Guide for Authors

All journal information and instructions compiled in one document (PDF) in just one mouse-click Author information pack

• Submission checklist
• Ethics in publishing
• Declaration of interest
• Submission declaration and verification
• Clinical trial results
• Copyright
• Role of the funding source
• Informed consent and patient details
• Submission of Manuscripts
• Preparation of Manuscripts
• Structure of the Manuscript (in order):
• Article structure
• Essential title page information
• Abstract
• Keywords
• Artwork
• Human and animal rights
• Tables
• References
• Video
• Supplementary material
• Online proof correction
• Offprints


The Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport considers for publication manuscripts in the categories of:
• Original Research
• Review Article

The manuscripts must be in one of the following sub-disciplines relating generally to the broad sports medicine and sports science fields: sports medicine, sports injury (including injury epidemiology and injury prevention), physiotherapy, podiatry, physical activity and health, sports science, biomechanics, exercise physiology, motor control and learning, sport and exercise psychology, sports nutrition, public health (as relevant to sport and exercise), and rehabilitation and injury management. Manuscripts with an interdisciplinary perspective with specific applications to sport and exercise and its interaction with health will also be considered.
Only studies involving human subjects will be considered. Authors must declare that manuscripts submitted to the Journal have not been published elsewhere or are not being considered for publication elsewhere and that the research reported will not be submitted for publication elsewhere until a final decision has been made as to its acceptability by the Journal.

PLEASE NOTE: papers which do not meet the criteria below will be rejected immediately:
• Ensure that English is of good standard
• Ensure Ethics Committee details are as complete as possible
• Ensure all headings and subheadings conform to the Guide for Authors
• References, both in-text and reference list, must be formatted according to the Guide for Authors
• Provide the Figure Legends as part of the text file, at the end of the manuscript
• Include Acknowledgements (this is mandatory)

Submission checklist

You can use this list to carry out a final check of your submission before you send it to the journal for review. Please check the relevant section in this Guide for Authors for more details.

Ensure that the following items are present:

One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
• E-mail address
• Full postal address

All necessary files have been uploaded:
• Include keywords
• All figures (include relevant captions)
• All tables (including titles, description, footnotes)
• Ensure all figure and table citations in the text match the files provided
• Indicate clearly if color should be used for any figures in print
Graphical Abstracts / Highlights files (where applicable)
Supplemental files (where applicable)

Further considerations
• Manuscript has been 'spell checked' and 'grammar checked'
• All references mentioned in the Reference List are cited in the text, and vice versa
• Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Internet)
• Relevant declarations of interest have been made
• Journal policies detailed in this guide have been reviewed
• Referee suggestions and contact details provided, based on journal requirements

For further information, visit our Support Center.

Ethics in publishing

Please see our information pages on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication.

Declaration of interest

All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. If there are no conflicts of interest then please state this: 'Conflicts of interest: none'. More information.

Submission declaration and verification

Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' section of our ethics policy for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service CrossCheck.

Clinical trial results

In line with the position of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, the journal will not consider results posted in the same clinical trials registry in which primary registration resides to be prior publication if the results posted are presented in the form of a brief structured (less than 500 words) abstract or table. However, divulging results in other circumstances (e.g., investors' meetings) is discouraged and may jeopardise consideration of the manuscript. Authors should fully disclose all posting in registries of results of the same or closely related work.

Reporting clinical trials
Randomized controlled trials should be presented according to the CONSORT guidelines. At manuscript submission, authors must provide the CONSORT checklist accompanied by a flow diagram that illustrates the progress of patients through the trial, including recruitment, enrollment, randomization, withdrawal and completion, and a detailed description of the randomization procedure. The CONSORT checklist and template flow diagram are available online.

Registration of clinical trials
Registration in a public trials registry is a condition for publication of clinical trials in this journal in accordance with International Committee of Medical Journal Editors recommendations. Trials must register at or before the onset of patient enrolment. The clinical trial registration number should be included at the end of the abstract of the article. A clinical trial is defined as any research study that prospectively assigns human participants or groups of humans to one or more health-related interventions to evaluate the effects of health outcomes. Health-related interventions include any intervention used to modify a biomedical or health-related outcome (for example drugs, surgical procedures, devices, behavioural treatments, dietary interventions, and process-of-care changes). Health outcomes include any biomedical or health-related measures obtained in patients or participants, including pharmacokinetic measures and adverse events. Purely observational studies (those in which the assignment of the medical intervention is not at the discretion of the investigator) will not require registration.


Papers accepted for publication become the copyright of Sports Medicine Australia. Authors will be asked to sign a transfer of copyright form, on receipt of the accepted manuscript by Elsevier. This enables the publisher to administer copyright on behalf of the authors and the society, while allowing the continued use of the material by the author for scholarly communication.

Retained author rights
As an author you (or your employer or institution) retain certain rights. For more information on author rights for:

Subscription articles please see:
Open access articles please see:

Role of the funding source

You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.

Open Access
This journal does not ordinarily have publication charges; however, authors can now opt to make their articles available to all (including non-subscribers) via the ScienceDirect platform. To provide open access, this journal has a publication fee which needs to be met by the authors or their research funders for each article published open access.
There is a 20% discount for members of Sports Medicine Australia. Prices are listed below. Full Price USD 3,000

Sports Medicine Australia Member Price USD 2,400
To be eligible for the society member discount the corresponding author must be a member of the Sports Medicine Australia. To claim the discount the author can verify their membership at article submission stage via the online submission system. Elsevier reserves the right to remove or refuse the discount. Discounts are exclusive of each other and will not be accrued.
Learn more about Elsevier's pricing policy: .
Please note that you can only make this choice after receiving notification that your article has been accepted for publication, to avoid any perception of conflict of interest. The fee excludes taxes and other potential costs such as color charges. In some cases, institutions and funding bodies have entered into agreement with Elsevier to meet these fees on behalf of their authors. Details of these agreements are available at Authors of accepted articles, who wish to take advantage of this option, should complete and submit the order form (available at . Whatever access option you choose, you retain many rights as an author, including the right to post a revised personal version of your article on your own website. More information can be found here: . Your publication choice will have no effect on the peer review process or acceptance of submitted articles.

Elsevier Publishing Campus
The Elsevier Publishing Campus ( is an online platform offering free lectures, interactive training and professional advice to support you in publishing your research. The College of Skills training offers modules on how to prepare, write and structure your article and explains how editors will look at your paper when it is submitted for publication. Use these resources, and more, to ensure that your submission will be the best that you can make it.

Language (usage and editing services)
Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop.

Informed consent and patient details

Studies on patients or volunteers require ethics committee approval and informed consent, which should be documented in the paper. Appropriate consents, permissions and releases must be obtained where an author wishes to include case details or other personal information or images of patients and any other individuals in an Elsevier publication. Written consents must be retained by the author and copies of the consents or evidence that such consents have been obtained must be provided to Elsevier on request. For more information, please review the Elsevier Policy on the Use of Images or Personal Information of Patients or other Individuals. Unless you have written permission from the patient (or, where applicable, the next of kin), the personal details of any patient included in any part of the article and in any supplementary materials (including all illustrations and videos) must be removed before submission.

Submission of Manuscripts

All manuscripts, correspondence and editorial material for publication should be submitted online via the Elsevier Editorial System at:
Authors simply need to “Create a new account” (i.e., register) by following the instructions at the website, and using their own e-mail address and selected password. Authors can then submit manuscripts containing text, tables, and images (figures) online. The entire peer-review process will be managed electronically to ensure timely review and publication. Authors can expect an initial decision on their submission within 8 weeks.
Following registration, enter the "Author area" and follow the instructions for submitting a manuscript, including the structured Abstract, suggested reviewers, Cover letter, Tables, Figures, and any supplementary material.
Figures can be published in colour at no extra charge for the online version. If you wish to have figures in colour online and black and white figures printed, please submit both versions.
The entire peer-review process will be managed electronically to ensure timely review and publication. Authors can expect an initial decision on their submission within 6 weeks.

Preparation of Manuscripts

• Microsoft Word is the preferred software program. Use Arial or Times New Roman font, size eleven (11) point. • Manuscript is double-spaced throughout (including title page, abstract, text, references, tables, and legends). • Margins are 1 inch or 2.5 cm all around • Include page and line numbers for the convenience of the peer reviewers. • Number the pages consecutively, beginning with the title page as page 1 and ending with the Figure legend page. • All headings (including the Title) should be in sentence-case only, not in capital letters. • Sub-headings are generally not accepted. Incorporate into the text if required. • Footnotes are not acceptable. • Keep the use of tables, figures and graphs to a minimum. • See notes on Tables, Figures, Formulae and Scientific Terminology at the end.

WORD COUNT LIMITS Original Research papers
• 3000 word count limit (excluding title, abstract, tables/figures, figure legends, Acknowledgements, and References) • Maximum number (combined) of tables and figures is 3 • Long tables should only be included as supplementary material and will be made available on-line only • Maximum number of references is 30 • A structured abstract of less than 250 words (not included in 3000 word count) should be included with the following headings: Objectives, Design, Method, Results, and Conclusions Review articles
• 4000 word count limit (excluding title, abstract, tables/figures, figure legends, Acknowledgements, and References) • Maximum number (combined) of tables and figures is 3 • Long tables should only be included as supplemental files and will be available online only • Maximum number of references is 60 • A structured abstract of less than 250 words (not included in 4000 word count) should be included sticking as closely as possible to the following headings: Objectives, Design, Method, Results, and Conclusions

Structure of the Manuscript (in order):

1. Cover Letter - Every submission, regardless of category must include a letter stating:
• The category of article: Original Research or Review article
-• The sub-discipline: sports medicine, sports injury (including injury epidemiology and injury prevention), physiotherapy, podiatry, physical activity and health, sports science, biomechanics, exercise physiology, motor control and learning, sport and exercise psychology, sports nutrition, public health (as relevant to sport and exercise), rehabilitation and injury management, and others having an interdisciplinary perspective with specific applications to sport and exercise and its interaction with health.
• Sources of outside support for research (including funding, equipment and drugs) must be named.
• Financial support for the project must be acknowledged, or "no external financial support" declared.
• The role of the funding organisation, if any, in the collection of data, their analysis and interpretation, and in the right to approve or disapprove publication of the finished manuscript must be described in the Methods section of the text
• When the proposed publication concerns any commercial product, either directly or indirectly, the author must include a statement (1) indicating that he or she has no financial or other interest in the product or distributor of the product or (2) explaining the nature of any relation between himself or herself and the manufacturer or distributor of the product.
• Other kinds of associations, such as consultancies, stock ownership, or other equity interests or patent-licensing arrangements, also must be disclosed. Note: If, in the Editor's judgment, the information disclosed represents a potential conflict of interest, it may be made available to reviewers and may be published at the Editor's discretion; authors will be informed of the decision before publication.
• The Ethical Guidelines that have been followed must be stated clearly. Provide the Ethics Committee name and approval number obtained for Human investigation.
• Authors must declare that manuscripts submitted to the Journal have not been published elsewhere or are not being considered for publication elsewhere and that the research reported will not be submitted for publication elsewhere until a final decision has been made as to its acceptability by the Journal.

Permission from the copyright holder (typically the publisher) must be submitted to the Editorial Office for the reproduction of any previously published table(s), illustration(s) or photograph(s). Permission must be valid for reuse in both print and electronic formats. Appropriate consents must also be obtained for any patient images appearing in your manuscript. [OPTIONAL: For Elsevier’s patient consent policy, please visit .]

2. Title Page (first page) should contain:
a. Title. Short and informative
b. Authors. List all authors by first name, all initials and family name
c. Institution and affiliations. List the name and full address of all institutions where the study described was carried out. List departmental affiliations of each author affiliated with that institution after each institutional address. Connect authors to departments using alphabetical superscripts.
d. Corresponding author. Provide the name and e-mail address of the author to whom communications, proofs and requests for reprints should be sent.
e. Word count (excluding abstract and references), the Abstract word count, the number of Tables, the number of Figures.

Appropriate consents must also be obtained for any patient images appearing in your manuscript. [OPTIONAL: For Elsevier’s patient consent policy, please visit Patient consent .]

2. Title Page (first page) should contain:
a. Title. Short and informative
b. Authors. List all authors by first name, all initials and family name
c. Institution and affiliations. List the name and full address of all institutions where the study described was carried out. List departmental affiliations of each author affiliated with that institution after each institutional address. Connect authors to departments using alphabetical superscripts.
d. Corresponding author. Provide the name and e-mail address of the author to whom communications, proofs and requests for reprints should be sent.
e. Word count (excluding abstract and references), the Abstract word count, the number of Tables, the number of Figures.

3. Manuscript (excluding all author details) should contain: (in order)
a. Abstract - must be structured using the following sub-headings: Objectives, Design, Methods, Results, and Conclusions. Avoid abbreviations and acronyms.
b. Keywords - provide up to 6 keywords, with at least 4 selected via the Index Medicus Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) browser list: Medical Subject Headings..These keywords should not reproduce words used in the paper title. c. Main body of the text.
For Original Research papers, text should be organised as follows:
i. Introduction - describing the (purpose of the study with a brief review of background
ii. Methods - described in detail. Include details of the Ethics Committee approval obtained for Human investigation, and the ethical guidelines followed by the investigators. This section is not called Materials and Methods, and should not include subheadings. Do not use the term "subjects" - use terms such as "participants", "patients" or "athletes", etc.
iii. Results - concisely reported in tables and figures, with brief text descriptions. Do not include subheadings. Use small, non-italicized letter p for p-values with a leading zero, e.g. 0.05; Measurements and weights should be given in standard metric units. Do not replicate material that is in the tables or figures in the text.
iv. Discussion - concise interpretation of results. Cite references, illustrations and tables in numeric order by order of mention in the text. Do not include subheadings.
v. Conclusion
vi. Practical Implications - 3 to 5 dot (bulleted) points summarising the practical findings derived from the study to the real-world setting of sport and exercise - that can be understood by a lay audience. Avoid overly scientific terms and abbreviations. Dot points should not include recommendations for further research.
vii. Acknowledgments - this section is compulsory. Grants, financial support and technical or other assistance are acknowledged at the end of the text before the references. All financial support for the project must be acknowledged. If there has been no financial assistance with the project, this must be clearly stated.
viii. References - authors are responsible for the accuracy of references.
ix. Tables - may be submitted at the end of the text file, on separate pages, one to each page.
x. Figure Legends - must be submitted as part of the text file and not as illustrations.
4. Figures - must be submitted as one or more separate files that may contain one or more images.
5. Supplementary material (if any) - tables or figures to be viewed online only.

Peer Review
The journal receives an ever-increasing number of submissions and unfortunately can only publish a small proportion of manuscripts. The journal's Editorial Board does not enter into negotiations once a decision on a manuscript has been made. The Editor's decision is final. The entire peeer-review process will be managed electronically to ensure timely review and publication. Authors can expect an initial decision on their submission within 6 weeks.

Use of word processing software
It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier). Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork.
To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.

Article structure

State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results.

Material and methods
Provide sufficient detail to allow the work to be reproduced. Methods already published should be indicated by a reference: only relevant modifications should be described.

Results should be clear and concise.

This should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. A combined Results and Discussion section is often appropriate. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature.

The main conclusions of the study may be presented in a short Conclusions section, which may stand alone or form a subsection of a Discussion or Results and Discussion section.

If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq. (A.1), Eq. (A.2), etc.; in a subsequent appendix, Eq. (B.1) and so on. Similarly for tables and figures: Table A.1; Fig. A.1, etc.

Essential title page information

Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
Author names and affiliations. Please clearly indicate the given name(s) and family name(s) of each author and check that all names are accurately spelled. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that the e-mail address is given and that contact details are kept up to date by the corresponding author.
Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.


A concise and factual abstract is required. The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results and major conclusions. An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. For this reason, References should be avoided, but if essential, then cite the author(s) and year(s). Also, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself.


Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 6 keywords, using British spelling and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, 'and', 'of'). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.

Define abbreviations that are not standard in this field in a footnote to be placed on the first page of the article. Such abbreviations that are unavoidable in the abstract must be defined at their first mention there, as well as in the footnote. Ensure consistency of abbreviations throughout the article.

Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.).

Formatting of funding sources
List funding sources in this standard way to facilitate compliance to funder's requirements:

Funding: This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health [grant numbers xxxx, yyyy]; the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, WA [grant number zzzz]; and the United States Institutes of Peace [grant number aaaa].

It is not necessary to include detailed descriptions on the program or type of grants and awards. When funding is from a block grant or other resources available to a university, college, or other research institution, submit the name of the institute or organization that provided the funding.

If no funding has been provided for the research, please include the following sentence:

This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Nomenclature and units
Follow internationally accepted rules and conventions: use the international system of units (SI). If other quantities are mentioned, give their equivalent in SI. You are urged to consult IUPAP: Symbols, Units, Nomenclature and Fundamental Constants in Physics for further information.

Math formulae
Please submit math equations as editable text and not as images. Present simple formulae in line with normal text where possible and use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line for small fractional terms, e.g., X/Y. In principle, variables are to be presented in italics. Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp. Number consecutively any equations that have to be displayed separately from the text (if referred to explicitly in the text).

Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article. Many word processors can build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Otherwise, please indicate the position of footnotes in the text and list the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article. Do not include footnotes in the Reference list.


Electronic artwork
General points
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.
• Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
• Provide captions to illustrations separately.
• Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the published version.
• Submit each illustration as a separate file.
A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available.
You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format.
Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.
Please do not:
• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
• Supply files that are too low in resolution;
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

Color artwork
Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF), or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color online (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. For color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article. Please indicate your preference for color: in print or online only. Further information on the preparation of electronic artwork.

Human and animal rights

If the work involves the use of human subjects, the author should ensure that the work described has been carried out in accordance with The Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association (Declaration of Helsinki) for experiments involving humans; Uniform Requirements for manuscripts submitted to Biomedical journals. Authors should include a statement in the manuscript that informed consent was obtained for experimentation with human subjects. The privacy rights of human subjects must always be observed

Illustration services
Elsevier's WebShop offers Illustration Services to authors preparing to submit a manuscript but concerned about the quality of the images accompanying their article. Elsevier's expert illustrators can produce scientific, technical and medical-style images, as well as a full range of charts, tables and graphs. Image 'polishing' is also available, where our illustrators take your image(s) and improve them to a professional standard. Please visit the website to find out more.

Figure captions
Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.


Please submit tables as editable text and not as images. Tables can be placed either next to the relevant text in the article, or on separate page(s) at the end. Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text and place any table notes below the table body. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in them do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article. Please avoid using vertical rules.


Citation in text
Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.

Reference links
Increased discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, CrossRef and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the DOI is encouraged.

A DOI can be used to cite and link to electronic articles where an article is in-press and full citation details are not yet known, but the article is available online. A DOI is guaranteed never to change, so you can use it as a permanent link to any electronic article. An example of a citation using DOI for an article not yet in an issue is: VanDecar J.C., Russo R.M., James D.E., Ambeh W.B., Franke M. (2003). Aseismic continuation of the Lesser Antilles slab beneath northeastern Venezuela. Journal of Geophysical Research, Please note the format of such citations should be in the same style as all other references in the paper.

Web references
As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.

References in a special issue
Please ensure that the words 'this issue' are added to any references in the list (and any citations in the text) to other articles in the same Special Issue.

Reference Style
• References should be numbered consecutively in un-bracketed superscripts where they occur in the text, tables, etc, and listed numerically (e.g. "1", "2") at the end of the paper under the heading "References".
• For Original Research papers, no more than three references should be used to support a specific point in the text.
• All authors should be listed where there are three or fewer. Where there are more than three, the reference should be to the first three authors followed by the expression "et al".
• Book and journal titles should be in italics.
• Conference and other abstracts should not be used as references. Material referred to by the phrase "personal communication" or "submitted for publication" are not considered full references and should only be placed in parentheses at the appropriate place in the text (e.g., (Hessel 1997 personal communication). References to articles submitted but not yet accepted are not encouraged but, if necessary, should only be referred to in the text as "unpublished data".
• Footnotes are unacceptable.
• Book references:Last name and initials of author, chapter title, chapter number, italicised title of book, edition (if applicable), editor, translator (if applicable), place of publication, publisher, year of publication.Example:Wilk KE, Reinold MM, Andrews JR. Interval sport programs for the shoulder, Chapter 58, in The Athlete's Shoulder, 2nd ed., Philadelphia, Churchill Livingstone, 2009
• Journal references:
Last name and initials of principal author followed by last name(s) and initials of co-author(s), title of article (with first word only starting in capitals), abbreviated and italicised title of journal, year, volume (with issue number in parenthesis if applicable), inclusive pages.
For guidance on abbreviations of journal titles, see Index Medicus at .
Hanna CM, Fulcher ML, Elley CR et al. Normative values of hip strength in adult male association football players assessed by handheld dynamometry. J Sci Med Sport 2010; 13(3):299-303.

• Internet references should be as follows:
Health Care Financing Administration. 1996 statistics at a glance. Available at: Accessed 2 December 1996.

• Articles in Press are cited using a DOI: The correct format for citing a DOI is as follows: doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2009.10.104.

Journal abbreviations source
Journal names should be abbreviated according to the List of Title Word Abbreviations.


Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the files in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 150 MB. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect. Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages. Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.

Supplementary material

Supplementary material can support and enhance your scientific research. Supplementary files offer the author additional possibilities to publish supporting applications, high-resolution images, background datasets, sound clips and more. Please note that such items are published online exactly as they are submitted; there is no typesetting involved (supplementary data supplied as an Excel file or as a PowerPoint slide will appear as such online). Please submit the material together with the article and supply a concise and descriptive caption for each file. If you wish to make any changes to supplementary data during any stage of the process, then please make sure to provide an updated file, and do not annotate any corrections on a previous version. Please also make sure to switch off the 'Track Changes' option in any Microsoft Office files as these will appear in the published supplementary file(s). For more detailed instructions please visit our artwork instruction pages.

Online proof correction

Corresponding authors will receive an e-mail with a link to our online proofing system, allowing annotation and correction of proofs online. The environment is similar to MS Word: in addition to editing text, you can also comment on figures/tables and answer questions from the Copy Editor. Web-based proofing provides a faster and less error-prone process by allowing you to directly type your corrections, eliminating the potential introduction of errors.
If preferred, you can still choose to annotate and upload your edits on the PDF version. All instructions for proofing will be given in the e-mail we send to authors, including alternative methods to the online version and PDF.
We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication. Please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.


The corresponding author, at no cost, will be provided with a PDF file of the article via e-mail (the PDF file is a watermarked version of the published article and includes a cover sheet with the journal cover image and a disclaimer outlining the terms and conditions of use). For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's WebShop. Authors requiring printed copies of multiple articles may use Elsevier WebShop's 'Create Your Own Book' service to collate multiple articles within a single cover.

Visit the Elsevier Support Center to find the answers you need. Here you will find everything from Frequently Asked Questions to ways to get in touch.
You can also check the status of your submitted article or find out when your accepted article will be published.