The Journal of Renal Nutrition is the official research publication of the Council on Renal Nutrition of the National Kidney Foundation, Inc. and the International Society of Renal Nutrition and Metabolism. The purpose of JRN is to stimulate interest and research in nutrition pertaining to kidney and urologic diseases, hypertension, dialysis therapies and kidney transplantation in children and adults, as well as to publish information concerning renal nutrition research, practice issues and policies. The goal of JRN is to publish original communications and research that maintain high standards for the profession and that contribute significantly to the overall advancement of the field.
The JRN is a refereed publication. Manuscripts are accepted for review with the understanding that the material has not been previously published except in abstract form, and is not concurrently under review for publication elsewhere. Authors submitting a manuscript to JRN must understand that if it is accepted for publication, copyright of the article including the right to reproduce the article in all forms and media, shall be assigned exclusively to the National Kidney Foundation. The Publisher, Elsevier, will not refuse any reasonable request by the author for permission to reproduce any of his or her contributions to the Journal. Information on how to request permission is available on the JRN website (http://www.jrnjournal.org).
The Journal of Renal Nutrition welcomes manuscripts in the following categories: Original Research Articles, Reviews, Clinical/Research Briefs, Practical Aspects Articles, Case Studies, Patient Education Material, Letters to the Editor, and Supplements. Authors should adhere to the guidelines provided for each type of manuscript.
Original Research manuscripts should be organized as follows: title page, support and financial disclosure, abstract, introduction, methods, results, discussion, practical application, acknowledgments, references, tables, and legends and figures. All pages should be numbered consecutively, starting with the title page as page one. Original Research manuscripts, in general, should range between 2,500 and 4,000 words, but are typically about 3,500 words, not including references. Tables and illustrations range from 2 to 6 and should be limited to those most pertinent to the study without duplicating findings in the text. The editor reserves the right to publish excessively long tables as online-only material. Failure to comply with length restrictions may result in a delay in processing the paper.1. Introduction: Clearly state the purpose of the research. Summarize the rationale and background for the study or observation; cite only pertinent references. The "Introduction" should be limited to 1.5 typed manuscript pages.
2. Methods: Provide sufficient detail so that the study can be repeated. Describe new methods in detail; report accepted methods briefly with references. Use subheadings as needed for clarity.Use of Trade Names: Trade names are to be avoided in defining products whenever possible. If naming a product trade name cannot be avoided, the trade names of other like products should also be mentioned, and first use should be accompanied by the superscript symbol ™ or ®, followed in parentheses by the owner's name. If a product trade name is used, it is imperative that the product be described in sufficient detail so that professionally trained readers can understand the nature of the product.
The mention of critical, especially novel, supplies and pieces of equipment ought to be followed, in parenthesis, by name of manufacturer or provider, and on the first mention only, city, state/province, and country (such as Ross Products, Columbus, OH).
Statistics: Describe statistical methods with enough detail to enable a knowledgeable reader with access to the original data to verify the reported results. When possible, quantify findings and present them with appropriate indicators of measurement error or uncertainty (e.g., CIs, SDs, or SEs), even for differences that were not significant. Report the number of observations. Specify any general use computer programs used, including the version number and the manufacturer's name and location. Include general descriptions of statistical methods in the "Methods" section and specific descriptions in each table and figure legend. Indicate whether variables were transformed for analysis. Provide details about what hypotheses were tested, what statistical tests were used, and what the outcome and explanatory variables were (where appropriate). Indicate the level of significance used in tests if different from the conventional 2-sided 5% alpha error and whether or what type of adjustment was made for multiple comparisons. When data are summarized in the "Results" section, specify the statistical methods used to analyze them.
4. Discussion: This section should not exceed 4 typewritten pages. Emphasize concisely the novel and important aspects of the study and the conclusions that follow from them. Do not repeat in detail data or other material presented in the "Introduction" or "Results." Compare results to those previously reported. Link conclusions with the goals of the study and avoid unqualified statements and conclusions that are not completely supported by the data. Indicate what new information is contributed by the present study.5. Practical Application: This section is written in terms that the practicing clinician can understand and the potential clinical application of the research presented in the paper. Keep the description short, about 2 to 3 sentences, and in a language that the readers can easily understand. Do not make unreasonable claims that cannot be derived from the work described in the paper. If this section is not included with the manuscript submission, the author acknowledges that an Associate Editor of the Journal will write the practical application of the research findings.
Reviews: Comprehensive, quantitative reviews of specific renal nutrition topics of clinical relevance, traditional or meta-analysis, are usually invited contributions; however, letters of interest are welcomed. Reviews should address topics with an extensive body of literature to provide a critical summary of the current evidence and applications. In some cases, review articles may also address an emerging topic with limited literature to better demonstrate the need for more research, but if the focus of the article is on a clinical practice issue, this might better be presented as a "Practical Aspects" article.Reviews should include: (1) an unstructured abstract (150 maximum word count) that clearly states the purpose of the review, the methodology employed, brief findings and conclusion; (2) introduction and purpose; (3) body, which develops the subject in logical order using appropriate headings and subheadings; (4) conclusions that specify the needs for further research; (5) a detailed and comprehensive list of references; and (6) relevant tables and/or figures. Maximum word count for a review article is 4,500 words, not including references, tables/figures and title page.
Clinical/Research Briefs: Clinical/research briefs are submitted in an abbreviated manuscript format that presents clinical practice experience, preliminary research findings (basic or clinical), or professional observations in a shortened report form. Length usually should not exceed six double-spaced pages, not including references, tables and figures.
Clinical/Research Briefs should be organized as follows: title page, support and financial disclosure, abstract, introduction, methods, results, discussion, practical application, acknowledgments, references, tables, and legends and figures. All pages should be numbered consecutively, starting with the title page as page one.Practical Aspects:The Journal welcomes manuscripts about a specific renal nutrition topic of clinical relevance for the provider of nutrition or medical care to patients with kidney disease. Contributions to this section are detailed protocols, forms, or other such materials that are successfully utilized for delivery of nutrition care or medical, nursing or psychological care that has a nutrition component.
Material submitted to the Practical Aspects section should include: (1) a title page; (2) an unstructured abstract (150 maximum word count); (3) an introduction and purpose; (4) a body, which develops the subject in logical order using appropriate headings and subheadings; (5) references and, (6) tables and figures, when appropriate.Case Studies: This detailed scenario should illustrate a patient care situation that benefited from nutrition intervention. Typically, it should consist of a brief clinical and nutrition history, and a detailed nutrition intervention plan with discussion of recommendations focused on practical application. Appropriate laboratory values, anthropometric measurements, and clinical parameters should be provided.
Patient Education*: This section provides renal dietitians with a convenient, easy-to-read, educational handout for patient distribution. Patient education materials are published online only, although they are referenced in the Table of Contents of the print edition. Submissions for Patient Education should be accompanied by an introduction explaining the rationale for the development of the material and, when appropriate, how it should be used. Text should be clear and concise and illustrations should be contained on two pages with expanded type.Letters to the Editor: Letters should be restricted to scientific commentary about materials published in JRN or to topics of general interest to professionals working in the field of renal nutrition science and dietetics. Letters must be double-spaced, should include a title page, should have no more than 10 references, and should not exceed 750 words. All letters will be subjected to editorial review and decision before acceptance. The JRN does not accept letters that are unrelated to a specific, recently published article; that contain extensive unpublished data; or that engage in personal slander or invective.
Supplements: The JRN publishes funded supplements after approval and review by the Editorial Office. Initial inquiries and proposals for supplements should be directed to Jerrilynn D. Burrowes, Editor-in-Chief, Journal of Renal Nutrition at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Proceedings Papers: Manuscript submissions from Proceedings must include a 150 word abstract, a main body of about 2,000 words, one figure and no more than 20 references. (If the figure is not possible, then the submission must have one table. In rare circumstances, up to 2 figures may be considered following discussion with the editors. Pure text without a figure should be avoided.
*NOTE: Patient Education and Product Updates are accepted for publication solely on the JRN website. They will be listed in the printed table of contents and indexed in MEDLINE. There are no charges for color figures; however, they will be subject to the same copyright laws as the printed edition.
This journal offers authors a choice in publishing their research: Open access and Subscription.
For subscription articles: Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' and the copyright will be assigned exclusively to the National Kidney Foundation, Inc., including the right to reproduce the article in all forms and media (for more information on this and copyright, see http://www.elsevier.com/copyright). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations (please consult http://www.elsevier.com/permissions). If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases: please consult http://www.elsevier.com/permissions.
For open access articles: Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an 'Exclusive License Agreement' (for more information see http://www.elsevier.com/OAauthoragreement). Permitted third party reuse of open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license (see http://www.elsevier.com/openaccesslicenses).Retained author rights
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For non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.
The open access publication fee for this journal is USD 2,500, excluding taxes. There is a 20% discount off the open access publication fee for members of the National Kidney Foundation and the International Society for Renal Nutrition. The Society member price is USD 2,000, excluding taxes.
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The Journal of Renal Nutrition utilizes the Elsevier Editorial System (EES), a web-based manuscript submission and peer review system that provides full electronic capabilities for submission, review, and status updates. Manuscripts must be submitted at http://ees.elsevier.com/yjren. Manuscripts that do not comply with these specific guidelines will be returned to the authors for revision prior to being sent out for review or evaluated by the editors.
Please note that the JRN Editorial Office receives hundreds of manuscripts a year. Each new manuscript receives a unique number, and information on the manuscript is recorded in the EES. The editorial staff releases information on manuscripts to authors only. The EES will e-mail a letter to the corresponding author acknowledging receipt of a manuscript, whether new or a resubmission.All accepted manuscripts are subject to editorial revision and shortening. Authors should avoid redundancy between sections of text and between illustrations and text. Due to page limitations, the Editors may decide that tables, illustrations, appendices, acknowledgments, and other material should be published online and referenced in the print edition.
All submissions are sent to peer reviewers. The identities of both the peer reviewers and the authors are kept confidential. Each manuscript is assigned to an Editor who has expertise in the subject area. After review by the Editor, if the manuscript is judged to be appropriate and competitive for publication in JRN, it is sent to at least two experts in the appropriate area for ananymous peer review. The reviewers evaluate each article on the basis of content, originality, scientific accuracy, clarity, and contribution to the field of renal nutrition dietetics and science.
The journal expects reviewers to treat manuscripts as confidential communications and not to use the content for their own purposes or make copies of the manuscripts. Reviewers are also expected to declare to the editor any possible conflicts of interest. After peer review (usually 4 to 6 weeks after the date of submission), the corresponding author will be notified whether the manuscript has been accepted, requires revision, or rejected.Decisions
The single most important criterion for acceptance is the originality of the work. However, a decision to accept a manuscript is not based solely on the scientific validity of its content. Other factors affecting decisions include the extent and importance of new information in the paper compared with that in other papers being considered, the Journal's need to represent a wide range of topics, and the overall suitability for JRN. Decision letters usually, but not always, convey all factors considered for a particular decision. Occasionally, the comments to the authors may appear to be inconsistent with the editorial decision, which takes into consideration reviewers' comments to the editor, etc.
Revisions and Rejections
Manuscript revisions should be resubmitted within three months of the initial decision; they are carefully re-examined by the editorial team and/or reviewers. However, no guarantee can be made about the final acceptability of the paper. If authors of a rejected manuscript are able to make new advances that go far beyond the original submission, they may consider submitting the manuscript again as a new submission, referring to the original submission in the cover letter.
Manuscripts must adhere to standard layout and length guidelines. Manuscripts must be submitted in Microsoft Word, double-spaced using 12 pt. font (preferably Times New Roman) and unjustified margins. Pages must be numbered starting with the title page. Include a cover letter to the Editor with the submission stating the main aspects of the research findings of the article. Identify the name of the corresponding author. The JRN encourages authors to provide the names, fields of interest, addresses, telephone and fax numbers, and e-mail addresses of 3 to 4 unbiased and qualified potential expert reviewers from outside the authors' institutions.
Use of the present tense is preferable. Refer to patients by number. Actual names or initials should not be used in the text, tables, or illustrations. All clinical laboratory values should be expressed in U.S. conventional units. If necessary, the International System of Units (SI units) can be provided in parentheses immediately after the U.S. convention units. Conversion tables are available at JAMA 1986; 255(17): 2329-2339 or Ann Intern Med 1987;106(1):114-129.International authors are advised to have their manuscripts reviewed by a scientific colleague who is fluent in English so that the manuscripts will conform to U.S. English usage and grammar.
The title page should include: (1) the title of the manuscript; (2) the name and degree(s) of each author(s); (3) the current title(s) and affiliation(s) of the author(s); (4) the corresponding author's name, address, telephone and fax numbers, and email address; (5) word counts for the abstract and the body of the manuscript (excluding, references, tables and figures); (6) a short title (45 characters or fewer, including spaces) to be used as a running head; and (7) acknowledgements if authors wish to express thanks or acknowledge assistance. All individuals who contributed to the writing of the manuscript but who do not qualify as authors must be named in this section. Authors are responsible for informing all listed individuals/parties that they are being mentioned in the manuscript and for obtaining their approval prior to publication.
The title page should acknowledge research support (from funding agencies or industry) and disclose any potential financial conflicts of interest for each author. Any meaningful affiliation or involvement, either direct or indirect, with any organization or entity with a direct financial interest in the subject matter or materials discussed (e.g., employment, consultancies, grants, honoraria) must be disclosed. Specifics of the disclosure will remain confidential. The Editors may request that authors of a study sponsored by a funder with a proprietary or financial interest in the outcome sign a statement, such as “I had full access to all of the data in this study and I take complete responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.” If deemed appropriate by the Editor, a general statement regarding disclosure will be included in the Acknowledgment section of the manuscript. The Acknowledgment section must also reveal all sources of support for the work, both financial and material. If no financial conflict of interest is identified, ‘none’ should be written next to the author's name. Note: If the manuscript is accepted for publication, a summary of the relevant information will be transferred to the “Support” and “Financial Disclosure” sections of the Acknowledgements.
All individuals listed as authors must fulfill the following criteria for authorship. Each author must have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for the content of the paper and must approve of the final version of the manuscript. Authorship should be based on substantive contributions to each of the following: (1) conception and design of the study; (2) generation, collection, assembly, analysis and/or interpretation of data; (3) drafting and/or revision of the manuscript; and (4) approval of the final version of the manuscript. The author who is named as the corresponding author on the manuscript's title page must be the individual to whom all Editorial-related correspondence is directed.
The abstract page should include the title of the manuscript, but no other identifying information. A structured abstract format should be used for "Original Research" and "Cinical/Research Brief " using the following headings: (1) Objective: clear statement of purpose of study; (2) Design: research design; (3) Setting: context in which the study was conducted; (4) Subjects: demographics, selection criteria, control group used; (5) Intervention: methodology, description of treatment used; (6) Main outcome measure: variable used to assess intervention effect; (7) Results: primary findings of the study; and (8) Conclusion: brief summary of the results directly supported by evidence. The abstract limit is 300 words or fewer. A list of approximately five keywords (to be used for indexing) should appear at the end of the abstract.
Abbreviations and Acronyms
Complex terms used frequently in the manuscript may be abbreviated. Abbreviations should be placed in parentheses at first use in the abstract and again at first use in the text. Do not use abbreviations and acronyms in titles.
List funding sources in this standard way to facilitate compliance to funder's requirements:
Funding: This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health [grant numbers xxxx, yyyy]; the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, WA [grant number zzzz]; and the United States Institutes of Peace [grant number aaaa].It is not necessary to include detailed descriptions on the program or type of grants and awards. When funding is from a block grant or other resources available to a university, college, or other research institution, submit the name of the institute or organization that provided the funding.
If no funding has been provided for the research, please include the following sentence:This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors. Figures
Illustrations include charts, drawings, graphs, and photographs. Charts, drawings and graphs must be computer generated. Each figure should be on a separate page. Number figures consecutively in the order they are to appear in the text (e.g., Figure 1, Figure 2, Figure 3, etc.). Figures should be uploaded as separate files, not embedded in the manuscript file.
For most types of figures, TIFF or EPS files are the preferred format. The resolution for line art must be at least 1200 dpi; photographs and shaded drawings must have a finished resolution of 300 dpi. The following image file formats are not acceptable because they are low resolution: PowerPoint, JPG, GIF,ONG, PCX, PNG, XBM, and Excel. On a separate page, list the legend for each figure, double-spaced, with abbreviations and symbols identified.
Authors must bear all costs associated with printed color figures. The cost of the first color figure is $650.00 and each additional figure is $100.00. If authors elect not to print figures in color, in most cases, authors will be able to have their color figures produced in black and white for the print version of JRN, but the figures will appear in color online.
Type each table on a separate page. Do not insert vertical lines in tables. Include a title for each table. Number tables consecutively within the manuscript (Table 1, Table 2, Table 3, etc.). Use standard citation superscript symbols (*, †, ‡, §...). Authors should place footnotes in order, reading from left to right and top to bottom, and should begin a new series of footnotes for each table. Footnotes should not appear in table titles. Tables should be uploaded as separate files, not embedded in the manuscript file.
If any table or figure has been published previously, a copy of the letter of permission from the copyright holder must accompany the manuscript. The original source of the table or figure should be acknowledged in full reference form in the reference section of the manuscript. The figure legend (or table notes) should conclude with: "Reprinted with permission" followed by the appropriate reference number. Authors are responsible for applying for permission for both print and electronic rights for all borrowed materials, and they are responsible for paying any fees related to the application of these permissions.
References must be numbered according to order of appearance in the text using superscript numbers in the text. References should be compiled at the end of the manuscript according to the order of citation in the text and should follow the American Medical Association (AMA) style and format.
Authors using reference-managing software such as EndNote or Reference Manager should select NLM/PubMed output style.
References should be typed, double-spaced starting on a separate page at the end of the manuscript. When listing references, abbreviate names of journals as listed in PubMed. List all authors and/or editors up to 6; if more than 6, list the first 3 followed by "et al." Journal references should include the issue number in parentheses after the volume number. Accuracy of reference information is the author's responsibility. Please indicate if the source is a complete article, abstract, or editorial; give inclusive page numbers for complete articles. All reference information must be complete when the manuscript is submitted.
Examples of References
Journal Article: Six or Fewer Authors
Eyre S, Attman P, Haraldsson B. Positive effects of protein restriction in patients with chronic kidney disease. J Ren Nutr. 2008;18(3):269-280.
Fernandez-Reyes MJ, Sanchez R, Garcýa L, et al. Acute responses of gastrointestinal hormones to both oral and parenteral intradialytic nutrition. Am J Nephrol. 2010;32(3):272-278.
Journal Article in Press
Steiber AL, Kopple JD. Vitamin status and needs for people with stage 3-5 chronic kidney disease. J Ren Nutr. (in press)
Byham-Gray LD, Burrowes JD, Chertow GM, eds. Nutrition in Kidney Disease. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press; 2008.
Chapter in Book
Wilkens KG, Juneja V. Medical nutrition therapy for renal disorders. In: Mahan LK, Escott-Stump S, eds. Krause's Food & Nutrition Therapy. 12th ed. St. Louis, MO: Saunders; 2008:921-958.
Gullett NP, Hebbar G, Ziegler TR. Update on clinical trials of growth factors and anabolic steroids in cachexia and wasting. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;91(4)(suppl):S1143-S1147.
PubMed Abstract Citation
Szklarek-Kubicka M, Fijalkowska-Morawska J, Zaremba- Drobnik D, Ucinski A, Czekalski S, Nowicki M. Effect of intradialytic intravenous administration of omega-3 fatty acids on nutritional status and inflammatory response in hemodialysis patients: a pilot study [abstract]. J Ren Nutr. 2009;19(6):487-493. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19616450. Accessed December 24, 2010. PMID: 19616450.
McCarron DA, Drueke TB, Stricker EM. Science trumps politics: urinary sodium data challenge US dietary sodium guideline [editorial]. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;92(5):1005-1006.
EPub Ahead of Print
Kagoma YK, Weir A, Iansavichus AV, et al. Impact of estimated GFR reporting on patients, clinicians, and health-care systems: a systematic review [published online ahead of print December 9 2010]. Am J Kidney Dis . 2010. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/ 21146269. Accessed December 24, 2010.
Authors may submit supporting material to accompany their article for online-only publication when there is insufficient space to include the material in the print article. This material should be important to the understanding and interpretation of the paper and should not repeat material in the print article. The amount of online-only material should be limited and justified. Online-only material should be original and not previously published.
Online-only material will undergo editorial and peer review with the main manuscript. If the manuscript is accepted for publication and if the editors deem the online only material appropriate for publication, it will be posted online at the time of publication of the article as additional material provided by the authors. The authors are responsible for the accuracy and presentation of all such material.Online-only material should be submitted in a separate Word document, PDF file, Excel File, Approved Figure format, etc. with pages numbered consecutively. Each element included in the online-only material should be cited in the text of the main manuscript (e.g., see Table S1) and numbered in order of citation in the text (e.g., Table S1, Table S2, Figure S1, Figure S2, Appendix S1, etc.). The first page of the online-only document should list the number and the title of each element included in the document.
Online-Only References: All references cited within the online-only document must be included in a separate reference section, including those that also were cited in the main manuscript. They should be formatted just as in the main manuscript and numbered and cited consecutively in the online-only material.
Accepted manuscripts are sent to the publisher, Elsevier. Once an article has been copyedited, typeset, and authors have reviewed the proof and submitted corrections, the author-corrected proof will be uploaded to the JRN websites (http://www.jrnjournal.org and http://www.sciencedirect.com) under "Articles in Press" for pre-print viewing by subscribers. The corrected proof of the article is also delivered to PubMed for indexing. When the article is assigned to a specific issue of JRN, it moves from the Articles in Press section to the table of contents of that issue.
Use of the Digital Object Identifier
The Digital Object Identifier (DOI) may be used to cite and link to electronic documents. The DOI consists of a unique alpha-numeric character string which is assigned to a document by the publisher upon the initial electronic publication. The assigned DOI never changes. Therefore, it is an ideal medium for citing a document, particularly 'Articles in press' because they have not yet received their full bibliographic information. Example of a correctly given DOI (in URL format; here an article in the journal Physics Letters): http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physletb.2010.09.059. When you use a DOI to create links to documents on the web, the DOIs are guaranteed never to change.
The corresponding author can expect one set of page proofs in PDF format via e-mail approximately two months after acceptance. The PDF proofs can be annotated using Adobe Reader. Instructions on how to annotate PDF files will accompany the proofs. If the author(s) do not wish to use the PDF annotations function, the corrections can be listed (including replies to the Query Form) and returned to Elsevier via email. Please list corrections quoting line number. If, for any reason, this is not possible, the corrections and any other comments can be sent (including replies to the Query Form) on a printout of the proof and returned by fax, scan or e-mail.
Please only check the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and illustrations. Significant changes to the article after it has been accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor.We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. Therefore, it is important to ensure that all corrections are returned to Elsevier in one communication. Please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely the authors' responsibility. Note: With permission from the Editor, Elsevier may proceed with the publication of the article if the proofs are not returned.Authors are expected to review proofs promptly (within 48 hours of receipt).
Manuscripts are copyedited to make them consistent with the Journal style; if a particular section in the manuscript is not clear or requires additional information, the copy editor will direct questions to the author. These questions, or "author queries," will appear in the margins of the proofs that are sent to the author. Changes made by the copy editors for style, grammar, and readability should not be altered by the author(s) unless a scientific error has been introduced.
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