Guide for Authors

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Journal of Prosthodontic Research is published 4 times annually, in January, April, July, and October, under supervision by the Editorial Board of Japan Prosthodontic Society, which selects all materials submitted for publication.

Journal of Prosthodontic Research originated as an official journal of Japan Prosthodontic Society. It has recently developed a long-range plan to become the most prestigious Asian journal of dental research regarding all aspects of oral and occlusal rehabilitation, fixed/removable prosthodontics, oral implantology and applied oral biology and physiology. The Journal will cover all diagnostic and clinical management aspects necessary to reestablish subjective and objective harmonious oral aesthetics and function.

The most-targeted topics:
1) Clinical Epidemiology and Prosthodontics
2) Fixed/Removable Prosthodontics
3) Oral Implantology
4) Prosthodontics-Related Biosciences (Regenerative Medicine, Bone Biology, Mechanobiology, Microbiology/Immunology)
5) Oral Physiology and Biomechanics (Masticating and Swallowing Function, Parafunction, e.g., bruxism)
6) Orofacial Pain and Temporomandibular Disorders (TMDs)
7) Adhesive Dentistry / Dental Materials / Aesthetic Dentistry
8) Maxillofacial Prosthodontics and Dysphagia Rehabilitation
9) Digital Dentistry

Prosthodontic treatment may become necessary as a result of developmental or acquired disturbances in the orofacial region, of orofacial trauma, or of a variety of dental and oral diseases and orofacial pain conditions.

The scientific content of the Journal therefore strives to reflect the best of evidence-based clinical dentistry. Modern clinical management should be based on solid scientific evidence gathered about diagnostic procedures and the properties and efficacy of the chosen intervention. The content of the Journal also includes documentation of the possible side-effects of rehabilitation, as well as prognostic perspectives of the treatment modalities chosen.

The Journal focuses on presenting original research findings and original technical appraisals, generating critical reviews and relevant case stories, and stimulating commentaries and professional debates in the Letters to the Editor column.

The work shall not be subsequently published in any other publication in any language without prior written consent of the publisher.


Journal of Prosthodontic Research will consider materials prepared and submitted according to these instructions. Papers submitted are subject to peer review. Papers will be evaluated by at least two anonymous persons, either members of the Editorial Board or qualified invited referees. However, we reserve the right to make any changes necessary to make the contribution conform to the editorial standards of the journal, as deemed by the Editorial Board based on the recommendations of reviewers.

Articles must be of the following categories: review, original article, case report, or technical procedure, and not previously published or being considered for publication elsewhere. Any contributions accepted for publication will become the copyright of this journal. No responsibility is accepted by the Editorial Board for opinions or ethics expressed by contributors.

The work shall not be subsequently published in any other publication in any language without prior written consent of the publisher.

In general, manuscripts should be prepared according to the guidelines produced by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors: Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals. Update October 2007. Further information can be found at

Page Charges
As of February 14th, 2020, fees are required for publication in Journal of Prosthodontic Research if the corresponding author is a non-member of JPS (Japan Prosthodontic Society). The charge per article is US$300. Corresponding author is required to pay the publication fee at the time of acceptance notification (If the first author is a member of JPS, the fee will be waived). Accepted articles cannot be published until the publication fee has been received.

Ethics in publishing

Please see our information pages on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication.

Studies in humans and animals

If the work involves the use of human subjects, the author should ensure that the work described has been carried out in accordance with The Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association (Declaration of Helsinki) for experiments involving humans. The manuscript should be in line with the Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals and aim for the inclusion of representative human populations (sex, age and ethnicity) as per those recommendations. The terms sex and gender should be used correctly.

Authors should include a statement in the manuscript that informed consent was obtained for experimentation with human subjects. The privacy rights of human subjects must always be observed.

All animal experiments should comply with the ARRIVE guidelines and should be carried out in accordance with the U.K. Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act, 1986 and associated guidelines, EU Directive 2010/63/EU for animal experiments, or the National Institutes of Health guide for the care and use of Laboratory animals (NIH Publications No. 8023, revised 1978) and the authors should clearly indicate in the manuscript that such guidelines have been followed. The sex of animals must be indicated, and where appropriate, the influence (or association) of sex on the results of the study.

The manuscript should contain a statement that the work has been approved by the appropriate ethics committees related to the institution(s) in which it was performed and that subjects gave informed consent to the work.
Studies involving experiments with animals must state that their care was in accordance with institution guidelines.
Patients' and volunteers' names, initials, and hospital numbers should not be used.

Declaration of interest

All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential competing interests include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. Authors must disclose any interests in two places: 1. A summary declaration of interest statement in the title page file (if double-blind) or the manuscript file (if single-blind). If there are no interests to declare then please state this: 'Declarations of interest: none'. This summary statement will be ultimately published if the article is accepted. 2. Detailed disclosures as part of a separate Declaration of Interest form, which forms part of the journal's official records. It is important for potential interests to be declared in both places and that the information matches. More information.

Submission declaration and verification

Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract, a published lecture or academic thesis, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service Crossref Similarity Check.

Please note that preprints can be shared anywhere at any time, in line with Elsevier's sharing policy. Sharing your preprints e.g. on a preprint server will not count as prior publication (see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' for more information).

Use of inclusive language

Inclusive language acknowledges diversity, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and promotes equal opportunities. Content should make no assumptions about the beliefs or commitments of any reader; contain nothing which might imply that one individual is superior to another on the grounds of age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition; and use inclusive language throughout. Authors should ensure that writing is free from bias, stereotypes, slang, reference to dominant culture and/or cultural assumptions. We advise to seek gender neutrality by using plural nouns ("clinicians, patients/clients") as default/wherever possible to avoid using "he, she," or "he/she." We recommend avoiding the use of descriptors that refer to personal attributes such as age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition unless they are relevant and valid. These guidelines are meant as a point of reference to help identify appropriate language but are by no means exhaustive or definitive.


All authors should have made substantial contributions to all of the following: (1) the conception and design of the study, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data, (2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content, (3) final approval of the version to be submitted.

Changes to authorship

Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the journal Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed.
Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted. While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the Editor will result in a corrigendum.

Randomized controlled trials

Reports of randomized controlled trials submitted for publication in Journal of Prosthodontic Research should include a completed Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) flowchart. Please refer to the CONSORT statement web site at for more information. Journal of Prosthodontic Research has adopted the proposal from the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE), which requires, as a condition of consideration for publication of reports of clinical trials, registration in a public trials registry. Trials must register at or before the onset of patient enrolment. The clinical trial registration number should be included at the end of the abstract of the article. For this purpose, a clinical trial is defined as any research project that prospectively assigns human subjects to intervention or comparison groups to study the cause-and-effect relationship between a medical intervention and a health outcome. Studies designed for other purposes, such as to study pharmacokinetics or major toxicity (e.g. phase I trials) would be exempt. Further information can be found at


Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (see more information on this). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.

Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations. If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases.

Author rights
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. More information.

Elsevier supports responsible sharing
Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.

Role of the funding source

You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.

At the end of the text, under a subheading "Conflict of interest statement," all authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding.

Open access

Please visit our Open Access page for more information.

Language (usage and editing services)
Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's Author Services.

Informed consent and patient details

Studies on patients or volunteers require ethics committee approval and informed consent, which should be documented in the paper. Appropriate consents, permissions and releases must be obtained where an author wishes to include case details or other personal information or images of patients and any other individuals in an Elsevier publication. Written consents must be retained by the author but copies should not be provided to the journal. Only if specifically requested by the journal in exceptional circumstances (for example if a legal issue arises) the author must provide copies of the consents or evidence that such consents have been obtained. For more information, please review the Elsevier Policy on the Use of Images or Personal Information of Patients or other Individuals. Unless you have written permission from the patient (or, where applicable, the next of kin), the personal details of any patient included in any part of the article and in any supplementary materials (including all illustrations and videos) must be removed before submission.


Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files (e.g., Word, LaTeX) are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.

Submit your article
Please submit your revised article via
Please submit new manuscript via

Please submit the names and institutional e-mail addresses of several potential referees. For more details, visit our Support site. Note that the editor retains the sole right to decide whether or not the suggested reviewers are used.

Peer review

This journal operates a double anonymized review process. All contributions will be initially assessed by the editor for suitability for the journal. Papers deemed suitable are then typically sent to a minimum of two independent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor's decision is final. Editors are not involved in decisions about papers which they have written themselves or have been written by family members or colleagues or which relate to products or services in which the editor has an interest. Any such submission is subject to all of the journal's usual procedures, with peer review handled independently of the relevant editor and their research groups. More information on types of peer review.

Double anonymized review

This journal uses double anonymized review, which means the identities of the authors are concealed from the reviewers, and vice versa. More information is available on our website. To facilitate this, please include the following separately:
Title page (with author details): This should include the title, authors' names, affiliations, acknowledgements and any Declaration of Interest statement, and a complete address for the corresponding author including an e-mail address.
Blinded manuscript (no author details): The main body of the paper (including the references, figures, tables and any acknowledgements) should not include any identifying information, such as the authors' names or affiliations.

Submission Form

At submission, every author listed in the manuscript must read and sign the Submission Form downloadable from

Use of word processing software
It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier). Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork.
To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.

Article structure

Manuscript Format
Manuscripts should be written clearly in English. The order of the manuscript should be: Title page, abstract, key words, text, references, tables, legends, and figures. The manuscript should be typed with double spacing (not to exceed 70 characters, including spaces, on a line) about 800 words per page correspond to one page of finished makeup. All manuscripts must be covered with a title page including the title (within 25 words), type of article, an abbreviated title (within 10 words) for use as a running head and three to five key words. The authors’ full and complete names, degrees, and institutions should be given on the title page, as well as full postal address, telephone/fax numbers, and e-mail address for correspondence.Define abbreviations at their first occurrence in the article: in the abstract but also in the main text after it. Ensure consistency of abbreviations throughout the article.The number of pages in the text, number of tables and figures, and the quantity of reprints desired should be stated on the bottom of the title page. The pledge statement attached to this journal must be accompanied with manuscript.

Key features of articles

Essential title page information
All manuscripts must be covered with a title page including the title (within 25 words), type of article, an abbreviated title (within 10 words) for use as a running head and three to five key words. The authors' full and complete names, degrees, and institutions should be given on the title page, as well as full postal address, telephone/fax numbers, and e-mail address for correspondence.

All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship as defined above should be listed in an acknowledgements section. Examples of those who might be acknowledged include persons who provided purely technical help or writing assistance or a department chair who provided only general support. Authors should disclose whether they had any writing assistance and identify the entity that funded for this assistance.

Article Type


The length shall be no more than 8 printed pages. Reviews shall introduce and summarize a specific theme useful for the reader. It shall correctly introduce the background subject area and the outcomes of past research, and special attention shall be paid to the selection of reference literature. The presentation of strongly biased views should be avoided. It is desirable to describe the methods used to search, select, and summarize the information.

Original article
Original articles shall have high novelty leading to objective conclusions and contribute to the development of prosthodontics. The length shall be no more than 10 printed pages.

<Structure of original article>
Introduction: The background, purpose, and significance of research shall be described in understandable manner.
Method of research (Materials and methods): The material and apparatus or method used for the research shall be clearly and concisely described so that additional tests may be performed by other persons using the same method. Also, the setup of experimental conditions, number of samples, sampling method, and statistical processing shall conform to the purpose of study.
Results (Performance): Only the objective observations shall be described; the subjective views of the authors shall be avoided. The observed results shall be indicated in tables, in principle, and values such as average and standard deviation shown jointly. Refer to "Measuring data and its treatment" described hereunder for verification of significant difference and multiple comparison.
Discussion: Adequate elaboration shall be made on the methods and results referring to the relevant literature, and arguments and opinions should follow a logical procedure. Furthermore, the discussion shall be focused on the purpose of the research; comprehensive discussion of irrelevant material shall be avoided. In addition, discussion shall be made not only of the results obtained but also on their significance for prosthodontics.
Conclusion (Summary): Only obtained results shall be described accurately and concisely.

Case report
Proposals for the modification of diagnostic methods, treatment methods, and treatment skill that are considered established in the field of prosthodontics as well as reports of rare case examples, unexpected complications, or unexpected development of disease may fall in this category. Cases shall be concretely and concisely described so as to inform readers in their treatment of patients. The length shall not exceed 6 printed pages, in principle.

<Structure of case report>
Introduction: The introduction shall state the positioning of the case in dental clinics and its characteristics; describe the problems identified and clearly explain why the case is worthy of reporting.
Outline of the case: Concrete and concise description shall be made on the outline of the case such as examination, findings of inspection, diagnosis, and therapeutic policy, treatment, and progress. Subtitles may be used to help the understanding of readers.
Discussion: Refer to the related and important literature and discuss the case to be reported. Discuss the characteristics of the case, treatment, and progress, and refer to the prosthodontic positioning of the case.
Conclusion: The conclusion shall include helpful points for readers in their own clinical practice.

Technical procedure
Introduction of new clinical operation method, research method, and use method of materials may be submitted, and the length shall not exceed 6 printed pages, in principle. Acceptable articles shall not introduce new products or mere technical information but shall describe novel effectiveness of treatment, long-term stability, or performance of equipment enhanced due to improvement proposed by the author.

<Structure of technical introduction procedure>
Introduction: Clearly describe the purpose of technology (operation method, research method, use method, etc.) to be introduced.
Materials and methods: Describe clearly, systematically, and understandably the materials, equipment, use method, methodology, and operational method.
Difference from conventional methods: Summarize and describe concisely the main points of the new contrivance and novelty that are different from conventional methods. Especially, clear description shall be made on the development or contrivances made by the author.
Effect or performance: Clearly describe the improvement in effectiveness and safety resulting from the improvement introduced. Also, description shall be made on the merits and demerits of the operation method to be introduced.
Conclusion: Description shall be made only of the obtained conclusions about the new contrivance and novelty different from conventional methods as well as the points improved thereby and its effectiveness.

Letter to the Editor
A Letter to the Editor should be in one of the following forms of presentation:
1. A brief report of research findings appropriate for the scope of Journal of Prosthodontic Research and of special interest to the readers.
2. An article that may not cover standard research but that is of general interest to the broad readership of Journal of Prosthodontic Research (e.g., technical tips and brief procedures for prosthodontic treatments).
3. A discussion that comment on a recent Journal of Prosthodontic Research article.
As with other articles, a Letter to the Editor may be subject to peer review. Typically, it will contain about 1,000 words of text, figure legends, and references. It will have no abstract, and the references are limited to 10. It need not follow the usual classification of sections, such as materials and methods. A Letter to the Editor usually contains 1 or 2 figures or tables.

In the case of full-length papers, the following format is recommended:

Briefly state a summary of the text, within 250 words, as a structured abstract.

  1. Review: Purpose, Study selection, Results, Conclusions
  2. Original article: Purpose, Methods, Results, Conclusions
  3. Case Report: Patients, Discussion, Conclusions
  4. Technical Procedure: Purpose, Methods, Conclusions


  1. Clearly and briefly describe the background and the rational objective of the study, with a review of earlier publications.
  2. It is recommended that previous studies described should be the most relevant. Avoid exhaustive review of the literature.

Materials and methods

  1. Clearly describe the subjects and sample size, the experimental procedures, and apparatus (manufacturer's name and address) used in the study.
  2. In the case of experiments on human and animal subjects, give an account that the methods are regarded as ethically sound.
  3. In the event of an original design, the details should be provided. Otherwise, references accompanied by sufficient information for interdisciplinary evaluation will suffice.
  4. The type of statistical analysis used, as well as commercial software, must be stated in this section.
  5. Do not include discussion in this section.
  6. Describe precisely all drugs and chemicals used, including generic names, doses, and routes of administration.


  1. Present the essential results in the text, in a clear and concise manner.
  2. Use tables and figures to compare and contrast the findings.
  3. Do not repeat in the text all the detailed data in the tables and figures.
  4. Do not include discussion in this section.
  5. In the statistical analysis, please define the probability values and show that the differences reported were found to be statistically significant.


  1. Demonstrate the objective reliability of the results, as well as the property and limitation of the experimental procedures and subjects used.
  2. Point out the significance and the limitation of the study, including implications for future research.
  3. Describe and evaluate the results with a scientifically critical view, and discuss your findings in the context of other publications, including opposing views.
  4. The introduction or details of the results should not be repeated in this section.
  5. Subjective comments can only be made in this section; however, speculation must be identified as such.
  6. Link the conclusions with the objectives of the study, as stated in the introduction.

Acknowledgments, a scientific meeting at which the data were presented, the sources of funding for the study, and/or any other special mention, may be stated before the references section.


Journal of Prosthodontic Research uses Vancouver reference style.

Citation in text
Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.

Reference links
Increased discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, CrossRef and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the DOI is highly encouraged.

A DOI is guaranteed never to change, so you can use it as a permanent link to any electronic article. An example of a citation using DOI for an article not yet in an issue is: VanDecar J.C., Russo R.M., James D.E., Ambeh W.B., Franke M. (2003). Aseismic continuation of the Lesser Antilles slab beneath northeastern Venezuela. Journal of Geophysical Research, Please note the format of such citations should be in the same style as all other references in the paper.

Web references
As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.

Data references
This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in your published article.

References in a special issue
Please ensure that the words 'this issue' are added to any references in the list (and any citations in the text) to other articles in the same Special Issue.

Reference management software
Most Elsevier journals have their reference template available in many of the most popular reference management software products. These include all products that support Citation Style Language styles, such as Mendeley. Using citation plug-ins from these products, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article, after which citations and bibliographies will be automatically formatted in the journal's style. If no template is yet available for this journal, please follow the format of the sample references and citations as shown in this Guide. If you use reference management software, please ensure that you remove all field codes before submitting the electronic manuscript. More information on how to remove field codes from different reference management software.

If EndNote is used, this journal has standard templates available in key reference management packages (

Reference style
Text: Indicate references by number(s) in square brackets in line with the text. The actual authors can be referred to, but the reference number(s) must always be given.
List: Number the references (numbers in square brackets) in the list in the order in which they appear in the text.
Reference to a journal publication:
[1] Van der Geer J, Hanraads JAJ, Lupton RA. The art of writing a scientific article. J Sci Commun 2010;163:51–9.
Reference to a journal publication with an article number:
[2] Van der Geer J, Hanraads JAJ, Lupton RA. The art of writing a scientific article. Heliyon. 2018;19:e00205.
Reference to a book:
[3] Strunk Jr W, White EB. The elements of style. 4th ed. New York: Longman; 2000.
Reference to a chapter in an edited book:
[4] Mettam GR, Adams LB. How to prepare an electronic version of your article. In: Jones BS, Smith RZ, editors. Introduction to the electronic age, New York: E-Publishing Inc; 2009, p. 281–304.
Reference to a website:
[5] Cancer Research UK. Cancer statistics reports for the UK,; 2003 [accessed 13 March 2003].
Reference to a dataset:
[dataset] [6] Oguro M, Imahiro S, Saito S, Nakashizuka T. Mortality data for Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions, Mendeley Data, v1; 2015.
Note shortened form for last page number. e.g., 51–9, and that for more than 6 authors the first 6 should be listed followed by 'et al.' For further details you are referred to 'Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts submitted to Biomedical Journals' (J Am Med Assoc 1997;277:927–34) (see also Samples of Formatted References).

Journal abbreviations source
Journal names should be abbreviated according to the List of Title Word Abbreviations.

Research data

This journal encourages and enables you to share data that supports your research publication where appropriate, and enables you to interlink the data with your published articles. Research data refers to the results of observations or experimentation that validate research findings. To facilitate reproducibility and data reuse, this journal also encourages you to share your software, code, models, algorithms, protocols, methods and other useful materials related to the project.

Below are a number of ways in which you can associate data with your article or make a statement about the availability of your data when submitting your manuscript. If you are sharing data in one of these ways, you are encouraged to cite the data in your manuscript and reference list. Please refer to the "References" section for more information about data citation. For more information on depositing, sharing and using research data and other relevant research materials, visit the research data page.

Data linking
If you have made your research data available in a data repository, you can link your article directly to the dataset. Elsevier collaborates with a number of repositories to link articles on ScienceDirect with relevant repositories, giving readers access to underlying data that gives them a better understanding of the research described.

There are different ways to link your datasets to your article. When available, you can directly link your dataset to your article by providing the relevant information in the submission system. For more information, visit the database linking page.

For supported data repositories a repository banner will automatically appear next to your published article on ScienceDirect.

In addition, you can link to relevant data or entities through identifiers within the text of your manuscript, using the following format: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN).

Mendeley Data
This journal supports Mendeley Data, enabling you to deposit any research data (including raw and processed data, video, code, software, algorithms, protocols, and methods) associated with your manuscript in a free-to-use, open access repository. During the submission process, after uploading your manuscript, you will have the opportunity to upload your relevant datasets directly to Mendeley Data. The datasets will be listed and directly accessible to readers next to your published article online.

For more information, visit the Mendeley Data for journals page.

Data statement
To foster transparency, we encourage you to state the availability of your data in your submission. This may be a requirement of your funding body or institution. If your data is unavailable to access or unsuitable to post, you will have the opportunity to indicate why during the submission process, for example by stating that the research data is confidential. The statement will appear with your published article on ScienceDirect. For more information, visit the Data Statement page.


Tables should be submitted online as a separate file, bear a concise title, and be numbered with Arabic numerals. Tables should be cited in the text. Column headings should be brief, but sufficiently explanatory. Standard abbreviations of units of measurement should be added between parentheses. Vertical lines should not be used to separate columns.


  • The number of figures used to present data essential to illustrate or prove a point should be kept to a minimum.
  • Reference should be made in the text to each illustration. Figures will be reduced to fit to the size of one column (7.5 cm) or two columns (16 cm), and any lettering should be large enough to allow this reduction without becoming illegible.
  • Each figure should be accompanied by a title and an explanatory legend on a separate page called Legends to Figures. There should be sufficient experimental details in the legend to make the figure intelligible without reference to the text.
  • Legends to Figures should be typed double-spaced, in numerical order, on a separate page.
  • Photographs should be as high in contrast as possible.
  • Indicate the magnification of photomicrographs in bar scales on the illustration itself instead of numerical magnification factors.
  • Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
  • Save text in illustrations as "graphics" or enclose the font.
  • Only use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Helvetica, Times, Symbol.
  • Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
  • Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
  • Provide all illustrations as separate files.
  • Provide captions to illustrations separately.
  • Produce images near to the desired size of the printed version.

Online proof correction

To ensure a fast publication process of the article, we kindly ask authors to provide us with their proof corrections within two days. Corresponding authors will receive an e-mail with a link to our online proofing system, allowing annotation and correction of proofs online. The environment is similar to MS Word: in addition to editing text, you can also comment on figures/tables and answer questions from the Copy Editor. Web-based proofing provides a faster and less error-prone process by allowing you to directly type your corrections, eliminating the potential introduction of errors.
If preferred, you can still choose to annotate and upload your edits on the PDF version. All instructions for proofing will be given in the e-mail we send to authors, including alternative methods to the online version and PDF.
We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication. Please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.


The corresponding author will, at no cost, receive a customized Share Link providing 50 days free access to the final published version of the article on ScienceDirect. The Share Link can be used for sharing the article via any communication channel, including email and social media. For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's Author Services. Corresponding authors who have published their article gold open access do not receive a Share Link as their final published version of the article is available open access on ScienceDirect and can be shared through the article DOI link.

Visit the Elsevier Support Center to find the answers you need. Here you will find everything from Frequently Asked Questions to ways to get in touch.
You can also check the status of your submitted article or find out when your accepted article will be published.


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