The Journal of the American Pharmacists Association (JAPhA) is a peer-reviewed forum to improve medication use and health outcomes, inform health care policies and advance pharmacist-provided services. JAPhA welcomes articles presenting original research, innovative practices, reviews, and opinions that report meaningful developments and advances in the drug use process and pharmacy practice. Journal articles should link science with pharmacy practice in these general content areas: pharmacists' patient care services, medication use, pharmacy services, health outcomes, new medications, emerging therapeutic trends, new technologies in health care, and research methods with applicability to pharmacy practice. Other content areas relevant to pharmacy practice will be considered. Articles may introduce new information about improving pharmacists' patient care services, medication use, and health outcomes. Also of interest are new technologies and research methods with applicability to pharmacy practice. These guidelines serve to maintain and improve the quality of the Journal. Questions regarding these guidelines or inquiries can be directed to the JAPhA Managing Editor, Liz Haberkorn, at
JAPhA accepts unsolicited manuscripts in the categories described in Table 1. With the exception of Letters to the Editor and Dose of Inspiration, all article types listed below are peer-reviewed.
The Journal uses Editorial Manager (located online at https://www.editorialmanager.com/japha/default.aspx) for manuscript submission and author communication. This web-based system prompts authors to enter required information in a standardized way to increase the consistency of information available during peer review. Submissions can be started and completed during multiple visits rather than in one session. Authors should access the site early in the writing process to register in the Author Center and become familiar with the way that information is requested. Editorial Manager will guide you through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files (e.g., Word, LaTeX) are required to typeset your article for final publication. Please do not submit PDF files of the title page, abstract, or manuscript text.
All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail to the individual noted as corresponding author during the initial manuscript submission. Authors can obtain information about manuscript status by accessing the website at any time as the submission moves through the staff review, peer review, and decision-making steps. Submission checklist
Please use the following list to ensure your submission contains all the required elements before you send it to the journal for review. Please consult the Manuscript Preparation section in this Guide for Authors for more details.
•The Guide for Authors has been reviewed to ensure manuscript follows Journal requirements and all relevant policies are followed
•Manuscript has been reviewed for clarity and any spelling or grammar errors
•Cover letter with required statements and declarations
•Title page with all required elements (see below)
•One author has been designated as the corresponding author with e-mail address and full postal address
•Complete manuscript file uploaded as one document (includes title page, abstract, key points if applicable, manuscript text, and references) in the native file format of the word processing program (e.g., Microsoft Word)
•Tables and figures uploaded as separate documents that are editable
•Supplemental files if applicable
•Page numbers included on all manuscript pages
•Line numbers are provided for at least the abstract and main manuscript text
•All references in the reference list are included in the text and vice versa
•Potential peer reviewer names and e-mail addresses (optional)
Disclosure of conflicts of interest
All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential competing interests include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. Authors must disclose any interests in two places:
- A summary disclosure of conflicts of interest statement on the title page. If there are no interests to declare then please include a statement that there are no conflicts to disclose. This summary statement will be ultimately published if the article is accepted.
- Detailed disclosures as part of a separate Declaration of Interest form in the manuscript submission system, which forms part of the journal's official records.
It is important for potential interests to be declared in both places and that the information matches.
Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract, a published lecture or academic thesis, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder.
To foster transparency, we ask that you state the availability of your data as part of the acknowledgement section of your submission and encourage you to share your data with other scientists. Data may be shared as supplemental files included with the submission or by providing a link to external data sharing services (Mendeley, Figshare, Open Science Framework, etc.) in the manuscript. For more information, visit https://www.elsevier.com/authors/author-services/research-data/
Use of inclusive language
Authors should ensure that writing is free from bias, generalizations, or stereotyping. Inclusive language acknowledges diversity, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and promotes equal opportunities. Articles should make no assumptions about the beliefs or commitments of any reader. The language should contain nothing that might imply that one individual is superior to another on the grounds of race or ethnicity, sex, gender identity or expression, sexual orientation, religion, culture, physical or mental disability, or any other characteristic. To the greatest extent possible, inclusive language should be used throughout the text. Authors are encouraged to use person-first language (e.g., "a person experiencing homelessness" rather than "a homeless person" or "patients with diaetes" rather than "diabetics").
For transparency, all articles should include an Author Contributions section on the title page outlining individual authors' contributions to the paper using the relevant CRediT roles: Conceptualization; Data curation; Formal analysis; Funding acquisition; Investigation; Methodology; Project administration; Resources; Software; Supervision; Validation; Visualization; Roles/Writing - original draft; Writing - review & editing. Authorship statements should be formatted with the names of authors first and CRediT role(s) following. hMore details and an example can be found on the Elsevier CRediT page.
Changes to authorship
Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion, or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the Journal Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed.
Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion, or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted. While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published online or in a printed issue, any requests approved by the Editor will result in a corrigendum.
Role of the funding source
Authors must identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement, then this should be stated.
Institutional Review Board (IRB)
Articles involving human participants are required to state within the article text as well as in the cover letter that approval or exemption has been granted by an institutional review board (IRB) or similar body. Articles not containing this statement will not be considered for peer review until IRB status is determined. If IRB review information cannot be provided or is refused, the article will be rejected. If a waiver or modification of consent was previously granted by an IRB, briefly describe in the text the rationale for the modification.
Before submission, articles should be reviewed for accuracy, clarity, and completeness by all contributing authors. Please write your text in good English. Either American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these. To avoid unnecessary errors, authors are strongly advised to use the text "spell-check" and "grammar-check" functions of word processing software. Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop.
Use of word processing software
It is important that the manuscript file be saved in the native format of the word processing software used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. The use of basic text formatting (bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts, etc.) is encouraged where appropriate. Manuscripts should be prepared following the guidance above in Table 1.
In general, JAPhA will consider papers prepared in accordance with the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors' Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals (available at: www.icmje.org).Submitting files that do not contain required elements outlined in Table 1 may, however, be returned to authors prior to consideration if the absence of those elements would result in peer reviewers' having difficulty providing useful feedback. All manuscripts must meet the formatting requirements in this Guide for Authors prior to final acceptance.
For general guidance on manuscript preparation, refer to the most recent edition of the American Medical Association Manual of Style (www.amamanualofstyle.com). All accepted manuscripts are edited to conform to JAPhA style.
JAPhA articles must be submitted in a single word-processing file as follows (additional detail is provided in the subsequent text):
- Title page (including word counts; see Table 1)
- Abstract (if applicable)
- Key words
- Key points (if applicable)
- Article text
Tables, figures, and any supplementary material must be uploaded as separate, editable files.
Permission to re-use copyrighted material
If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included in submitted manuscripts, authors must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases (https://www.elsevier.com/permissions). It is the sole responsibility of the author(s) to obtain the necessary permissions and pay any required fees. Documentation of permission should be included on initial submission. No manuscript including copyrighted material can be accepted until permissions have been obtained.
Essential title page information
The following information must be included on the title page:
- Complete author list: for each author include the following information
- Degree abbreviations
- Job title(s)
- Current affiliation (and past affiliation if it was different at the time of the manuscript and/or project completion) including institution, city, and state
- Optional: ORCID identifier (authors are strongly encouraged to include their ORCID identifier if available; see orcid.org to learn more and obtain an ID; ORCID identifiers can be added to your Editorial Manager account by updating your personal information)
- Optional: Twitter handle (this assists the Journal in promoting articles after acceptance)
- Designation of the corresponding author including e-mail and complete postal mailing address
- Author contribution statement using the CRediT roles (More details and an example can be found on the Elsevier CRediT page.)
- Funding support (financial or material) and the role, if any, of that support in the conduct of the study. If no support was provided, include the following statement: "This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors."
- Disclosures of conflicts of interest: conflicts of interest may include but are not limited to involvement in peer-reviewed publication and personal or financial interests that may bias the writing. Financial interests consist of grants, employment, gifts, stock holdings, honoraria, consultancies, expert testimonies, patents, and/or royalties. Potential conflicts of interest must be clearly stated. For guidance on conflicts of interest, authors are referred to the website of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (www.icmje.org/recommendations/browse/roles-and-responsibilities). If the authors have no conflicts, please include the following statement: "The authors declare no relevant conflicts of interest or financial relationships." This can be modified if some authors have conflicts but others do not (e.g., "All other authors declare no relevant conflicts of interest or financial relationships.")
- Previous presentations of the work (e.g., professional meetings)
- Separate word counts for the abstract and the manuscript
- Number of tables
- Number of figures (if applicable, note figures that must be reproduced in color)
- Number of supplemental online-only files
Formatting of funding sources
List funding sources in this standard way to facilitate compliance to funder's requirements:
Funding: This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health [grant numbers AAA, BBB]; the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, WA [grant number CCC]; and the United States Institutes of Peace [grant number DDD].It is not necessary to include detailed descriptions on the program or type of grants and awards. When funding is from a block grant or other resources available to a university, college, or other research institution, submit the name of the institute or organization that provided the funding.
Article titles are subject to editing by Journal staff after articles are accepted. Although longer titles may sometimes be allowed, authors should make an effort to restrict titles to no more than 95 characters and spaces (approximately 12 words) in length. In addition, use of acronyms in titles should be avoided whenever possible. Although not required, authors are also encouraged to provide a short title of no more than 20 words to serve as a running head if the submission is accepted.
A concise (≤300 words) and factual abstract is required for all submissions with the exception of Letters to the Editor and Dose of Inspiration. Specific subheadings are required in the abstract depending on the section of manuscript submitted (See Table 1). If an abstract heading does not apply, include the heading and write "Not applicable" for that section.
JAPhA provides authors the option of submitting video abstracts to support and enhance their published articles. This optional feature is in addition to written abstracts required as part of submission. Video abstracts may include an overview of the paper in the form of a video of author(s) speaking or being interviewed or an animated graphic with voiceover. Authors interested in submitting video abstracts are strongly encouraged to include files upon initial submission or during the revision process rather than after acceptance. Video abstracts are subject to peer and editorial review. Videos should be no longer than 2-3 minutes. The video should be submitted in one file that is properly labeled so that it directly relates to the file's content (e.g., Smith-et-al-Video-Abstract.MPG). In order to ensure that material is directly usable, please provide the file in one of our recommended file formats (MPG is preferred; MP4 or MOV are also acceptable) with a maximum size of 150 MB per file. In addition to the video file, authors must select one still image that may be displayed as the link to the video abstract. Any frame from the video can be selected as this still image or a separate image can be created and submitted. To facilitate accessibility, authors are encouraged to provide a written transcript of the video abstract if the content is substantially different form the paper's abstract. Video abstracts will be published online in the electronic version of the article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect. For more detailed instructions, please visit Elsevier's video instruction page.
The Journal requests authors submit key points to provide potential readers with a quick overview of the contribution each article makes to the literature or practice. For manuscripts in the Research, Research Notes, Reviews, and Advances in Pharmacy Practice, authors are required to prepare key points in a bulleted format that describe the article's relevance and contribution to the literature. These are presented under two separate headings: "What was already known" and "What this study adds." Each heading must contain no more than three bullets. Ideally each bullet should not exceed 40 words. Key points are subject to editing by Journal staff after articles are acceptance.
The headings used by JAPhA to introduce an article's main sections are described in Table 1. Authors are encouraged to used subheadings when necessary to improve article flow and clarity. Care should be taken by authors to include sufficient methodological information to evaluate the quality of the research.
Abbreviations, acronyms, units, proprietary (brand) names, and symbols
Define abbreviations and acronyms that are not standard in the field and place on the first page of the article. Abbreviations and acronyms that are unavoidable in the abstract must be defined at their first mention there, as well as on the first page. Ensure consistency in the use of abbreviations and acronyms throughout the article. For guidance on standard or recommended abbreviations, acronyms, units, and symbols, please consult the most recent edition of the American Medical Association Manual of Style or Stedman's Medical Dictionary. Authors are cautioned against creating new abbreviations or acronyms for shorthand representations of repeatedly used terms in a manuscript, especially when the new abbreviation or acronym is the same as or similar to existing ones. While this may assist authors when writing, excessive use of abbreviations or acronyms may reduce the readability of the manuscript.
Within the text of an article, medications should be referred to by generic names. For single-source products or to identify a specific product, place the brand name followed by the manufacturer in parentheses following the generic name; for example, simvastatin (Zocor-Merck). Do not include trademark symbols. Brand names are not included for multisource drugs unless a specific product is being discussed (e.g., the specific brand mentioned in a case report).
Sources in the peer-reviewed literature (published or accepted for publication) or from other authoritative entities (e.g., reports of expert working groups or governmental agencies) should be cited in the text as references using superscript sequential integers and placed in a reference list after the Conclusion section. All statements of fact in JAPhA articles from other sources should be acknowledged through the use of parenthetical text in the manuscript or in the references.
Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list and vice versa. When possible, avoid the use of references in the abstract. Unpublished results and personal communications should not be included in the reference list. Instead, these should be listed in the text as "Unpublished results" or "Personal communication." Citation of a reference as "in press" is only appropriate if that item has been accepted for publication.JAPhA follows the referencing format of the American Medical Association Manual of Style. All references must be cited in the text and numbered sequentially in order of use. References that are listed but not cited will be deleted.
Tables, figures, and other illustrations
The number of accepted tables and figures varies by category of article submission. Please refer to Table 1 for specific criteria. During manuscript submission, tables and figures should be uploaded as separate files. Tables or figures that exceed the number allowed for an article category can be made available as supplementary online material. If color reproduction is necessary for figures, photographs, or illustrations, please note this clearly in the cover letter and the title page.
Please submit tables as editable text, not as images. Tables should be prepared using the native table creation functions of the word processing software being used rather than white space (e.g., tabs to denote columns). Tables larger than one page are discouraged. Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text and place any table notes below the table body. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in them do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article. Only the most important data or highlights should be provided in table format. The table itself should contain all information needed to convey the intended meaning without need for the reader to refer to the text. All acronyms and/or abbreviations used within the table must be defined in a legend below the table. For math and calculations displayed in the tables, ensure that the results are correct. Use appropriate column headings to ease interpretation. Subheadings or column spanners should be used sparingly and only when necessary to avoid confusion in table interpretation. Authors are encouraged to consider providing complex tables as supplemental files available online through the Journal.
Similar to submission of tables, figures must be submitted in a format compatible with current JAPhA typesetting systems. Figures should be submitted as separate files, not embedded within the manuscript. Charts and graphs should be submitted in an editable format (e.g., Excel, Word, PowerPoint, or similar programs). Submission in this format allows Journal editors and staff to perform basic edits, such as changing fonts in label axes. To accomplish this, Journal editors and staff must be able to "click" into figure files to edit the file to conform to house standards.
Photographs or illustrations
Photographs or illustrations submitted for publication in the manuscript must be labelled as a figure. These files should be provided in PNG, TIFF, or JPEG formats in 300 dots per square inch (dpi) for color images or 600 dpi for black-and-white images.
JAPhA encourages authors to credit underlying or relevant datasets used in the manuscript by citing them in the manuscript text and including a data reference in the reference list. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so these can be properly identified as data references. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in the published article.
Supplementary material such as applications, images and sound clips, can be published with an article. Submitted supplementary items are published exactly as they are received (Excel or PowerPoint files will appear as such online). Please submit your supplemenal material together with the article and supply a concise, descriptive caption for each supplementary file. If changes to supplementary material need to be made during any stage of the process prior to acceptance, please make sure to provide an updated file. Do not annotate any corrections on a previous version. Please switch off the 'Track Changes' option in Microsoft Office files (or similar functions in other software) as these will appear in the published version.
All manuscripts are initially screened by the editor and associate editors in a staff review process to determine fit with the overall scope of the Journal, scientific merit, and relevance to the field. Authors of manuscripts not selected for peer review are generally notified of this decision within 2 weeks after submission.
JAPhA uses a partially open peer-review process in which the identities of authors are disclosed but reviewers' identities are masked. Although not required, authors may request that a certain editor handle the paper, provide names of potential reviewers knowledgeable in the subject area, and request that specific reviewers be chosen or not chosen for a particular paper. After critiques are received from multiple reviewers, the corresponding editor considers these reviews in reaching an initial decision to accept, request revisions, reject, or obtain additional reviews.Select article types (e.g., Letters to the Editor and Dose of Inspiration) are not subjected to the peer-review process. Instead, these will be reviewed by the editor, associate editors, and/or staff to provide feedback to authors in order to improve clarity and conform to Journal style.
Funding body agreements and policies
Elsevier has established a number of agreements with funding bodies that allow authors to comply with their funder's open access policies. Some funding bodies will reimburse the author for the gold open access publication fee. Details of existing agreements are available online.
Any alleged violation of the basic rules of scientific ethics will be investigated following guidance from various bodies, such as the Committee on Publication Ethics and the U.S. National Institutes of Health Office of Research Integrity. All investigations will be handled confidentially in accord with the procedures set foth in the most recent editions of the American Medical Association Manual of Style. If the violation is deemed sufficiently serious, the editor will request a written explanation from the authors. If an explanation is not provided by the authors, or the explanation is unsatisfactory, such that the Journal's editor and associate editors believe that the evidence clearly shows that scientific misconduct occurred, the editor will promptly reject the manuscript or proceed to retract a published manuscript.In addition, the editor reserves the right to notify the authors' institution(s) of the violation of the Journal's scientific ethics policy. The editor also reserves the option to request that the authors' institution initiate a formal investigation into the alleged violation of scientific ethics and to report back to the Journal in a timely manner. If the formal institutional investigation confirms scientific misconduct, the editor will promptly reject a pending manuscript or proceed to retract a published manuscript.
Further, the JAPhA editor reserves the right to impose punitive actions (e.g., ban on publishing in the Journal) on authors proven to have violated any of the basic rules of scientific ethics.Ethics in publishing
For information on ethics in publishing and ethical guidelines for journal publication, consult the Committee on Publication Ethics (https://publicationethics.org/) or Elsevier's ethics resources (https://www.elsevier.com/publishingethics and https://www.elsevier.com/journal-authors/ethics).
Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a Journal Publishing Agreement (for more information on this and copyright, see https://www.elsevier.com/copyright). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a Journal Publishing Agreement form or a link to the online version of this agreement.
Articles in press
Accepted papers are subject to editorial revisions and copyediting. Accepted articles are published online, prior to full copyediting, within 1 week of final acceptance. They will be immediately citable, with an assigned digital object identifier (DOI). Corrected proofs are published online within several weeks of final acceptance. Articles generally appear in the journal within 3 months of acceptance.
JAPhA offers authors a choice in publishing their research as part of the acceptance process. Regardless of how you choose to publish your article, JAPhA will apply the same peer-review criteria and acceptance standards.
- Articles are made available to subscribers as well as developing countries and patient groups through our universal access programs.
- No open access publication fee payable by authors.
- The author is entitled to post the accepted manuscript in their institution's repository and make this public after the Journal's 12-month embargo period (known as green Open Access).
- The published journal article cannot be shared publicly, for example on ResearchGate or Academia.edu, to ensure the sustainability of peer-reviewed research in journal publications.
- Articles are freely available to both subscribers and the wider public with permitted reuse.
- A gold open access publication fee is payable by authors or on their behalf, e.g. by their research funder or institution.
- For gold open access articles, permitted third-party (re)use is defined by the following Creative Commons user licenses:
CC BY is only available for funded authors.
For non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.
One set of page proofs (as PDF files) will be sent by e-mail to the corresponding author or a link will be provided in the e-mail so that authors can download the files themselves. Authors will receive a link to an online proofing system where they can respond to author queries and make minor edits as needed. If it is not possible to use the online proofing system, a PDF of the proof can be downloaded for commenting and returned via e-mail to the Journal production office.
The corresponding author will, at no cost, receive a customized Share Link providing 50 days free access to the final published version of the article on ScienceDirect. The Share Link can be used for sharing the article via any communication channel, including email and social media. For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's Webshop. Corresponding authors who have published their article gold open access do not receive a Share Link as their final published version of the article is available open access on ScienceDirect and can be shared through the article DOI link.
JAPhA and Elsevier support responsible sharing. Find out how authors can share their research published in Elsevier journals. Authors (or their employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse their own work. For more information see https://www.elsevier.com/copyright.
Author InquiriesAuthors can check the status of their manuscript by visiting the JAPhA Editorial Manager page, by e-mailing the handling editor directly, or by e-mailing JAPhA@aphanet.org.