviations, Units, Proprietary (brand) Names, and Symbols

Define abbreviations that are not standard in the field and place on the first page of the article. Such abbreviations that are unavoidable in the abstract must be defined at their first mention there, as well as on the first page. Ensure consistency of abbreviations throughout the article.

Within the text of an article, medications should be referred to by generic names. For single-source products or to identify a specific product, place the brand name followed by the manufacturer in parentheses following the generic name: generic name (brand name-manufacturer). Use of trademark symbols is not allowed. Brand names are not included for multisource drugs unless a specific product is being discussed (e.g., the brand used in a case report).

Formatting of funding sources
List funding sources in this standard way to facilitate compliance to funder's requirements:

Funding: This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health [grant numbers xxxx, yyyy]; the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, WA [grant number zzzz]; and the United States Institutes of Peace [grant number aaaa].

It is not necessary to include detailed descriptions on the program or type of grants and awards. When funding is from a block grant or other resources available to a university, college, or other research institution, submit the name of the institute or organization that provided the funding.

If no funding has been provided for the research, please include the following sentence:

This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.


Sources in the peer-reviewed literature (published or accepted for publication) or from other authoritative entities (e.g., reports of expert working groups or governmental agencies) should be cited in the text as references using superscript sequential integers and placed in a reference list after the Conclusion section. All statements of fact in JAPhA articles from other sources should be acknowledged through the use of parenthetical text in the manuscript or in the references. Non-peer-reviewed publications, non-authoritative websites, and written personal communication should be denoted as parenthetical text. Oral personal communications are unacceptable.

Reference Style
JAPhA style for references is based on the format of the American Medical Association Manual of Style, with these considerations:

  • Journal title names should be abbreviated using the system of the National Library of Medicine at:
  • Only the first letter of the first word of a book name or article title should be capitalized.
  • If a cited work has one to six authors (or editors), all names should be listed. If an article has six or more authors (or editors), list the first three followed by the words "et al."
  • Issue dates (e.g., "2015 (Jan/Feb)") should not be included.
  • No spaces are placed between the year, volume, and issue numbers.
  • Use beginning and ending page numbers with all digits displayed (e.g., 1455-1459, not 1455-9).
  • All references must be cited in the text and numbered sequentially in order of use. References that are listed but not cited will be deleted.
  • For references to online material, include a URL with all elements (e.g., include http:// or https:// as appropriate). Use a persistent URL when one is available.
Examples of appropriately referenced styles include the following:
  • Journal article. Witry MJ, Doucette WR. Community pharmacists, medication monitoring, and the routine nature of refills. J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2014;54(6):594-603.
  • Book (if applicable, cite specific chapter or pages used). El-Ibiary SY, Raney EC. In: Krinsky DL, Ferreri SP, Hemstreet BA, et al. (eds). Handbook of nonprescription drugs: an interactive approach to self-care. 18th ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association; 2015:151-167.
  • Newspaper/news magazine article. Bonner L. Pharmacists key to novel coordinated care model. Pharm Today. 2014;20(12):48.
  • Web-published article. Yap D. Pharmacists and chronic disease highlight by CDC's Hall. Accessed December 20, 2014.
  • Website or webpage. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Vaccines & immunizations. Accessed December 11, 2014.

Citation in text
Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.

Tables and Figures
The number of accepted tables and figures varies by category of article submission. Please refer to Table 1 for specific criteria. Tables and figures should be uploaded to JAPhA's Editorial Manager website (see Web-based manuscript submission).


Please submit tables as editable text and not as images. Tables must be created using the "Insert Table" command in the word processing program. Tables that are larger than one page are discouraged. Spaces to create tables, columns, or rows or to indicate indentation are not acceptable. Avoid using vertical rules. Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text and place any table notes below the table body. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in them do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article. Only the most important data or highlights should be provided in table format. The table itself should contain all information needed to convey the intended meaning without need for the reader to refer to the text. This should include careful consideration that all acronyms and/or abbreviations used within the table are defined in a legend below the table. For math and calculations displayed in table format, math totals must be correct. For ease of interpretation of the table appearing with column headings, these headings should be appropriately labeled.

Similar to submission of tables, figures must be submitted in a format compatible with current JAPhA typesetting systems. Figures should not be embedded in a document. Specifically, charts and graphs should be submitted in an editable format (e.g., Excel, Word, or PowerPoint). Submission in this format allows Journal editors and staff to perform basic house-style edits, such as changing fonts in label axes. To accomplish this, Journal editors and staff must be able to "click" into figure files to edit the file to conform to house standards.

Photographs or illustrations submitted as figures should be provided in PNG, TIFF, or JPEG formats in 300 dots per square inch (dpi) for color images or 600 dpi for black-and-white images. Consider the use of supplemental files that are made available by the Journal online only for certain photographs, illustrations, and complex tables and figures.

Data references
This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in your published article.

Supplementary material

Supplementary material such as applications, images and sound clips, can be published with your article to enhance it. Submitted supplementary items are published exactly as they are received (Excel or PowerPoint files will appear as such online). Please submit your material together with the article and supply a concise, descriptive caption for each supplementary file. If you wish to make changes to supplementary material during any stage of the process, please make sure to provide an updated file. Do not annotate any corrections on a previous version. Please switch off the 'Track Changes' option in Microsoft Office files as these will appear in the published version.

Peer Review
All manuscripts are initially screened by the editor and associate editors in a staff review process for overall scope of the Journal, scientific merit, and relevance to the field. Authors of manuscripts not selected for peer review are generally notified of this decision within two weeks after submission.

JAPhA uses a partially open peer review process in which the identities of authors are disclosed but reviewers' identities are masked. Although not required, authors may request that a certain editor handle the paper, provide names of potential reviewers knowledgeable in the subject area, and request that specific reviewers be chosen or not chosen for a particular paper. After critiques are received from multiple reviewers, the corresponding editor considers these reviews in reaching an initial decision to accept, request revisions, reject, or obtain additional reviews.

Ethics in Publishing
For information on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication see and

Scientific Ethics Policy

An alleged violation of any of the basic rules of scientific ethics, in accord with the procedures set forth in the American Medical Association Manual of Style (10th ed.), will be investigated confidentially. If the violation is deemed sufficiently serious, the editor will request a written explanation from the authors. If an explanation is not provided by the authors, or the explanation is unsatisfactory, such that the Journal's editor and associate editors believe that the evidence clearly shows that scientific misconduct occurred, the editor will promptly reject the manuscript or proceed to retract a published manuscript.

In addition, the editor reserves the right to notify the authors' institution(s) of the violation of the Journal's scientific ethics policy. The editor also reserves the option to request that the authors' institution initiate a formal investigation into the alleged violation of scientific ethics and to report back to the Journal in a timely manner. If the formal institutional investigation confirms scientific misconduct, the editor will promptly reject a pending manuscript or proceed to retract a published manuscript.

Further, the JAPhA editor reserves the right to impose punitive actions (e.g., ban on publishing in the Journal) on authors proven to have violated any of the basic rules of scientific ethics.

Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (for more information on this and copyright, see An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.

Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations (please consult If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases: please consult

Author rights
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. For more information see


One set of page proofs (as PDF files) will be sent by e-mail to the corresponding author (if we do not have an e-mail address then paper proofs will be sent by post) or, a link will be provided in the e-mail so that authors can download the files themselves. Elsevier now provides authors with PDF proofs which can be annotated; for this you will need to download the free Adobe Reader, version 9 (or higher). Instructions on how to annotate PDF files will accompany the proofs (also given online). The exact system requirements are given at the Adobe site.
If you do not wish to use the PDF annotations function, you may list the corrections (including replies to the Query Form) and return them to Elsevier in an e-mail. Please list your corrections quoting line number. If, for any reason, this is not possible, then mark the corrections and any other comments (including replies to the Query Form) on a printout of your proof and scan the pages and return via e-mail. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication: please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.


The corresponding author will, at no cost, receive a customized Share Link providing 50 days free access to the final published version of the article on ScienceDirect. The Share Link can be used for sharing the article via any communication channel, including email and social media. For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's Author Services. Corresponding authors who have published their article gold open access do not receive a Share Link as their final published version of the article is available open access on ScienceDirect and can be shared through the article DOI link.

Articles in Press
Accepted papers are subject to editorial revisions and copyediting. Accepted articles are published online, prior to full copyediting, within one week of final acceptance. They will be immediately citable, with an assigned digital object identifier (DOI). Corrected proofs are published online within several weeks of final acceptance. Articles generally appear in the journal within 3 months of acceptance.

Visit the Elsevier Support Center to find the answers you need. Here you will find everything from Frequently Asked Questions to ways to get in touch.
You can also check the status of your submitted article or find out when your accepted article will be published.