Guide for Authors

All journal information and instructions compiled in one document (PDF) in just one mouse-click Author information pack

• Article Categories
• Contact details for submission
• Ethics in publishing
• Human and animal rights
• Declaration of interest
• Submission declaration
• Changes to authorship
• Clinical trial results
• Reporting Clinical Trials
• Identification of Patients in Descriptions, Photographs and Pedigrees
• Basic Criteria
• Copyright
• Open access
• Funding/Support Statement
• Important Information
• Supporting Documents
• Peer review
• Abstract and Keywords
• Acknowledgements
• Figures
• Formats
• Tables
• References
• Online proof correction
• Offprints

The Journal of Medical Ultrasound (JMU) is the official peer reviewed, open access publication of the Asian Federation of Societies forUltrasound in Medicine and Biology, and the Chinese Taipei Society of Ultrasound in Medicine. It is published quarterly by Elsevier.

The Journal aims to promote clinical and scientific research in ultrasonography, and to serve as a channel ofcommunication among sono logists, sonographers, and medicalultrasound physicians in the Asia-Pacific region and wider international community. Original contributions relating to the clinical and laboratory investigations and applications ofultrasonography are welcome.

The Editorial Board requires authors to be in compliance with the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals (URMs), which are compiled by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE);current URMs are available at

These Instructions to Authors are revised periodically by the Editors as needed. Authors should consult a recent issue of the Journal or visit for the latest version of these instructions. Any manuscript not prepared according to these instructions will be returned immediately to the author(s) without review.

Article Categories

The categories of articles that are published in the Journal are listed and described below. Please select the category that best describes your paper. If your paper does not fall into any of these categories, please contact the Editorial Office.

Review Articles
These should aim to provide the reader with a balanced overview of an important and topical subject related to ultrasonography. They should cover aspects of a topic in which scientific consensus exists as well as aspects that remain controversial and are the subject of ongoing scientific research. All articles and data sources reviewed should include information about the specific type of study or analysis, population, intervention, exposure, and tests or outcomes. All articles or data sources should be selected systematically for inclusion in the review and critically evaluated.

Original Articles
These articles typically include randomized trials, intervention studies, studies of screening and diagnostic tests, cohort studies, cost-effectiveness analyses, case-control studies, and surveys with high response rates, which represent new and significant contributions to ultrasonography.

Section headings should be: Abstract, Introduction, Materials (or Patients) and Methods, Results, Discussion, Conflicts of Interest Statement (if any), Acknowledgments (if any), and References.

The Introduction should provide a brief background to the subject of the paper, explain the importance of the study, and state a precise study question or purpose.

The Materials (or Patients) and Methods section should describe the study design and methods (including the study setting and dates, patients/participants with inclusion and exclusion criteria, patient samples or animal specimens used, the essential features of any interventions, the main outcome measures, the laboratory methods followed, or data sources and how these were selected for the study), and state the statistical procedures employed in the research.

The Results section should comprise the study results presented in a logical sequence, supplemented by tables and/or figures. Take care that the text does not repeat data that are presented in tables and/or figures. Only emphasize and summarize the essential features of the main results.

The Discussion section should be used to emphasize the new and important aspects of the study, placing the results in context with published literature, the implications of the findings, and the conclusions that follow from the study results.

Case Reports
These are short discussions of a case or cases with unique features not previously described that make an important teaching point or scientific observation. They may describe novel techniques or use of equipment, or new information on diseases of importance. Section headings should be: Abstract, Introduction, Case Report(s), Discussion, Conflicts of Interest Statement (if any), Acknowledgments (if any), and References.

The Introduction should describe the purpose of the present report, the significance of the disease and its specificity, and briefly review the relevant literature.

The Case Report(s) should include the general data of the case(s), medical history, family history, chief complaint, present illness, clinical manifestation, methods of diagnosis and treatment, and outcome.

The Discussion should compare, analyze and discuss the similarities and differences between the reported case(s) and similar cases reported in other published articles. The importance or specificity of the case(s) should be restated when discussing the differential diagnoses. Suggest the prognosis of the disease and possibility of prevention.

Format guide
• Word limit: 2000
• Abstract: Unstructured, up to 250 words
• References: up to 25

Brief Communications
These reports should be concise presentations of preliminary experimental results or technical aspects of clinical or experimental practice that are not fully investigated, verified or perfected but which may be of widespread interest or application.
A new method, procedure, technology, or treatment with a practical approach may be described, or a recommendation for improving scanning may be presented, with a description of how the technique should be implemented, detailing the technique's limitations, and explaining why the technique is important and how it will enhance clinical practice.

The manuscript may be prepared according to the format of original articles.

Format guide
• Word limit: 1500 words
• References: up to 12

Letters to the Editor
Letters are welcome in response to previously published JMU articles, or to present your views on a particular subject in ultrasound. It may include some review of the literature in making a point, although it is clearly an opinion piece rather than a review of the subject. Letters to the editor should be objective, constructive and educational. Letters should have a title, include appropriate references and the corresponding author’s mailing and e-mail addresses. Letters are edited, sometimes extensively, to sharpen their focus. They may be sent for peer review at the discretion of JMU Editors. Letters are selected based on clarity, significance, and space.
Format Guide
• Word limit: 500 words
• References: up to 5
• Tables/Figures: 1 maximum

These are brief discussions focusing on 1 or 2 key points about a single study–strengths, weaknesses, where it fits in the context of other studies, controversies, how it should or should not change our clinical practice, or how it illustrates some important principle of science or methodology.

They are usually written by the Editors or Reviewers involved in the evaluation of a submitted manuscript, and published concurrently with that manuscript.

Format guide
• Word limit: 1500 words
• References: up to 12

Pictorial Essays
The message in a pictorial essay is contained in the images presented. The text is short, but the figure legends are key. No introduction, methods or discussion sections are required as the message is conveyed through unique, exceptional and timely ultrasound images.

Format guide
• Word limit: 1000 words
• References: up to 10

Imaging for Residents
These are diagnostic images of real cases that aim to be an exercise for residents to practice diagnosis. Hence, Imaging for Residents should be structured into two separate parts that will be published in two consecutive issues of the Journal: Section 1—Quiz; Section 2—Answer.
Section 1—Quiz must include the following information:
• article title
• author name(s) and affiliation(s)
• case (description)
• figures
• conflicts of interest statement
The word count limit for Section 1—Quiz is 800 words.

Section 2—Answer must include the following information:
• article title
• author name(s) and affiliation(s)
• case (description)
• figures
• interpretation
• discussion (if any)
• references (not more than 10)
• conflicts of interest statement
The word count limit for Section 2—Answer is 800 words

*JMU accept video clips as the supplementary material attached to the articles and please note that the video clips will only be shown online.

Contact details for submission

Manuscript Submission
Please use only one of the two following submission methods below. Do NOT submit your manuscript using both methods

Submission by E-mail
Manuscripts (meaning all submission items, including all text,tables, artwork, cover letter, conflicts of interest disclosures,and any other required documents/material as detailed in Section Supporting documents) can be submitted by e-mail to the Editorial Office at

Submission by Post
Three copies of the original manuscript, one copy of each of the applicable supporting documents detailed in Section, two Checklists and a disk (containing the electronic copies of the manuscript and supporting documents) can be posted to the Editorial Office, addressed to

Journal of Medical Ultrasound
The Chinese Taipei Society of Ultrasound in Medicine
8F.-1, No. 207, Section 2, Chongqing North Road,
Datong District, Taipei City 103, Taiwan
Tel: 886-2-25531757 ext.11 | Fax: 886-2-25531759

Ethics in publishing

Please see our information pages on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication.

Human and animal rights

If the work involves the use of human subjects, the author should ensure that the work described has been carried out in accordance with The Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association (Declaration of Helsinki) for experiments involving humans; Uniform Requirements for manuscripts submitted to Biomedical journals. Authors should include a statement in the manuscript that informed consent was obtained for experimentation with human subjects. The privacy rights of human subjects must always be observed.

All animal experiments should comply with the ARRIVE guidelines and should be carried out in accordance with the U.K. Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act, 1986 and associated guidelines, EU Directive 2010/63/EU for animal experiments, or the National Institutes of Health guide for the care and use of Laboratory animals (NIH Publications No. 8023, revised 1978) and the authors should clearly indicate in the manuscript that such guidelines have been followed.

Ethical Approval of Studies and Informed Consent
For human or animal experimental investigations, appropriate institutional review board or ethics committee approval is required, and such approval should be stated in the methods section of the manuscript. For those investigators who do not have formal ethics review committees, the principles outlined in the Declaration ofHelsinki should be followed (World Medical Association. Declaration of Helsinki: ethical principles for medical research involving humansubjects. Available at:

For investigation of human subjects, state explicitly in the methods section of the manuscript that informed consent was obtained from all participating adult subjects and from parents or legal guardians for minors or incapacitated adults, together with the manner in which informed consent was obtained (i.e., oral or written).

For work involving animals, the guidelines for their care and use that were followed should be stated in the methods sectionof the manuscript. For those investigators who do not have formal institutional guidelines relating to animal experiments,the European Commission Directive 86/609/EEC for animal experiments (available at should be followed and the same should be stated in the methods section of the manuscript.

Disclosure of Conflicts of Interest
A conflict of interest occurs when an individual's objectivity ispotentially compromised by a desire for financial gain, prominence, professional advancement or a successful outcome. JMU Editorsstrive to ensure that what is published in the Journal is as balanced, objective and evidence-based as possible. Since it can be difficult to distinguish between an actual confl ict of interest and a perceived conflict of interest, the Journal requires authors to disclose all and any potential conflicts of interest.

Conflicts of interest may be financial or non-financial. Financial conflicts include financial relationships such as honoraria; educational grants; participation in speakers, bureaus; membership, employment, consultancies, stock ownership, or other equity interest; expert testimony or patent-licensing arrangements. Nonfinancial conflicts include personal or professional relationships,affiliations, academic competition, intellectual passion, knowledge or beliefs that might affect objectivity.

Please ensure that the name of each author listed in your manuscript appears in either Section I or Section II on page 2 of the JMU Authorship & Conflicts of Interest Statement form (an author'sname cannot appear in both Section I and Section II of the form).

Declaration of interest

All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. Authors must disclose any interests in two places: 1. A summary declaration of interest statement in the title page file (if double-blind) or the manuscript file (if single-blind). If there are no interests to declare then please state this: 'Declarations of interest: none'. This summary statement will be ultimately published if the article is accepted. 2. Detailed disclosures as part of a separate Declaration of Interest form, which forms part of the journal's official records. It is important for potential interests to be declared in both places and that the information matches. More information.

Submission declaration

Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' section of our ethics policy for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere including electronically in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the copyright-holder.

Changes to authorship

Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the journal Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed.
Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted. While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the Editor will result in a corrigendum.

Clinical trial results

In line with the position of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, the journal will not consider results posted in the same clinical trials registry in which primary registration resides to be prior publication if the results posted are presented in the form of a brief structured (less than 500 words) abstract or table. However, divulging results in other circumstances (e.g., investors' meetings) is discouraged and may jeopardise consideration of the manuscript. Authors should fully disclose all posting in registries of results of the same or closely related work.

Reporting Clinical Trials

All randomized controlled trials submitted for publication should include a completed Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials(CONSORT) flow chart (please go to for more information). The JMU has adopted the ICMJE proposal that requires, as a condition of consideration for publication of clinical trials, registration in a public trials registry. Trials must register at or before the onset of patient enrollment. The clinical trial registration number should be included at the end of the abstract of the article.

For this purpose, a clinical trial is defined as any research study that prospectively assigns human participants or groups of humans to one or more health-related interventions to evaluate the effects of health outcomes. Health-related interventions include any intervention used to modify a biomedical or healt hrelated outcome (for example drugs, surgical procedures, devices, behavioral treatments, dietary interventions, and process-of-carechanges). Health outcomes include any biomedical or health related measures obtained in patients or participants, including pharmacokinetic measures and adverse events.

Purely observational studies (those in which the assignment ofthe medical intervention is not at the discretion of the investigator) will not require registration. Further information can be found at

Identification of Patients in Descriptions, Photographs and Pedigrees

A signed statement of informed consent to publish (in print andonline) patient descriptions, photographs and pedigrees should be obtained

Basic Criteria

Articles should be written in English, using British English spelling, and meet the following basic criteria: the material is original, the information is important, the writing is clear and concise, the study methods are appropriate, the data are valid, and the conclusions are reasonable and supported by the data.


Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (see more information on this). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.

Author rights
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. More information.

The JMU is the official peer-reviewed publication of the Chinese Taipei Society of Ultrasound in Medicine.Manuscripts published in the JMU become the permanent property of the Chinese Taipei Society of Ultrasound in Medicine. All articles published in the Journal are protected by copyright, which covers the exclusive rights to reproduce and distribute the article, as well as translation rights. No JMU article, in part or whole, may be reproduced, stored in any retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, by photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior written permission from the Chinese Taipei Society of Ultrasound in Medicine.

Open access

This is a subsidized open access journal where the Chinese Taipei Society of Ultrasound in Medicine pays for the publishing costs incurred by the journal. Authors are not charged Article Processing Charges. All articles will be available Open Access on ScienceDirect. Permitted (re)use is that outlined by the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND) license, which states that for non-commercial purposes, others may distribute and copy the article, and include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.

Elsevier supports responsible sharing
Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.

Funding/Support Statement

All financial and material support for the research, work, writing and editorial assistance from internal or external agencies, including commercial companies, should be clearly and completely identified in a Funding/Support Statement.

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND)
For non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.

Elsevier Publishing Campus
The Elsevier Publishing Campus ( is an online platform offering free lectures, interactive training and professional advice to support you in publishing your research. The College of Skills training offers modules on how to prepare, write and structure your article and explains how editors will look at your paper when it is submitted for publication. Use these resources, and more, to ensure that your submission will be the best that you can make it.

Important Information

Articles should be in Microsoft Word document format and prepared in the simplest form possible. We will add in the correct font, font size, margins and so on according to the Journal's style.

You may use automatic page numbering, but do NOT use other kinds of automatic formatting such as footnotes, headers and footers. References especially should NOT be formatted using the MS Word endnotes or footnotes unction; instead, you may use the commercially available EndNote® or Reference Manager® software to manage your references.

Put text, references, table headings and tables, and fi gure legends in one file.

Figures must be submitted as separate picture fi les, at the correct resolution and named according to the fi gure number and format, e.g., Fig1.tif, Fig2.jpg. Please see section Figures for more information.

Supporting Documents

The following documents must be included in your submission (refer also to the Checklist that follows these author instructions). Items (1), (2) and(3) are mandatory. Items (4), (5), (6) and (7) are required only if they areapplicable to your manuscript.

(1) Cover Letter. This must include the following information:

  • title of the manuscript
  • Names (spelled out in full) of all the authors*, and the institutions with which they are affiliated; indicate allaffiliations with a superscripted number after the author's name and in front of the matching affiliation (*the name of each author should be written with the family name last, e.g., Wan-Lin Chang).
  • corresponding author's details (name, e-mail, mailing address, telephone and fax numbers)
  • a statement that the material contained in the manuscript has not been previously published and is not being concurrently submitted elsewhere
  • persons who do not fulfill the requirements to be listed as authors but who nevertheless contributed to the manuscript (such as those who provided writing assistance, for example) should be disclosed
  • list of manuscripts that have been published, submitted, or are in press that are similar to the submission to the JMU (and include in your submission copies of those similar manuscripts so that JMU Editors can be assured there is nooverlap)
  • the signature of the corresponding author

(2) Authorship & Conflicts of Interest Statement. Each author's contribution to the manuscript should be listed. Any and all potential and actual conflicts of interest should also be listed (see Section 2 for more information). Please use the JMU Authorship & Conflicts of Interest Statement form that follows these author instructions and that is also provided on the Journal's website at Your signature and those of ALL yourcoauthors must be included.
(3) Copyright Transfer Agreement. In the event that your manuscript is accepted for publication in the JMU, you are requiredto transfer all copyright ownership in and relating to the work to Elsevier Taiwan LLC and the Chinese Taipei Society of Ultrasound in Medicine. Please use the JMU Copyright Transfer Agreement form that follows these author instructions and that is also provided on the Journal's websiteat Your signature and those of ALL your coauthors must be included.
(4) Ethics Statement. Articles covering the use of human or animal samples in research, or human or animal experiments must be accompanied by a letter of approval from the relevant review committee or authorities. See Section 3 for more information.
(5) Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) flowchart for randomized controlled trials submitted for publication.See Section 4 for more information.
(6) Signed Statement of Informed Consent. Articles where human subjects can be identified in descriptions, photographs or pedigrees must be accompanied by a signed statement of informed consent to publish (in print and online) the descriptions, photographs and pedigrees from each subject who can be identified. See Section 5 for more information.
(7) Copyright Permission. If you have reproduced or adapted material from other copyrighted sources, the letter(s) of permission from the copyright holder(s) to reproduce or adapt the copyrighted sources must be supplied. Otherwise, such material must be removed from your manuscript.

Submit your article
Please submit your article via


Manuscript Preparation
Text should be typed double-spaced on white A4 (297 x 210 mm)paper, with outer margins of 2.5 cm. The manuscript should include a title page, abstract, key words, main text, acknowledgments(if any), references, and figures and tables asappropriate. Each section of the manuscript should begin on anew page. Pages should be numbered consecutively, beginning with the title page.

Title Page
The title page should contain the following information (in order,from the top to bottom of the page):

  • article category
  • article title
  • declaration of any potential financial and non-financial conflicts of interest
  • running title not exceeding 50 characters
  • authorship information

Main Text
The text for Original Articles and Brief Communications should be organized into the following sections: Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, Conflicts of Interest Statement (if any), Acknowledgments (if any), and References. Sections for Case Reports are: Introduction, Case Report(s), Discussion, Conflicts of Interest Statement (if any), Acknowledgments (if any), and References. Each section should begin on a new page.

Where a term/definition will be continually referred to, it must be written in full when it first appears in the text, followed by the subsequent abbreviation in parentheses. Thereafter, the abbreviation may be used. An abbreviation should not be first defined in any section heading; if an abbreviation has previously been defined in the text, then the abbreviation may be used in a subsequent section heading. Restrict the number of abbreviations to those that are absolutely necessary.

Numbers that begin a sentence or those that are less than 10should be spelled out using letters. Centuries and decadesshould be spelled out, e.g., the Eighties or nineteenth century.Laboratory parameters, time, temperature, length, area, mass,and volume should be expressed using digits.

Systeme International (SI) units must be used, with the exception of blood pressure values which are to be reported in mmHg. Use the metric system for the expression of length, area, mass, and volume. Temperatures are to be given in degrees Celsius.

Names of drugs, devices and other products
Use the Recommended International Non-proprietary Name (rINN)for medicinal substances, unless the specific trade name of a drug is directly relevant to the discussion. Generic drug names should appear in lowercase letters in the text. If a specific proprietary drug needs to be identified, the brand name may appear only once in the manuscript in parentheses following the generic name the first time the drug is mentioned in the text.

For devices and other products, the specific brand or trade name, the manufacturer and their location (city, state, country) shouldbe provided the first time the device or product is mentioned in the text, for example, &...IBM SPSS Statistics 21.0 was used(IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA). Thereafter, the generic term (ifappropriate) should be used.

Gene nomenclature
Current standard international nomenclature for genes should be adhered to. For human genes, use genetic notation and symbols approved by the HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee ( You may also refer to the resources available onPubMed at The Human Genome Variation Society has a useful site that provides guidance in naming mutations at In your manuscript, genes should be typed in italic font and include the accession number.

Statistical requirements
Statistical analysis is essential for all research papers. Use correctn omenclature for statistical methods (e.g., two sample t test, not unpaired t test). Descriptive statistics should follow the scales used indata description. Inferential statistics are important for interpreting results and should be described in detail.

All p values should be presented to the third decimal place for accuracy. The smallest p value that should be expressed is p < 0.001 since additional zeros do not convey useful information; the largest p value that should be expressed is p > 0.99.

Personal communications and unpublished data
These sources cannot be included in the references list but may be described in the text. The author(s) must give the full nameand highest academic degree of the person, the date of thecommunication, and indicate whether it was in oral or written (letter, fax, e-mail) form. A signed statement of permission should be included from each person identified as a source of information in a personal communication or as a source for unpublished data.

Preparation for Publication
Once a manuscript has been accepted for publication, authors should submit the final version of their manuscript in MS Word format, with all tables/figures as applicable, via e-mail to the Editorial Office.

Accepted manuscripts are then copyedited according to the Journal's style and the galley proofs in the form of a PDF file are sent by the Publisher to the corresponding author for final approval. Authors are responsible for all statements made in their work, including changes made by the copy editor.

Proof reading is solely the authors' responsibility. Note that the Editorial Board reserves the right to make revisions to the manuscript and the Publisher may proceed with the publication of your article if no response from the author(s) is received.

The Editorial and Peer Review Process
As a general rule, the receipt of a manuscript will be acknowledged within 2 weeks of submission, and authors will be provided with a manuscript reference number for future correspondence. If such an acknowledgment is not received in a reasonable period of time, the author should contact the Editorial Office.

Submissions are reviewed by the Editorial Office to ensure that it contains all parts. Submissions will be rejected if the author has not supplied all the material and documents as outlined in these author instructions.

Manuscripts are then forwarded to the Editor-in-Chief, who makes an initial assessment of it. If the manuscript does not appear to be of sufficient merit or is not appropriate for the Journal, then the manuscript will be rejected without review. Rejected manuscripts will not be returned to authors unless requested.

Manuscripts that appear meritorious and appropriate for the Journal are reviewed by at least two Editorial Board members or expert consultants assigned by the Editor-in-Chief. The corresponding author will usually be notified within 10 weeks of whether the submitted article is accepted for publication, rejected, or subject to revision before acceptance (however, do note that delays are sometimes unavoidable). If revisions are required, authors are asked to return a revised manuscript to the Editorial Office via the EES within 30 days. Please notify the Editorial Office in advance if additional time is needed or if you choose not to submit a revised manuscript.

Peer review

This journal operates a single blind review process. All contributions will be initially assessed by the editor for suitability for the journal. Papers deemed suitable are then typically sent to a minimum of two independent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor's decision is final. More information on types of peer review.

Use of word processing software
It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier). Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork.
To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.

Abstract and Keywords

An abstract of no more than 500 words and 3-5 relevant keywords (in alphabetical order) are required for the following article categories: Review Articles, Original Articles, Case Reports, and Brief Communications.

Abstracts for Review Articles, Case Reports and Brief Communications should be unstructured (i.e., in one single paragraph with no subheadings), and include information on the background/purpose of the report, methods, results (or case report), and conclusions.

Abstracts for Original Articles should be structured into the sections listed below:

Background: briefly explain the importance of the study topic and state a precise study question or purpose.

Methods: briefly introduce the methods used to perform the study; include information on the study design, setting, subjects, interventions, outcome measures and analyses as appropriate.

Results: briefly present the significant results, with data and statistical details such as p values where appropriate; be sure that information in the abstract matches that in the main text.

Conclusion: state the meaning of your findings, being careful to address the study question directly and to confine your conclusions to aspects covered in the abstract; give equal emphasis topositive and negative findings.

Key words should be taken from the Medical SubjectHeadings (MeSH) list of Index Medicus (

No abstract or key words are required for Letters to the Editor,Commentaries, Pictorial Essays, and Imaging for Residents.


General acknowledgments for consultations and statistical analyses should be listed concisely, including the names of the individuals who were directly involved. Consent should be obtained from those individuals before their names are listed in this section. Those acknowledged should not include secretarial, clerical or technical staff whose participation was limited to the performance of their normal duties.


General guidelines
The number of figures should be restricted to the minimum necessaryto support the textual material. Figures should have an informative figure legend and be numbered in the order of their citation in the text. All symbols and abbreviations should be defined in the figure legend in alphabetical order. Items requiring explanatory footnotes should follow the same style as that for tables as described in Section Tables

Patient identification should be obscured. All lettering should be done professionally and should be in proportion to the drawing, graph or photograph. Photomicrographs must include an internal scale marker, and the legend should state the type of specimen, original magnification and stain.

Figures must be submitted as separate picture files, at the correct resolution (see Section 9.8.2.) and named according to the figure number and format, e.g. "Fig1.tif", "Fig2.jpg".


Regardless of the application used, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please "save as" or convert the images to one of thefollowing formats (note the resolution requirements for linedrawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):

  • EPS: vector drawings. Embed the font or save the text as "graphics".
  • TIFF: color or grayscale photographs (halftones)–use a minimum of 300 dpi.
  • TIFF: bitmapped line drawings–use a minimum of 1000 dpi.
  • TIFF: combination of bitmapped line/halftone (coloror grayscale)–use a minimum of 600 dpi.
  • DOC, XLS or PPT: if your electronic artwork is created in any of these Microsoft Office applications, pleasesupply "as is".

Please do not:

  • Supply files that do not meet the resolution requirements detailed above;
  • Supply files that are optimized for screen use (suchas GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG) as the resolution is too low;
  • Submit graphics that are disproportionately large forthe content.

A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available at Please note that the cost of color illustrations will be charged to the author (see Section 12 for more information).


Tables should supplement, not duplicate, the text. They should have a concise table heading, be self-explanatory, and numbered consecutively in the order of their citation in the text. Items requiring explanatory footnotes should be denoted using superscripted lowercase letters (a, b, c, etc.), with the footnotes arranged under the table in alphabetical order. Asterisks (*, **) are used only to indicate the probability level of tests of significance. Abbreviations used in the table must be defined and placed after the footnotes in alphabetical order. If you include a block of data or table from another source, whether published or unpublished, you must acknowledge the original source.


Authors are responsible for the accuracy and completeness of their references and for correct in-text citation.

In the main text, tables and figure legends

  • References should be indicated by numbers in square brackets inline with the text, numbered consecutively in order of appearance, and placed before punctuation. [The actual authors can be referred to, but the reference number(s) must always be given.]
  • References cited in tables or figure legends should be included insequence at the point where the table or figure is first mentionedin the main text.
  • Do not cite abstracts unless they are the only available reference to an important concept.
  • Do not cite uncompleted work or work that has not yet been accepted for publication (i.e., "unpublished observation", "personal communication") as references.

In the references list

  • References should be compiled at the end of the manuscript according to the order of citation in the text.
  • References should be limited to those cited in the text only.
  • Journal references should include, in order, authors' surnames and initials, article title, abbreviated journal name, year, volume and inclusive page numbers.
  • The surnames and initials of all the authors up to 3 should be included, but when authors number 4 or more, list the first 3 authors only followed by "el al".
  • Abbreviations for journal names should conform to those used in MEDLINE.
  • If citing a website, provide the author information, article title, website address and the date you accessed the information.
  • Reference to an article that is in press must state the journal name and, if possible, the year and volume.

Examples of the most common reference types are provided below. (Please pay particular attention to the formatting, word capitalization, spacing and style.)

Standard journal article:
Carrara S, Petrone MC, Testoni PA, et al. Tumors and new endoscopic ultrasound-guided therapies. World J Gastrointest Endosc 2013;5:141-7.

Oguro M, Imahiro S, Saito S, Nakashizuka T. Mortality data for Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions, Mendeley Data, v1; 2015.

Journal supplement:
Kaplan NM.The endothelium as prognostic factor and therapeutic target: What criteria should we apply? J Cardiovasc Pharmacol1998;32(Suppl 3):S78 -80.

Journal article not in English but with English abstract:
Kaplan NM. The endothelium as prognostic factor and therapeutictarget: What criteria should we apply? J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 1998;32(Suppl 3):S78-80.

Journal article not in English but with English abstract:
Kawai H, Ishikawa T, Moroi J, et al. Elderly patient with cerebellar malignant astrocytoma. No Shinkei Geka 2008;36:799-805.[In Japanese, English abstract]

Book with edition:
Bradley EL. Medical and surgical management. 2nd ed.Philadelphia: Saunders; 1982.

Book with editors:
Liu J, Peck G, editors. Chinese dietary therapy. London:Churchill Livingstone; 1995.

Book chapter in book with editor and edition:
Greaves M, Culligan DJ. Blood and bone marrow. In: Underwood JCE, editor. General and systematic pathology. 4th ed. London:Churchill Livingstone; 2004, p. 615-72.

Book series with editors:
Wilson JG, Fraser FC, editors. Handbook of teratology, vols. 1-4. New York: Plenum Press; 1977-197.8

World Health Organization. World health report 2002: Reducing risk, promoting healthy life. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2002.

Electronic publications:
Duchin JS. Can preparedness for biological terrorism save us from pertussis? Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2004;158(2). Available at http://archpedi.ama-assn.or

Gartlehner G, Thaler K, Chapman A, et al. Mammography in combination with breast ultrasonography versus mammography for breast cancer screening in women at average risk. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013;4:CD009632. Doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD009632.pub2.

Ayers AJ. Retention of resin restorations by means of enamel etching and by pins. MSD thesis, Indiana University, Indianapolis,1971.

American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine. AIUM practiceguideline for the performance of a thyroid and parathyroid ultrasound examination. Guideline developed in conjunction with the American College of Radiology (ACR), the Society for Pediatric Radiology (SPR), and the Society of Radiologists in Ultrasound (SRU). Laurel, MD: AIUM, 2013. Available at Accessed May 2, 2013.

Company/manufacturer publication/pamphlet:
Eastman Kodak Company, Eastman Organic Chemicals. Catalogno. 49. Rochester, NY: Eastman Kodak; 1977, p. 2-3.

Citation in text
Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.

Reference links
Increased discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, CrossRef and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the DOI is encouraged.

A DOI can be used to cite and link to electronic articles where an article is in-press and full citation details are not yet known, but the article is available online. A DOI is guaranteed never to change, so you can use it as a permanent link to any electronic article. An example of a citation using DOI for an article not yet in an issue is: VanDecar J.C., Russo R.M., James D.E., Ambeh W.B., Franke M. (2003). Aseismic continuation of the Lesser Antilles slab beneath northeastern Venezuela. Journal of Geophysical Research, Please note the format of such citations should be in the same style as all other references in the paper.

Web references
As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.

Data references
This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in your published article.

Online proof correction

Corresponding authors will receive an e-mail with a link to our online proofing system, allowing annotation and correction of proofs online. The environment is similar to MS Word: in addition to editing text, you can also comment on figures/tables and answer questions from the Copy Editor. Web-based proofing provides a faster and less error-prone process by allowing you to directly type your corrections, eliminating the potential introduction of errors.
If preferred, you can still choose to annotate and upload your edits on the PDF version. All instructions for proofing will be given in the e-mail we send to authors, including alternative methods to the online version and PDF.
We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication. Please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.


Updated May 2016


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