Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
Information for Authors
Resources and Tools for Conducting Nutrition Research
Understanding Nutrition Research
Study Design and Statistical Methods
Evaluation of Dietary Assessment Methods
Manuscript Development and Writing Style
Healthy Eating Index (HEI)
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)
Peer Review Process
Letters to the Editor
Tables and Figures
Copyright Transfer, Authorship Agreement, and Conflict of Interest
Conflict of Interest Disclosure
Permission to Reprint
Open AccessEDITORIAL PROCESSING AND PUBLICATION
Embargo Policy/Articles in Press
Post-Production ServicesAUTHOR INQUIRIES
The Journal publishes manuscripts that advance knowledge across a wide range of research and practice issues in nutrition and dietetics. Evidence-based contributions of original research; focused meta-analyses of cohort and randomized clinical trials; systematic reviews; and innovative research applications are welcome. Topics include foods and nutrients and their implications in health and disease; dietary patterns and dietary interventions; nutritional science, nutrigenomics, and medical nutrition therapy; translational research; dietetics practice and public health; nutrition epidemiology and bio-statistical applications in nutrition research; food science and biotechnology; foodservice systems; leadership and management in food and nutrition systems and application to public policy; and medical nutrition and dietetics education. International contributions on global topics of nutrition interest are also welcome, providing there is relevance to the largely US readership and findings are placed within that context. Major trends that impact research and practice in the fields of food, nutrition, and dietetics may also be considered if placed in appropriate contexts for the Journal's readership (eg, population demographic transitions, environmental trends, health care advancements).The Journal does not publish market research studies; studies that lack testable hypotheses or measureable objectives; studies that use un-validated scientific methods; sections from theses or dissertations unless systematic and rigorous in their design. The Journal does not publish animal studies, studies lacking scientific rigor and quality control, studies without a control group when indicated by study design, or studies with random findings or author opinions. Abstracts that were presented at a scientific meeting do not preclude a manuscript from consideration for publication.
Reviewing and closely following the guidelines below will facilitate the review of your manuscript and save time for authors and reviewers.The Journal follows the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) recommendations for clinical trial registration and requires registration of all clinical trial studies that began after January 1, 2011. The ICMJE requires registration of clinical trials in a public trials registry at or before the time of first patient enrollment as a condition of consideration for publication. According to the ICMJE, a clinical trial is defined as "any research project that prospectively assigns people or a group of people to an intervention, with or without concurrent comparison or control groups, to study the cause-and-effect relationship between a health-related intervention and a health outcome. Health-related interventions are those used to modify a biomedical or health-related outcome; examples include drugs, surgical procedures, devices, behavioral treatments, educational programs, dietary interventions, quality improvement interventions, and process-of-care changes. Health outcomes are any biomedical or health-related measures obtained in patients or participants." Acceptable ICMJE-approved public trials registries include: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov, http://www.anzctr.org.au, http://www.isrctn.org, http://www.umin.ac.jp, http://www.trialregister.nl. Secondary data analyses of primary (parent) clinical trials should not be registered as separate clinical trials, but instead reference the trial registration number of the primary trial in the manuscript text. Please report the trial registration number (TRN) and the website where the clinical trial is registered on the author page when submitting an article. In addition, the TRN should be included in the methods section of the manuscript.
RESOURCES AND TOOLS FOR CONDUCTING NUTRITION RESEARCH
Understanding Nutrition Research
The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics offers "Steps to Developing a Research Project: Resources to Help" designed to help the reader, and potentially a new investigator or budding author, learn how to evaluate and use published research; the basics of conducting a research project; and how to interpret research articles effectively. It includes several "how to" modules, reference articles and is free to members of the Academy. The Journal's publisher, Elsevier, also offers information for authors regarding policies and ethics.
The following publications and presentation have been developed by the Journal's Board of Editors' Statistics Team to further support Journal readers and authors in nutrition research.
- Gleason PM, Harris JE. The Bayesian approach to decision making and analysis in nutrition research and practice.J Acad Nutr Diet. 2019;119(12):1993-2003.
- Zoellner J, Harris JE. Mixed-methods research in nutrition and dietetics. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2017;117(5):683-697.
- Harris JE, Raynor HA. Crossover designs in nutrition and dietetics research. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2017;117(7):1023-1030.
- Gleason PM, Boushey CJ, JE, Jamie Zoellner J. Publishing nutrition research: a review of multivariate techniques-part 3: data reduction methods. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2015;115(7):1072-1082.
- Zoellner J, Van Horn L, Gleason PM, Boushey CJ. What is translational research? Concepts and applications in nutrition and dietetics. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2015;115(7):1057-1071.
- Harris JE, Sheean PM, Gleason PM, Bruemmer B, Boushey C. Publishing nutrition research: a review of multivariate techniques-part 2: analysis of variance. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2012;112(1):90-98.
- Sheean PM, Bruemmer B, Gleason P, Harris J, Boushey C, Van Horn L. Publishing nutrition research: a review of multivariate techniques-Part 1. J Am Diet Assoc. 2011;111(1):103-110.
- Gleason PM, Harris JE, Sheean PM, Boushey CJ, Bruemmer B. Publishing nutrition research: validity, reliability, and diagnostic test assessment in nutrition-related research. J Am Diet Assoc. 2010;110(3):409-419.
- Bruemmer B, Harris J, Gleason P, et al. Publishing nutrition research: a review of epidemiologic methods. J Am Diet Assoc.2009;109(10):1728-1737.
- Harris J, Gleason P, Sheean P, Boushey C, Beto J, Bruemmer B. An introduction to qualitative research for food and nutrition professionals. J Am Diet Assoc. 2009;109(1):80-90.
- Harris JE, Boushey C, Bruemmer B, Archer SL. Publishing nutrition research: a review of nonparametric methods, Part 3. J Am Diet Assoc. 2008;108(9):1488-1496.
- Boushey CJ, Harris J, Bruemmer B, Archer SL. Publishing nutrition research: a review of sampling, sample size, statistical analysis, and other key elements of manuscript preparation. Part 2. J Am Diet Assoc. 2008;108(4):679-688.
- Boushey C, Harris J, Bruemmer B, Archer SL, Van Horn L. Publishing nutrition research: a review of study design, statistical analyses, and other key elements of manuscript preparation, Part 1. J Am Diet Assoc. 2006;106(1):89-96.
The following publications have been developed by an expert working group to support Journal readers and authors in nutrition research involving the evaluation of the validity of dietary assessment methods:
- Frongillo EA, Baranowski T, Subar AF, Tooze JA, Kirkpatrick SI. Establishing validity and cross-context equivalence of measures and indicators. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2019;119(11)1817-1830.
- Kirkpatrick SI, Baranowski T, Subar AF, Tooze JA, Frongillo EA. Best practices for conducting and interpreting studies to validate self-report dietary assessment methods. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2019;119(11):1801-1816.
The Journal offers this online presentation providing guidance for developing the research question, objective, study design, and writing tips.
Manuscripts reporting survey data should have sufficient response rates and appropriate characterization of non-responders to ensure that nonresponse bias does not threaten the validity of the findings. For most surveys, such as those conducted by telephone, personal interviews, mail, e-mail, or via the web, authors are encouraged to report the survey outcome rates using standard definitions and metrics, such as those proposed by the American Association for Public Opinion Research. It is strongly encouraged that behavioral studies include a behavioral theory/framework.
- Beto JA, Metallinos-Katsaras E, Leung C. Crowdsourcing: a critical reflection on this new frontier of participant recruiting in nutrition and dietetics research. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2020;120(2):193-196.
Various aspects of nutrition-related behaviors or attitudes, hypothesis or theory generation, or cultural description are suitable for submission as a Research Paper or Research Brief. Unlike quantitative studies that rely on a priori hypothesis testing, qualitative research categorizes words, sounds, or pictures captured from qualitative data sources (eg, transcripts, audiotapes, videotapes), into patterns as the primary basis for organizing and reporting results. All Qualitative Research submissions are subject to the same rigorous peer-review process and standards as quantitative submissions; however, hypothesis generated outcomes and quantitative results are not expected. Special attention should be given to: describing the research questions, strategies for ensuring validity and reliability, sampling methodology, qualitative methodology (participation in a unique setting, direct observation, in-depth interviews and/or analysis of documents and materials), sample characteristics and sample size, control of potential response bias factors, and the analytic framework used to evaluate the results. If using internet-based survey data collection, methodology should provide sufficient rigor to confirm who the actual respondents are and address validity/reliability issues of their responses. The methodology (eg, focus groups, structured interviews, surveys, questionnaires) and any forms of data collected (eg, field notes, videos, pictures, documents) should be described in detail including the development of the measures along with the validity and reliability procedures used prior to administration and as part of data analysis.
Authors are encouraged to seek further guidance by reviewing the following article on qualitative research.
- Harris J, Gleason P, Sheean P, Boushey C, Beto J, Bruemmer B. An introduction to qualitative research for food and nutrition professionals. J Am Diet Assoc. 2009;109(1):80-90.
Authors using the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) may find the link helpful in understanding the HEI and using appropriate methodology for calculating the HEI score. Please specify the specific analytic method that was used to calculate to the HEI score (eg, the simple HEI scoring algorithm method, the mean ratio method, the population ratio method, or something else).
- Healthy Eating Index (http://epi.grants.cancer.gov/hei/tools.html)
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)
The following link provides researchers information on the use of NHANES data:
- National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) (http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/tutorials)
The Journal conforms to guidelines of peer review as promulgated by the International Committee on Medical Journal Editors. Peer review for all articles undergoing review is double-blinded and reviewers are required to maintain confidentiality about the manuscripts they review and must not divulge any information about a specific manuscript or its content to any third party without prior permission from the Journal editors. The reviewers evaluate each manuscript on the basis of content, originality, scientific accuracy, clarity, and contribution to the field of nutrition and dietetics. The Journal's checklist system described in the article categories section will be used by peer reviewers to complete the review. Manuscripts are accepted at the discretion of the reviewers and the Journal editors. After peer review (usually 6 to 8 weeks after the date of submission), the corresponding author will be notified whether the manuscript is accepted, needs revision, or is rejected.Back to TopARTICLE CATEGORIES: RESEARCH
The Journal accepts the following article categories which are determined by study design and methodology: Research Paper, Research Brief, Systematic Review, Narrative Review, Case Study, Commentary, and Editorial.Research Paper
These evidence-based manuscripts include hypothesis-driven, randomized controlled clinical trials; intervention studies; prospective cohort studies; case-control studies; comparative effectiveness research; epidemiologic assessments; other population-based observational studies with large sample sizes and representative of a population of interest; validated surveys with high response rates from verified participants; cost-effectiveness studies and decision analyses; and research on the validation of novel screening and diagnostic tests as well as unique dietary assessment methodologies. These reports are expected to utilize rigorous research designs with appropriate statistical analyses and validated research methods. Research Paper manuscripts, in general, range between 3,500 and 5,000 words, not including abstract, tables/figures, or references. Figures and tables range from two to six and should be limited to those most pertinent to the study without duplicating findings in the text.
These evidence-based research articles are shorter reports of research findings that are typically hypothesis-driven and may include secondary and/or cross-sectional analyses from larger population-based studies; epidemiological and survey research with relatively large sample sizes representative of a population of interest; observational studies; randomized clinical trials using smaller sample sizes; pilot studies; retrospective studies; and validation studies of established dietary or clinical assessment techniques in new populations. These reports are expected to utilize rigorous research designs with appropriate statistical analyses and validated research methods, although some of these reports may also be methodological validation studies. Research Brief articles are typically 2,500-3000 words, not including abstract, tables/figures, or references. Figures and tables range from one to three and should be limited to those most pertinent to the study without duplicating findings in the text.
Research Paper and Research Brief manuscripts should include:
- research snapshot included as the first page of the manuscript body;
- structured abstract following the research snapshot;
- introduction stating the purpose and relevance of the study and the testable hypotheses and/or measurable objectives underlying the study design;
- clear and full description of materials and methods, including criteria for participant selection and reasons for excluding any data or subjects, sample size computation or how sample size was determined, referenced measurement instruments and quality control measures, summary details of statistical methods, and for randomized clinical trials include method of randomization;
- report of the results following the same order presented in the methods for clarity;
- discussion of the results should be compared with other published data of a similar nature using current literature along with implications of the results for further research or possible clinical application. For example, what do the results mean for the topic being investigated? In addition, a paragraph describing the strengths and limitations of the study should be included;
- conclusions should be succinctly stated and drawn only from reported results. They should not go beyond or overstate them. Implications for further research might be included;
- current and relevant peer-reviewed scientific references; and
- tables/figures with clearly written titles, headings, and footnotes that permit full interpretation without accompanying text.
- Observational (eg, Cross-Sectional, Case-Control, Cohort)
- Experimental (eg, Randomized Clinical Trial, Crossover Design)
- Cost-Effectiveness Analysis
All review articles should be comprehensive reviews on specific nutrition topics with public health, clinical, management, or educational relevance. Authors submitting to any of the review categories must select the appropriate study design and checklist. Links are provided below each study design and authors are strongly encouraged to review all the information provided in the corresponding link(s) prior to writing their manuscript. Authors are required to upload a copy of the checklist with their submission and indicate on the checklist the page and/or line number where the requested elements are located. The checklists are part of publicly available websites and are not unique to the Journal. Peer reviewers will use the checklist as part of their review process. If elements from the checklist are missing or it is felt they are not applicable, a statement of explanation must accompany the manuscript regarding the reasons for the exclusion. Omission of the checklist may delay manuscript review.
These articles should address topics with an extensive body of primary source literature to provide a critical summary of the current evidence and applications using the appropriate software (eg, Cochrane, Comprehensive Meta-Analysis). In some cases, these articles may also address an emerging topic with limited literature to better demonstrate the need for more research. The review should be structured around a focused question utilizing PICO in indentifying the question:
- P: investigations' participant(s)
- I: intervention(s)
- C: comparison(s)
- O: outcome(s).
For an example of a Systematic Review article, please refer to: D'Arcy E, Rayner J, Hodge A, Ross LJ, Schoenaker DAJM. The role of diet in the prevention of diabetes among women with prior gestational diabetes: a systematic review of intervention and observational studies. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2020;120(1):69-85.e7.For an example of a Systematic Review with meta-analysis, please refer to: Sun Y, Almeida F, Estabrooks P, Davy B. The Effectiveness and Cost of Lifestyle Interventions Including Nutrition Education for Diabetes Prevention: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analylsis. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2017;117(3):404-421.
Narrative review manuscripts are reviews on specific nutrition topics with public health, clinical, management, or educational relevance. These review articles should address topics with an extensive body of primary source literature to provide a critical, balanced summary of the current evidence and applications. Narrative reviews should be written by authors who are considered experts in the topic area or have extensive knowledge of the topic being reviewed. The data sources should be as current as possible, ideally with the search having been conducted within several months of manuscript submission. In some cases, Narrative Review articles may also address an emerging topic with limited literature to better demonstrate the need for more research. Narrative Review articles can range from 4,000-5,000 words and may include two to six tables or figures, as appropriate. For an example of a Narrative Review article please refer to: Burris, J, Rietkerk W, Woolf K. Acne: the role of medical nutrition therapy J Acad Nutr Diet. 2013;113(3):416-430.
- Systematic Review—Randomized Control Trials
- Systematic Review—Observational
- Checklist (see the Table)
- Systematic Review—Qualitative
- Checklist (see Table 1)
- Narrative Review
These articles focus on nutrition-related case studies and novel scientific or conceptual advancements within the field of dietetics that are vital to providing timely support for promising areas of future research and practice. Case studies should include: (1) an unstructured abstract;(2) an introduction and general description of the pathophysiology of the disease or disorder and its nutritional relevancy; (3) a brief but thorough description of the clinical case (eg, patient profile, presenting symptoms, relevant past medical/surgical history, hospital or treatment course, laboratory results, tests or procedures) with utilization of the Nutrition Care Process (J Am Diet Assoc. 2008;108(7):1113-1117), International Dietetics and Nutrition Terminology (J Am Diet Assoc. 2008;108(8):1287-1293), and using de-identified data to protect the patient or patients' right to privacy; (4) the interventions and medical nutrition therapies and evidence-based guidelines employed; and (5) a discussion and conclusion, which includes outcome data (if available), lessons learned for the subsequent management of similar cases and emphasis on future directions for applicable research. These manuscripts can be up to 2,000 words and can include up to 3-4 tables and/or figures.
- Case Study—CARE
Commentaries are scholarly papers that address topics of interest to the dietetics profession and often reflect matters of emerging importance or of a controversial nature that require additional research or policy development. Such topics may have been previously published in the Journal or foreshadow emerging science or practical applications. Commentaries may be invited or spontaneously submitted and should focus on matters of nutrition research, the practice of dietetics, or related areas with rigorous attention to matters of study design, the quality of existing data, and relevant limitations as well. Commentaries are approximately 2,500 words in length (excluding reference, tables/figures) and are expected to be balanced, unbiased, and well documented with quality references. Commentaries may include one or two tables or figures as appropriate, and should reflect a substantive area of concern. Subjective, anecdotal, or purely descriptive data are not publishable in this context. For an example of a Commentary, please refer to: J Acad Nutr Diet. 2012;112(9):1330-1333.
An Editorial is written in conjunction with an upcoming publication of a Research Paper and is invited. Authors should center the Editorial around the featured article, integrating the existing literature. Editorials are expected to be well documented and to contribute substantive evidence regarding the topic of specific interest, not simply descriptive or subjective material, nor a summary of the paper involved. These manuscripts average in length around 2,500 words (excluding references, tables, and figures) and may include up to two tables and/or figures. For an example of an Editorial, please refer to: J Acad Nutr Diet. 2018;118(1):33-36.Back to TopARTICLE CATEGORIES: PRACTICE
These news- and information-driven articles offer authors an opportunity to discuss cutting-edge or emerging nutrition topics, scope of practice-related topics, emerging dietetics issues, current media topics, and prevalent client communication issues. Professional Practice articles ARE NOT research/survey summaries or briefs. Particular areas of interest include:
- management in dietetics
- dietetics education
- operations in all areas of practice (eg, sustainability within operations, outcomes assessment)
- media interest/what to tell patients/clients about hot topics (eg, allergies)
- foodservice, retail food service, and food safety and biosecurity
- standardized language
- quality measures and outcomes (eg, customer satisfaction)
- emerging areas of competency development (eg, cultural competency, leadership qualities/opportunities)
- job/career satisfaction and career path research
- human resource management in all areas of dietetics
Letters to the Editor-in-Chief may be submitted for consideration regarding manuscripts published within the past 6 months. Letters should generate productive discussion with the authors by objectively addressing key scientific factors or controversies that add important, constructive, well-documented points to the topic. Letters should be succinct, non-pejorative and no more than 500 words and can contain up to 20 references. As with other submissions, Letters should be submitted online and include an author page, funding disclosure, conflict of interest disclosure, and signed copyright/authorship form. All letters will be subjected to editorial review and decision before acceptance and may be sent for peer review at the discretion of the editor. When appropriate, authors of original articles will be given an opportunity to respond, and if they chose not to respond, this will be noted, following the Letter to the Editor.Back to TopMANUSCRIPT PREPARATION
Editorial Manager (EM), the web-based peer-review and article submission system for the Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, is required for submission of manuscripts. Web-based peer review provides full electronic capabilities for submission, review, and status updates. Manuscripts must be submitted at: https://www.editorialmanager.com/jandjrnl. For questions about submitting, contact Lois Ahrens, RDN, LD, Associate Editor at 319-384-5044 or email@example.com.
Use standard, 12-point, Times New Roman font and double-space type throughout, including the title page, abstract, text, acknowledgments, references, and tables and figures. Number each page of the manuscript consecutively and include continuous line numbers beginning with the research snapshot (if applicable) and continuing through the reference list. Delineate new paragraphs with an extra line space or indentation. Authors' names should appear only on the title page described below. Other pages should not contain any information identifying the authors. A description of the various components of a manuscript follows.Note: The manuscript should be formatted in Microsoft Word. Do not use the footnote function for references or the comments function. Include references at the end of the manuscript. DO NOT UPLOAD MANUSCRIPT TEXT FILES IN PDF FORMAT. Also, manuscripts must not be submitted with track changes.
Manuscripts that do not comply with these specific guidelines will be returned to authors for revision prior to being sent out for review or evaluated by editors.Cover Letter
A cover letter is required with each submission/round of revision and is an informal introduction to the paper citing any relevant information to the editors about the manuscript that is not included in the text.
Authors' names or initials should not appear anywhere else within the manuscript or other documents. The title page should include:
- title of the manuscript- this should be specific and informative, conveying the findings of the research (eg, "Dietary fiber lowers serum cholesterol" rather than "Effects of dietary fiber on serum cholesterol"). The manuscript title should appear on the abstract, the first page of the manuscript text, the Title Page, and all correspondence. Qualitative research articles must use "Qualitative Research" somewhere in the title.
- five keywords or descriptive phrases-keywords appear alongside the article abstract and provide readers with a quick list of the main issues discussed in the article. When selecting keywords, take into consideration the overarching topic/subject of your article as well as the specifics of the research. Do not use adjectives. Terms that are fundamental to your manuscript but are not included in your manuscript title or abstract are especially important to include to increase discoverability. Qualitative research article must include the keywords "qualitative research."
- Please note that during manuscript submission, you will be asked to supply keywords to assist the editors in locating suitable reviewers for your manuscript. Keywords for reviewer searches should include the terms most fundamental to your manuscript and may differ from your list of keywords for publication.
- two word counts-one for the abstract and one for the text (excluding references, tables, and figures).
- author contact information-full names, academic degrees, and affiliations (position title, organization, address, telephone number, fax number, and e-mail address) for all authors both at the time the work was completed and at present, if affiliations have changed since the work was completed. Type authors' names in the order they should appear in the published article-refer to the subsection titled "Credentials" in the section titled "JOURNAL STYLE" for more information about listing degrees and credentials on the authors' page.
- author contributions-authors are required to identify their contributions to the work described in the manuscript in the author page (eg, JS, JD, and JDS collected the data. LS and LA wrote the first draft with contributions from CH. All authors reviewed and commented on subsequent drafts of the manuscript).
- identification of the corresponding author.
- reprint contact-name and address of author who will handle reader requests for reprints, if this is different from the corresponding author.
- funding/financial disclosures-list all financial and material support for the research and the work; if there is no funding or support, include a statement indicated as such.
- conflict of interest disclosures-list all potential conflicts of interest; authors without conflicts of interest, including specific financial interests and relationships and affiliations relevant to the subject of their manuscript, should include a statement indicating there are no conflicts to report.
- acknowledgements-authors may acknowledge persons other than coauthors who have made substantial contributions to the development of their study or manuscript. Please make a note at the end of the acknowledgement that you have received permission from those named in the acknowledgement.
Research Paper, Research Brief, and Review submissions must include a feature called "Research Snapshot" and should be included prior to the abstract on the first page of the manuscript. This feature should provide the reader with a short summary of your manuscript, broken up into two sections: Research Question and Key Findings. The Research Snapshot section should not exceed 75-100 words.
Research Question: In one to two sentences, provide the reader with a question that informs them of the hypothesis or goal/purpose of the manuscript.Key Findings: In one to three sentences, provide the reader with the results of the study/review. Describe nature of the design (eg, clinical trial, cohort study, case-control study, meta-analysis, systematic review). The findings section should only include primary outcome(s) and finding(s), not secondary outcomes. Only basic numbers should be included, but the author should indicate whether results were statistically significant or insignificant.
EXAMPLEResearch Question: Does the association between dietary protein and lean mass differ by physical activity level, amino acid composition, and body mass index categories?
Key Findings: In this cross-sectional prospective cohort that included 8,298 post-menopausal women from the Women's Health Initiative Study, regardless of body mass index category, protein intake up to 2.02 g/kg body weight was associated with positive lean mass. Percent fat mass and lean body mass index were both inversely related to protein intake. Women who also engaged in physical activity further reduced percent fat mass and lean body mass.Abstract
Abstracts are required for Research Paper, Review, Research Brief, and Case Study manuscripts. Authors will be prompted to copy the abstract into a separate text box for use by reviewers. The abstract should also be included as the first page of the manuscript body after the research snapshot. Authors should prepare a structured or unstructured abstract per checklist guidelines. Abstracts should be written in complete sentences and for a general journal readership, include P values, if appropriate, and be understandable without reference to the main text. A general description of a structured abstract is as follows:
Structured Abstract (use for Research Paper; Research Brief; Systematic Review)Structured abstracts provide a focused overview of a study's design and outcomes by organizing information with descriptive headings. Headings that should be included for research papers and research briefs and the information that should be provided for each, are described below. Systematic review manuscripts should include background, objective, methods, results, and conclusions headings only. Structured abstracts should not exceed 300 words.
- Background. Briefly explain the context of the study or summarize the relevant problem addressed by the study. The statement should clearly state the rationale for investigating the research question.
- Objective. Describe the question or problem addressed and the testable hypotheses involved.
- Design. Identify the design of the study (eg, cross-sectional, case-control, cohort, randomized controlled trial, cross-over design, qualitative, or cost-effectiveness analysis). Define the duration of follow-up, if applicable. Describe the criterion standard used for comparison. Define and describe methodology used to collect data.
- Participants/setting. Describe eligibility criteria used to select participants, the number of participants involved in the analysis (may not be the number recruited), and the attrition rate. Describe where and when the study was conducted and how the setting might relate to the selection of participants (eg, community-based or hospitalized participants) or the study's applicability to a specialty practice situation.
- Intervention (may or may not be included depending on study design). Describe the essential features of the treatment or intervention in studies that use an experimental design.
- Main outcome measures. Note the primary outcome measure as planned before data collection began; if the hypothesis being reported was formulated during or after data collection, this information should be clearly stated.
- Statistical analyses performed. Indicate statistical tests used in data analyses (eg, X2, analysis of variance, or confidence intervals). Note procedures used to adjust for confounding factors, such as age and sex.
- Results. Identify study results related to the a priori hypothesis and clearly label findings from post hoc analyses. Describe relevant findings of the study including numerical values.
- Conclusions. Offer key conclusions on the basis of evidence provided by the study.
Unstructured Abstract (use for Narrative Review and Case Study)Unstructured abstracts are written in paragraph style and follow the order of the manuscript including a description of the topic/purpose of the review, key findings or messages, gaps in the field, and a summary or conclusion statement. Unstructured abstracts must not exceed 250 words.
Typically the manuscript body will include: 1) research snapshot; 2) abstract; 3) introduction/background; 4)materials and methods; 5) results; 6) discussion including strength and limitations; 7) conclusions including, if appropriate, applications and implications for further research; and 8) references.
- State explicitly that human subject review was approved and how informed consent or assent was obtained.
- If protocol is exempt from IRB approval, then indicate as such.
- Examples of IRB approval statements are as follows:
•The (insert name of institution) Institutional Review Board approved the study protocol and all participants provided written informed consent (and child assent, if appropriate). If the name of the institution will reveal the authors, blind the name and it will be unblinded prior to publication.
•This study was deemed exempt by (insert name of institution) Institutional Review Board. This study was deemed exempt under federal regulation 45 46.101 (b) CFR. Reference: www.hhs.gov/ohrp/humansubjects/guidance/45cfr46.html
- For questions regarding IRB, please see the Office for Human Research Protections IRB Guidebook.
Nutrient Database Information should be provided in the methods section. This should include the version and release date for the nutrient database. Also, include a description of substantial modifications made to the database, and an explanation of how missing nutrient data for foods were handled (eg, indicate whether values were extrapolated and evaluate the effect of any missing values on dietary totals for the nutrients of interest).Examples of statements to be included in methods section:
Single Version: Dietary intake data were collected and analyzed using Nutrition Data System for Research software version 2015 (May 2015).Multiple Versions: To reflect the marketplace throughout the study, dietary intake data were collected using Nutrition Data System for Research (NDSR) software versions 2013 and 2015. Final calculations were completed using NDSR version 2015 (June 2015). The NDSR time-related database updates analytic data while maintaining nutrient profiles true to the version used for data collection.
The Journal follows the AMA Manual of Style, 11th ed, for references and citations. Each reference should be cited in the text, figures, or tables in consecutive numerical order as superscript Arabic numerals. References may be cited only in a figure, table, or box and not in the text if it is in sequence with references cited in the text. References should be typed double space on pages separate from the manuscript's main text. Reference management software, such as EndNote, or Reference Manager, is accepted. If reference management software is used, check the manufacturer's website for the Journal's style. Note: Do not use the footnote function in Microsoft Word for references. Include references at the end of the manuscript.
This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. This identifier will not appear in your published article.
Software, including nutrient databases, should be cited and included in the reference list according to the AMA Manual of Style.
Tables and Figures
Tables and figures should be limited to those required to clarify an article. Each table or figure should be understandable by itself and not require the reader to refer to the text. Present data only once, either in tabular or graphic form or in the text. Acceptable file types for figures are: TIFF, EPS, PDF, and Microsoft Office files (Word, PowerPoint, Excel). Tables should be submitted as Microsoft Word files. The preferred font type for tables and figures is 12 point Times New Roman.
Authors must submit each table as a separate file when uploading documents in the submission system. Tables should be double spaced and limited to one per page. Number tables consecutively regardless if supplementary online or not according to the order they are cited in the text with Arabic numbers. (Note: Online-only tables are designated as such at the discretion of the editors, not the authors. Authors may suggest online supplementary tables by noting it in the table file and in the manuscript text.)
Table titles should be detailed enough to stand alone from the manuscript text. For example, a table titled "Demographic characteristics of focus group participants" is not detailed enough to be understood apart from the text of the manuscript. A more descriptive title that would stand alone from the text would be "Demographics of a cohort of 35 African American women with type 2 diabetes mellitus participating in focus group data collection on initiative eating practices."
Give each column a short or abbreviated heading. Be sure to include the unit of measure (eg, "%," "g," or "year") under the appropriate column heading. Tables may not contain more than 14 columns. Do not put more than one unit of information in a single cell of the table.
Place explanatory matter in footnotes, not in the column headings or table title. Use Conventional Units with conversion formulas for the International System of Units (SI) values as a footnote.
For numerals less than 1.00, insert a zero to the left of the decimal point (eg, 0.95). Use a hyphen to indicate ranges (eg, 75-100). Identify statistical measures of variations (eg, standard deviation or standard error of the mean). When the designation line at the left-hand side of a table (stub) requires two lines, values in that horizontal row should align with the second line of the designation. Align columns vertically on decimal points, hyphens, or "?".
Authors who incorporate data from another published or unpublished source in a table must cite the original source in a reference or footnote. If a table is reproduced in its entirety, revised, modified, or adapted from another published source authors must obtain permission from the copyright holder of the table and indicate in a table footnote the source of the original table.
Authors must submit each figure as a separate file when uploading documents in the submission system. Bar graphs are used to show proportions or percents within categories, and line graphs are used to show data that are related such as serial observations. Three-dimensional figures are appropriate for simultaneous display of three but not two proportions or percents within categories (eg, height, weight, and percent body weight). Number figures consecutively regardless if they are supplementary online or not according to the order they are cited in the text with Arabic numbers and supply a brief legend for each. (Note: Online-only figures are designated as such at the discretion of the editors, not the authors. Authors may suggest online supplementary figures by noting it in the table file and in the manuscript text.)
A figure legend should be brief yet make an illustration fully intelligible by itself. For example, a figure titled "Study selection process according to the PRISMA flow diagram" is not detailed enough to be understood apart from the text of the manuscript. A more descriptive title that would stand alone from the text would be, "Flow diagram of the literature search and filtering results for a systematic review of the effectiveness of the individual dietetic consultations on health outcomes."
Place explanatory matter in footnotes, not in the figure legend. For lab values, use Conventional Units with conversion formulas for the International System of Units (SI) values as a footnote.
Use superscript letters to indicate footnotes (eg, a, b, c); however, use the standard * for P<0.05, ** for P<0.01, and *** for P<0.001. The asterisks indicating P values are only needed if the P values are not provided in the figure. If acronyms and/or abbreviations are not spelled out within the body of the figure, then cite and define all acronyms or abbreviations used in the figure as superscript footnotes (eg, a, b, c).Reproducted from another source
If a figure is reproduced in its entirety, revised, modified, or adapted from another published source, the authors must obtain permission from the copyright holder of the figure and indicate in the figure legend the source of the original figure.
Including Practice Implications with a manuscript submission is voluntary. Practice Implications is designed for authors of Research Paper and Systematic Review articles to convey the core findings of their research and the potential bridge it provides to dietetics practice. Authors should briefly answer the following three questions for Practice Implications:
- What is the current knowledge on this topic?
- How does this research add to knowledge on this topic?
- How might this knowledge impact current dietetics practice?
Authors may acknowledge persons other than coauthors who have made substantial contributions to the development of their study or manuscript. Acknowledgements should be included in the Title Page. Permission from all persons named in the acknowledgments must be obtained prior to submission to the Journal and authors must inform the Editor-in-Chief in the Title Page that such permission has been obtained. A statement in the Transfer of Copyright, Authorship Agreement, and Conflict of Interest Form verifies that written consent was obtained from those acknowledged.
Copyright Transfer, Authorship Agreement, and Conflict of Interest
The Copyright Transfer and Authorship Agreement Form can be downloaded from JAND's website and completed and signed electronically.
All persons designated as authors must meet the criteria for authorship detailed in the Authorship Agreement. The Journal follows the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals from the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. The Journal recognizes joint first authorship. Joint first authors must be the first names appearing in the list of authors, and it will be assumed upon submission that all authors have agreed to this arrangement. A footnote containing the statement: "[authors' names] request to be regarded as joint first authors" will be added to the article. An explanation for the addition or removal of an author must be provided with direct verification from the added/removed author. See "Acknowledgments" and "Funding/Support Disclosure" sections for guidelines on how to recognize other contributors to the work.Authors must inform the Journal in writing of any financial arrangements, organizational affiliations, or other relationships that may constitute a conflict of interest regarding the subject matter of the manuscript. See "Conflict of Interest Disclosure" section for more details.
Authors' rights are explicitly detailed on the copyright form and on the Author Rights section of Elsevier's website.The Copyright Transfer and Authorship Agreement Form can be submitted via Editorial Manager.
In addition to the Copyright Transfer and Authorship Agreement Form, a list of all financial and material support for the research and the work must be included in the Title Page. If there is no funding or support, include a statement in the Title Page indicating as such. Inclusion of an external Data Safety and Monitoring Board is strongly recommended for all industry-sponsored research.
A conflict of interest may exist when an author (or the author's institution or employer) has financial or personal relationships or affiliations that could influence (or bias) the author's decisions, work, or manuscript. All authors are required to disclose all potential conflicts of interest, including specific financial interests and relationships and affiliations (other than those affiliations listed in the author page of the manuscript) relevant to the subject of their manuscript. Authors should err on the side of full disclosure and should contact the editorial office if they have questions or concerns.
In addition to the Copyright Transfer and Authorship Agreement Form, a list of all potential conflicts of interest must be included in the Title Page. Authors without conflicts of interest, including specific financial interests and relationships and affiliations relevant to the subject of their manuscript, should include a statement in the Title Page stating there are no conflicts to report. Failure to include this information in the manuscript may delay the review of the manuscript.Authors are expected to provide detailed information about all relevant financial interests and relationships or financial conflicts within the past 5 years and for the foreseeable future (including, but not limited to employment/ affiliation, grants or funding, consultancies, honoraria, speakers' bureaus, stock ownership or options, expert testimony, royalties, or patents filed, received, pending, or in preparation), particularly those present at the time the research was conducted and through publication, as well as other financial interests (such as patent applications in preparation), that represent potential future financial gain. Although many universities and other institutions have established policies and thresholds for reporting financial interests and other conflicts of interest, the Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics requires complete disclosure of all relevant financial relationships and potential financial conflicts of interest, regardless of amount or value. If authors are uncertain about what constitutes a relevant financial interest or relationship, they should contact the editorial office.
For all accepted manuscripts, each author's disclosures of conflicts of interest and relevant financial interests and affiliations and declarations of no such interests will be published. Decisions about whether such information provided by authors should be published, and thereby disclosed to readers, are usually straightforward. Although editors are willing to discuss disclosure of specific conflicts of interest with authors, the Journal's policy is one of complete disclosure of all potential conflicts of interest, including specific financial interests and relationships and affiliations (other than those affiliations listed in the author page of the manuscript) relevant to the subject of their manuscript. If an author's disclosure of potential conflicts of interest is determined to be inaccurate or incomplete after publication, a correction will be published to rectify the original published disclosure statement, and additional action may be taken as necessary, as outlined by and in compliance with the Committee on Publication Ethics.
Manuscript content and accuracy are the authors' responsibility.
Permission to Reprint
Any direct quotations, figures, or tables that have appeared in copyrighted material must be accompanied by written permission for their use from the copyright owner, along with full source information. Images of brand name products must have written consent from the manufacturer to be reproduced. Any photographs of identifiable persons must be accompanied by signed releases showing informed consent. Since articles appear in both the print and online versions of the Journal, the permission must specify "permission to publish in all forms and media." Failure to obtain print and electronic permission may result in the image or information not appearing in the print and/or online version.
In instances where plagiarism is suspected, the Journal follows the protocol set forth by the Committee on Publication Ethics.
The Journal does not ordinarily have publication charges for authors. However, authors can opt to make articles open access for a fee of $2,750 (with a 10% discount for Academy members) payable by the author or research funder to cover the costs associated with publication, unless otherwise specified by our publisher's agreement with your funding body.
For authoritative guidance on style, usage, and spelling, the Journal uses the following resources: AMA Manual of Style, 11th ed; Dorland's Illustrated Medical Dictionary, 30th ed; and Merriam Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 11th ed. Other resources for laboratory values, race and ethnicity, and Dietary Reference Intakes are listed under those sections.Footnotes in Text
Footnotes should be kept to a minimum and indicated consecutively, with superscript symbols (*, †, ‡, §, etc), throughout the text. Double space footnotes on a separate sheet of paper. Footnote citations should read from top left to bottom right.
Use of NCP and NCPT
For topics that are addressing dietetics and nutrition care provided by dietetics practitioners, authors should use the Nutrition Care Process (NCP) as a framework for describing the nutrition assessment, nutrition diagnoses, nutrition intervention, and nutrition monitoring/evaluation that was included in the research and use the Nutrition Care Process Terminology (NCPT) to describe the aspects of care within each of the above steps. Additional information on the NCP and NCPT is available under "NCP 101" in the Practice section of the Academy's website.
Bylines are a general indicator for indexing purposes of authors' contribution to the published work. Journal style is to list the highest academic degree(s) of each author followed by any/all credentials and certifications from the Commission on Dietetic Registration (eg, RD, RDN, DTR, CSP, CSR, CSG, CSO, CSSD, FAND); and if desired by the author, state licensure (LD, LDN, or CDN) and fellowships. If an author has a doctorate, master's level degrees should not be included unless the master's degree is in a different or specialized field. Academic degrees below the master's level are omitted unless they are the highest obtained degree. For credentials issued outside the United States, indicate the country of origin in a footnote.
Note: For articles that relate to specialist or advanced practice credentials, which appear in the "From the Academy" section, some author credentials may relate to specialist or advanced practice credentials obtained from another organization, and these can be included in the author byline. Non-CDR credentials received by the RDN/DTR author in these "From the Academy" articles will be verified by the Quality Management Team (for SOP/SOPP in focused areas of practice) or the HOD Governance Team (for Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics position or practice papers). These credentials include: CDE, BC-ADM, CNSS/CNSD, CHES, CLC, SNS, and others, which authors may inquire about at the time of submission. Authors from other fields such as nursing, medicine, surgery, etc., are asked to provide verification at the time of submission regarding their advanced practice credentials (these include, but are not limited to APRN-BC, CIC, NP, OCN, RM(C), RPh-BC-ADM).
Numbers below 10 are spelled out unless followed by a unit of measure or a percentage. Express all numbers 10 or larger as Arabic numerals. Numbers that begin a sentence are always spelled out. The number of significant digits reported should be realistic and supported by the original data (eg, 2,125 kcal, not 2,124.8 kcal; 105 lb, not 105.734 lb). For sample sizes smaller than 100, frequency must be given (eg, two of seven, not 29%); percent may also be provided if necessary. Also, do not include a decimal and zero after a whole percent number (Correct: 72%, Incorrect: 72.0%).
Abbreviate units of measure when used with numerals (5 g, 1,000 kcal). Chemical formulas should be written out, unless they are used to economize space in the column headings of a table; however, the formulas should be expanded in the footnotes. Always provide the complete form of an acronym the first time it is mentioned in the text (note that if an abbreviation has been spelled out in the abstract, it still must be spelled out in the text on first-time use). An acronym or abbreviation is permitted if it is used three or more times within the manuscript text. Avoid excessive use of acronyms and abbreviations. Avoid author-invented abbreviations and acronyms.
All clinical laboratory values must be expressed in Conventional Units, (eg, lipids should be expressed in mg/dL) with the International System of Units (SI) in parentheses in the manuscript text, for example: triglycerides 100 mg/dL (1.13 mmol/L). Authors must provide the conversion factor to SI units as a footnote in tables and figures. The exception to this is the use of kilocalories; the Journal will continue to use kilocalories instead of kilojoules. The metric system is preferred for the expression of length, area, mass, and volume.
When specific products used in the research are referred to by a trade name, give the manufacturer's name parenthetically after the first mention. When possible use generic names for food and drugs. Registration or trademarks are not required.
Dietary Reference Intakes
Authors must use the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs), not the 1989 Recommended Dietary Allowances. Information on the DRIs can be found through the Institute of Medicine. If for any reason an author wishes to report nutrient intakes without using the stated DRIs, intakes may be reported, but adequacy should not be assessed.
Personal pronouns (eg, I, our, we) should be used sparingly, if at all, in Journal submissions except Letters to the Editor.
Reporting Race and Ethnicity Data
The Journal follows the guidelines set forth by the National Institutes of Health.
EDITORIAL PROCESSING AND PUBLICATION
Article content is the authors' responsibility. Accepted manuscripts are copyedited to conform to Journal style and to meet space limitations. Authors should note that the editing process is separate from and occurs after the peer-review process. The corresponding author will receive an electronic proof of the article and have an opportunity to review editorial changes and to double-check accuracy of content, tables, and statistics before publication. However, a change made by copyeditors for style, grammar, and readability should not be altered by authors unless a scientific error has been introduced. Authors will be expected to review galleys promptly (within 4 business days of receipt). If the corresponding author is not available to receive or review proofs at any given time, a back-up should be identified and contact information provided to the editors.
Embargo Policy/Articles in Press
For the protection of each author's work, the Journal does not allow the unauthorized pre-publication of any materials slated for publication. All articles accepted for publication are posted online in their corrected format as Articles in Press, and are subject to embargo until such date the articles are available online. The timetable for online publication is approximately 8 weeks from acceptance.
Authors wanting to coordinate press activity with their institutions should consult the contact provided in their proof communication to confirm embargo information.Translation Services
Authors who require information about language editing and copyediting services pre- and post-submission please visit Elsevier's Author Services or Elsevier's Publishing Support Center for more information. Please note the Journal and Elsevier neither endorse nor take responsibility for any products, goods, or services offered by outside vendors through our services or in any advertising. For more information please refer to Elsevier's Terms & Conditions.
A number of post-publication services, including copies of the issue in which your published article appears, a poster of that issue's cover, a poster of your article, offprints, or a certification of publication can be arranged through Elsevier's WebShop.
Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.
This journal encourages and enables you to share data that supports your research publication where appropriate, and enables you to interlink the data with your published articles. Research data refers to the results of observations or experimentation that validate research findings. To facilitate reproducibility and data reuse, this journal also encourages you to share your software, code, models, algorithms, protocols, methods and other useful materials related to the project.
If you have made your research data available in a data repository, you can link your article directly to the dataset. Elsevier collaborates with a number of repositories to link articles on ScienceDirect with relevant repositories, giving readers access to underlying data that gives them a better understanding of the research described.
When available, you can directly link your dataset to your article by providing the relevant information in the submission system. For more information, visit the database linking page .For supported data repositories a repository banner will automatically appear next to your published article on ScienceDirect.In addition, you can link to relevant data or entities through identifiers within the text of your manuscript, using the following format: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN).
This journal supports Mendeley Data, enabling you to deposit any research data (including raw and processed data, video, code, software, algorithms, protocols, and methods) associated with your manuscript in a free-to-use, open access repository. During the submission process, after uploading your manuscript, you will have the opportunity to upload your relevant datasets directly to Mendeley Data. The datasets will be listed and directly accessible to readers next to your published article online.
To foster transparency, we encourage you to state the availability of your data in your submission. This may be a requirement of your funding body or institution.