The Journal of Human Evolution concentrates on publishing the highest quality papers covering all aspects of human evolution. The central focus is aimed jointly at paleoanthropological work, covering human and primate fossils, and at comparative studies of living species, including both morphological and molecular evidence. These include descriptions of new discoveries, interpretative analyses of new and previously described material, and assessments of the phylogeny and paleobiology of primate species. Submissions should address issues and questions of broad interest in paleoanthropology.
In addition to original research papers, space is allocated for the rapid publication of short communications on new discoveries, such as exciting new fossils, as well as to lead book reviews and obituaries. All manuscripts are subjected to review by three referees.
Research Areas Include:
• Paleoanthropological work, covering human and primate fossils
• Comparative studies of living species, including both morphological and molecular evidence
• Primate systematics and phylogeny, behavior
• Functional studies, particularly relating to diet and locomotion
• Body size and allometric studies
• Studies in Paleolithic archaeology
• Taphonomic and stratigraphical studies supporting fossil evidence for primate and human evolution
• Paleoecological and paleogeographical models for primate and human evolution
Your Paper Your Way
We now differentiate between the requirements for new and revised submissions. You may choose to submit your manuscript as a single Word or PDF file to be used in the refereeing process. Only when your paper is at the revision stage, will you be requested to put your paper in to a 'correct format' for acceptance and provide the items required for the publication of your article.
To find out more, please visit the Preparation section below.
The Journal of Human Evolution (JHE) is the premier forum in physical anthropology and paleontology for publishing high quality, peer-reviewed research papers on all aspects relating to human and primate evolution. The central focus is aimed jointly at paleoanthropological work, covering human and primate fossils, and at comparative studies of living species, including both morphological and molecular evidence. These include descriptions of new discoveries, interpretative analyses of new and previously described material, and assessments of the phylogeny and paleobiology of primate species. Submissions should address issues and questions of broad interest in paleoanthropology.
Types of article
Research papers should be written as concisely as possible and contain the maximum density of information. Submitted manuscripts can be any length up to approximately 150 pages (including tables and references), subject to limitations on space. The Editors of JHE will also consider publishing special issues devoted to particular topics or themes that fall within the purview of the journal. Presubmission inquiries to the Editors, including detailed special issue proposals, are mandatory.
JHE also publishes peer-reviewed reviews, lead book reviews, and obituaries. As for original research papers, there is no definite extension for reviews, whereas lead book reviews and obituaries are normally less than 4000 words (references excluded). Presubmission inquiries to the Editors-in-Chief are mandatory for all these types of submission.
You can use this list to carry out a final check of your submission before you send it to the journal for review. Please check the relevant section in this Guide for Authors for more details.
One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
• E-mail address
• Full postal address
• Include keywords
• All figures (include relevant captions)
• All tables (including titles, description, footnotes)
• Ensure all figure and table citations in the text match the files provided
• Indicate clearly if color should be used for any figures in print
Graphical Abstracts / Highlights files (where applicable)
Supplemental files (where applicable)
• Manuscript has been 'spell checked' and 'grammar checked'
• All references mentioned in the Reference List are cited in the text, and vice versa
• Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Internet)
• A competing interests statement is provided, even if the authors have no competing interests to declare
• Journal policies detailed in this guide have been reviewed
• Referee suggestions and contact details provided, based on journal requirements
Please note the Cover letter for the Editor is not sent to reviewers.
Studies in humans and animals
If the work involves the use of human subjects, the author should ensure that the work described has been carried out in accordance with The Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association (Declaration of Helsinki) for experiments involving humans. The manuscript should be in line with the Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals and aim for the inclusion of representative human populations (sex, age and ethnicity) as per those recommendations. The terms sex and gender should be used correctly.
All animal experiments should comply with the ARRIVE guidelines and should be carried out in accordance with the U.K. Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act, 1986 and associated guidelines, EU Directive 2010/63/EU for animal experiments, or the National Institutes of Health guide for the care and use of Laboratory animals (NIH Publications No. 8023, revised 1978) and the authors should clearly indicate in the manuscript that such guidelines have been followed. The sex of animals must be indicated, and where appropriate, the influence (or association) of sex on the results of the study.
Authors of manuscripts submitted to Journal of Human Evolution that report research concerning living subjects, whether in the field or in the laboratory, are expected to comply with all relevant institutional and governmental policies, regulations, and guidelines regarding the ethical treatment of their subjects. Authors should record their compliance with such policies, regulations, and guidelines, as implemented under protocols developed by the relevant institution(s) with which authors are affiliated, in the Methods section of their manuscripts. The editors reserve the right to request documentation of such compliance. Ensure that if living subjects are identifiable in figures, you have their permission to include their image in your submission. Please supply confirmation of this to the Editor at the time of submission: it is good practice to include such a declaration in your consent forms.
Declaration of interest
All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. Authors should complete the declaration of interest statement using this template and upload to the submission system at the Attach/Upload Files step. If there are no interests to declare, please choose: 'Declarations of interest: none' in the template. This statement will be published within the article if accepted. More information.
Submission declaration and verification
Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract, a published lecture or academic thesis, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service Crossref Similarity Check.
Please note that preprints can be shared anywhere at any time, in line with Elsevier's sharing policy. Sharing your preprints e.g. on a preprint server will not count as prior publication (see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' for more information).
Use of inclusive language
Inclusive language acknowledges diversity, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and promotes equal opportunities. Content should make no assumptions about the beliefs or commitments of any reader; contain nothing which might imply that one individual is superior to another on the grounds of age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition; and use inclusive language throughout. Authors should ensure that writing is free from bias, stereotypes, slang, reference to dominant culture and/or cultural assumptions. We advise to seek gender neutrality by using plural nouns ("clinicians, patients/clients") as default/wherever possible to avoid using "he, she," or "he/she." We recommend avoiding the use of descriptors that refer to personal attributes such as age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition unless they are relevant and valid. These guidelines are meant as a point of reference to help identify appropriate language but are by no means exhaustive or definitive.
Changes to authorship
Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the journal Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed.
Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted. While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the Editor will result in a corrigendum.
Article transfer service
This journal is part of our Article Transfer Service. This means that if the Editor feels your article is more suitable in one of our other participating journals, then you may be asked to consider transferring the article to one of those. If you agree, your article will be transferred automatically on your behalf with no need to reformat. Please note that your article will be reviewed again by the new journal. More information.
Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (see more information on this). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.
Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations. If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases.For gold open access articles: Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an 'Exclusive License Agreement' (more information). Permitted third party reuse of gold open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license.
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. More information.
Elsevier supports responsible sharing
Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.
Role of the funding source
You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.
Elsevier Researcher Academy
Researcher Academy is a free e-learning platform designed to support early and mid-career researchers throughout their research journey. The "Learn" environment at Researcher Academy offers several interactive modules, webinars, downloadable guides and resources to guide you through the process of writing for research and going through peer review. Feel free to use these free resources to improve your submission and navigate the publication process with ease.
Language (usage and editing services)
Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's Author Services.
Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files (e.g., Word, LaTeX) are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.
Papers should be submitted in English. Manuscripts should use double-spacing throughout (including references, tables, legends and footnotes). The position of tables and illustrations should be indicated in the text; footnotes, tables and legends for illustrations should be typed separately at the end of the manuscript. Please ensure the manuscript is line numbered throughout. Figures and tables should be comprehensible without reference to the text. All pages should be numbered serially. Manuscripts must be submitted in a complete and finished form. The Editors reserve the right to return unacceptable material to authors for revision.
Submission to this journal proceeds totally online and you will be guided stepwise through the creation and uploading of your files. The system automatically converts your files to a single PDF file, which is used in the peer-review process.
As part of the Your Paper Your Way service, you may choose to submit your manuscript as a single file to be used in the refereeing process. This can be a PDF file or a Word document, in any format or lay-out that can be used by referees to evaluate your manuscript. It should contain high enough quality figures for refereeing. If you prefer to do so, you may still provide all or some of the source files at the initial submission. Please note that individual figure files larger than 10 MB must be uploaded separately.
There are no strict requirements on reference formatting at submission. References can be in any style or format as long as the style is consistent. Where applicable, author(s) name(s), journal title/book title, chapter title/article title, year of publication, volume number/book chapter and the article number or pagination must be present. Use of DOI is highly encouraged. The reference style used by the journal will be applied to the accepted article by Elsevier at the proof stage. Note that missing data will be highlighted at proof stage for the author to correct.
This journal uses double-blind review, which means that both the reviewer and author identities are concealed from the reviewers, and vice versa, throughout the review process.
To facilitate this, authors need to ensure that their manuscripts are prepared in a way that does not give away their identity. To help with this preparation please ensure the following when submitting to Journal of Human Evolution:
· Submit the Title Page containing the Authors details and Blinded Manuscript with no author details as 2 separate editable files.
Information to help prepare the Title Page
This should include the title, authors' names and affiliations, the e-mail address of the corresponding author, and Acknowledgments (including funding sources).
Information to help prepare the Blinded Manuscript
Besides the obvious need to remove names and affiliations under the title within the manuscript, there are other steps that need to be taken to ensure the manuscript is correctly prepared for double-blind peer review. To assist with this process the key items that need to be observed are as follows:
· Use the third person to refer to work the Authors have previously undertaken, e.g. replace any phrases like “as we have shown before” with “… has been shown before [citation]” .
· Make sure figures do not contain any affiliation related identifier
· Do not eliminate essential self-references or other references but limit self-references only to papers that are relevant for academic reasons.
· Remove any identifying information, including author names, from file names and ensure document properties are also anonymized.
Use of word processing software
It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier). Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork.
To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.
Section headings should be in bold, lower case font for second and subsequent words; sub-section headings italicized, lower case font for second and subsequent words; sub-subsection headings should be placed left and underlined, lower case font for second and subsequent words, and with text following on the same line (no punctuation following underlined section). See the example below:
Text begins here.
Text begins here.
Materials and methods
Provide sufficient detail to allow the work to be reproduced. Methods already published should be indicated by a reference, but sufficient detail must be provided so that readers can understand the methods without referring to separate papers. Authors must supply complete and accurate information about the location and accession of material, both at the time it was studied and, if different, at the time of publication (for example, if the material was on loan or not fully accessioned in a single institution at the time of study). In line with the journal’s commitment to open access and transparency, specimen numbers of material (both fossil and modern comparative) analyzed as part of the submitted work should be included either in the main manuscript or, in cases where a large sample is used, as supplementary online material.
In taxonomic papers, a section of Systematics (for extant taxa) or Systematic paleontology (for extinct taxa) is required, either before or in substitution for the Results section (see specific guidelines for taxonomic papers below).
Results should be clear and concise.
This should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. A combined Results and Discussion or Discussion and Conclusions section is sometimes appropriate. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature
The main conclusions of the study may be presented in a short Conclusions section, which may stand alone or form a subsection of the Discussion section.
If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq. (A.1), Eq. (A.2), etc.; in a subsequent appendix, Eq. (B.1) and so on. Similarly for tables and figures: Table A.1; Fig. A.1, etc.
Essential title page information
• Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
• Author names and affiliations. Please clearly indicate the given name(s) and family name(s) of each author and check that all names are accurately spelled. You can add your name between parentheses in your own script behind the English transliteration. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
• Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. This responsibility includes answering any future queries about Methodology and Materials. Ensure that the e-mail address is given and that contact details are kept up to date by the corresponding author.
• Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.
Highlights are optional yet highly encouraged for this journal, as they increase the discoverability of your article via search engines. They consist of a short collection of bullet points that capture the novel results of your research as well as new methods that were used during the study (if any). Please have a look at the examples here: example Highlights.
Highlights should be submitted in a separate editable file in the online submission system. Please use 'Highlights' in the file name and include 3 to 5 bullet points (maximum 85 characters, including spaces, per bullet point).
An abstract will be printed at the head of all papers; this should not exceed 300 words, and should be intelligible to the general reader without reference to the main text. Abbreviations and literature citations should be avoided in the abstract.
Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 6 keywords, using American spelling and avoiding general terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, 'and', 'of'). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.
Define abbreviations that are not standard in this field in a footnote to be placed on the first page of the article. Such abbreviations that are unavoidable in the abstract must be defined at their first mention there, as well as in the footnote. Ensure consistency of abbreviations throughout the article.
Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.).
Formatting of funding sources
List funding sources in this standard way to facilitate compliance to funder's requirements:
Funding: This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health [grant numbers xxxx, yyyy]; the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, WA [grant number zzzz]; and the United States Institutes of Peace [grant number aaaa].It is not necessary to include detailed descriptions on the program or type of grants and awards. When funding is from a block grant or other resources available to a university, college, or other research institution, submit the name of the institute or organization that provided the funding.
If no funding has been provided for the research, please include the following sentence:This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
Please list funding sources within the Acknowledgments.
Specifying author contributions is not mandatory, but if such statement is used, then it must be placed in a different section immediately after the acknowledgements and before the references list
Follow internationally accepted rules and conventions: with some exceptions (e.g., geological time), use the international system of units (SI). If other units are mentioned, please give their equivalent in SI.
Time units (Ma, ka, cal BP, etc.), mammalian dental nomenclature (upper and lower teeth denoted by superscripts and subscripts) and taxonomic abbreviations (see specific guidelines for taxonomic papers below) are considered standard abbreviatons and need not be defined. Other common standard abbreviations that are accepted and should not be written in italics are the following: 'et al.' (et alii: and others), 'e.g.' (exempli gratia: for example; always followed by comma), and 'i.e.' (id est: that is to say; always followed by comma). Similarly, other words of Latin origin that are not abbreviated should not be italicized either (e.g., 'a priori', 'a posteriori', 'per se', 'contra'…).
Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article. Many word processors can build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Otherwise, please indicate the position of footnotes in the text and list the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article. Do not include footnotes in the Reference list.
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.
• Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
• Provide captions to illustrations separately.
• Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the published version.
• Submit each illustration as a separate file.
• Ensure that color images are accessible to all, including those with impaired color vision.
A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available.
You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format.
Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.
Please do not:
• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
• Supply files that are too low in resolution;
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.
Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF), or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color online (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. For color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article. Please indicate your preference for color: in print or online only. Further information on the preparation of electronic artwork.
Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.
Tables must be double spaced throughout. Please note the upper and lower line for the headings row and the line below the table. There are no vertical lines in JHE tables. Tables should be submitted within a single file separately from the main text (if using Excel, each table can be on a separate sheet within a single file). Each table body should be preceded by the table caption and followed by notes to the table (if any), denoted by lowercase superscript letters. Do not supply table captions separately in the main text.
Citation in text
Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). References are not allowed in the abstract. Unpublished results, manuscripts in preparation, and personal communications should not be included in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text using 'author's unpublished results', 'in prep.', 'pers. comm.', or similar expressions within parentheses. If citing a personal communication, please ensure that you supply verification from the person providing the communication that they agree to it being included in your submission. If gray literature documents (unpublished reports, submitted manuscripts, etc.) are cited, they must be included as such in the reference list. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication. For journal articles prepublished online, volume number and page range should be substituted by the DOI. For online only articles, page range should be substituted by article number (DOI is not required). Issue number within volume should only be included (within parentheses, between volume number and page range) when page numbering is not consecutive throughout successive issues of the same volume. In taxonomic papers, taxonomic authorities (i.e., authorships) should be provided after taxon names, and the corresponding references included in the reference list (see specific guidelines for taxonomic papers below).
Increased discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, CrossRef and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the DOI is highly encouraged.
As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references must be included in the reference list.
This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in your published article.
References in a special issue
Do not cite a paper as in "this issue", even if it is part of a "Special Issue"; always provide the year in the text and the full citation in the reference list.
Reference management software Computer programs
Most Elsevier journals have their reference template available in many of the most popular reference management software products. These include all products that support Citation Style Language styles, such as Mendeley. Using citation plug-ins from these products, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article, after which citations and bibliographies will be automatically formatted in the journal's style. If no template is yet available for this journal, please follow the format of the sample references and citations as shown in this Guide. If you use reference management software, please ensure that you remove all field codes before submitting the electronic manuscript. More information on how to remove field codes from different reference management software.
Users of Mendeley Desktop can easily install the reference style for this journal by clicking the following link:
When preparing your manuscript, you will then be able to select this style using the Mendeley plug-ins for Microsoft Word or LibreOffice.
R Core Team, 2017. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna.
Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the file in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 150 MB per file, 1 GB in total. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect. Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages. Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.
Supplementary material such as applications, images and sound clips, can be published with your article to enhance it. Submitted supplementary items are published exactly as they are received (Excel or PowerPoint files will appear as such online). Please submit your material together with the article and supply a concise, descriptive caption for each supplementary file. If you wish to make changes to supplementary material during any stage of the process, please make sure to provide an updated file. Do not annotate any corrections on a previous version. Please switch off the 'Track Changes' option in Microsoft Office files as these will appear in the published version.
Please note supplementary material is not typeset. Authors are encouraged to put all the supplementary text, figures and tables within a single editable file, which should be converted to pdf only on submission of the very final version of the manuscript; only large figures or tables, or other types of supplementary materials (audio, video, 3D models…) should be ideally provided separately. Supplementary figures and tables should be numbered as Figure S1, Table S1, etc., to avoid being mistaken with those from the main file.
This journal requires and enables you to share data that supports your research publication where appropriate, and enables you to interlink the data with your published articles. Research data refers to the results of observations or experimentation that validate research findings. To facilitate reproducibility and data reuse, this journal also encourages you to share your software, code, models, algorithms, protocols, methods and other useful materials related to the project.
Below are a number of ways in which you can associate data with your article or make a statement about the availability of your data when submitting your manuscript. When sharing data in one of these ways, you are expected to cite the data in your manuscript and reference list. Please refer to the "References" section for more information about data citation. For more information on depositing, sharing and using research data and other relevant research materials, visit the research data page.
If you have made your research data available in a data repository, you can link your article directly to the dataset. Elsevier collaborates with a number of repositories to link articles on ScienceDirect with relevant repositories, giving readers access to underlying data that gives them a better understanding of the research described.
There are different ways to link your datasets to your article. When available, you can directly link your dataset to your article by providing the relevant information in the submission system. For more information, visit the database linking page.For supported data repositories a repository banner will automatically appear next to your published article on ScienceDirect.
In addition, you can link to relevant data or entities through identifiers within the text of your manuscript, using the following format: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN).
SPECIFIC GUIDELINES FOR TAXONOMIC PAPERS Taxonomic papers
Structure of the paperA separate section entitled Systematics (for extant taxa) or Systematic paleontology (for extinct taxa) is mandatory. This section may substitute the standard Results section; if not, then the latter must be placed immediately after the systematic section. This section primary heading should be followed by successive taxonomic subheadings in round type that do not adhere to the style of secondary or tertiary headings of the journal, and which must include rank (but see below), taxon name, and taxonomic authorships and/or specifications about the novelty of taxa (see abbreviations below), without dot at the end. For example:
Systematic paleontologyOrder Primates Linnaeus, 1758
Infraorder Catarrhini É. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1812Superfamily Cercopithecoidea Gray, 1821
Family Cercopithecidae Gray, 1821Subfamily Colobinae Blyth, 1863
Genus Mesopithecus Wagner, 1839Mesopithecus pentelicus Wagner, 1839
Studied specimens Text follows here in the same line, with the heading underlined and not followed by a dot. When necessary, such as when describing new taxa, tertiary headings of Holotype, Type locality, Diagnosis, Distribution, Etymology, etc., can be provided here.Description
Text begins here, indented, and with the heading in italics on the previous line. Tertiary headings can be added below to separate the description of different anatomical parts. Additional secondary headings (in italics) may be added below, as required (Comparisons, Remarks, etc.).The use of taxon ranks is mandatory when ruled by the Code (i.e., family-, genus- or species-group taxa), and optional for higher-level ranks not ruled by the Code (e.g., class, order…). New taxa must be explicitly denoted as such after taxon name (e.g., sp. nov.), whereas new rank must be explicitly specified after taxonomic authorship. A taxonomic subheading can be followed, on next line, by another taxonomic subheading (of lower rank), a synonyms list, or one or more secondary or tertiary headings (in accordance to the journal style), depending on the case. Tertiary headings will be used except for longer sub-sections of 'Description', 'Comparisons' or 'Remarks', which must be under secondary headings and may be alternatively placed within a separate Results section (if any). The erection of new family- and genus-group taxa must be accompanied at least by a designation of the type genus or species, respectively, whereas the erection of new species-group taxa must obligatorily include a succinct diagnosis (without references, and preceded by a tertiary heading), which must be differential unless a separate differential diagnosis is provided.
SynonymsIf applicable, systematic headings of species-group taxa may be followed by a synonyms list with references. References cited within the synonyms list(s) must be included in the references list of the paper, but their citation does not adhere to the standard citation style of the journal. Only relevant synonyms must be included (e.g., original description, new rank, genus transfer, etc.). Each synonym must be placed on a text line of its own, flushed to the left, beginning with year, followed by colon, taxon name, authorship without year, semicolon plus citation (if different from authorship), colon, plates and/or figures and comma (if applicable), and page range.
Taxonomic authoritiesTaxononic authorities (or authorships) should be provided following a taxon name (especially for ranks of the genus-and species-groups) when it is first mentioned in the text, as well as within systematic headings within a formal Systematics or Systematic paleontology section. References for taxonomic authorships used in the text must be included in the references list following the same style as other references. Within the text, taxonomic authorships should follow the recommendations of the Code if they go against the journal's citation style. Therefore, the name of author(s) must be separated from year of original description with a comma, but parentheses can only be used for species-group names when they were originally erected within a different genus from that currently used. For authors, only surnames will be used, unless initials are required to distinguish different authors. For two authors, names must be separated by 'and' (instead of ampersand); for three or more authors, the name of first author followed by 'et al.' should be used as long as the full list of authors can be unambiguously identified in the references list.
Taxon namesGenus- and species-group names must be italicized (including tables and figures), whereas taxon names from higher ranks must be in round type and with the first word capitalized. Using the English version of formal family-group (or higher-level rank) taxon names is allowed except in systematic headings, but they must be clearly denoted as such by not being capitalized and by transforming the formal Latin ending of each rank into its standard English version (e.g., -ids instead of -idae for families, -oids instead of -oidea for superfamilies, etc.). Authors should be aware that species names are binomina composed by a genus name and a species epithet, so that the use of isolated species epithets is not warranted; the same applies to subspecies trinomina. Genus names within species binomina must not be abbreviated when they are first mentioned in the text (even if implicit), at the beginning of a sentence, or within a heading (systematic or otherwise). The same applies to species epithets in subspecies trinomina when first mentioned in the text. Genus names must be abbreviated (when necessary) preferentially by using the first (uppercase) letter of the genus name (in italics) followed by a dot. However, different abbreviations must be used for different genera within a paper, so that additional (lowercase) letters must be employed to distinguish abbreviations of genus names beginning with the same letter. For example, genus Australopithecus will be only abbreviated as 'Au.' if Ardipithecus is abbreviated in the same paper as 'A.', although they might be alternatively abbreviated as 'A.' and 'Ar.', respectively. The use of subgenus names (with uppercase first letter) and names of superspecies or groups of species (with lowercase first letter) is optional, but when used, they must be obligatorily within parentheses before the species epithets; only these taxon names, not the parentheses, must be in italics.
Standard abbreviations and open nomenclatureWhen new taxa are erected, their name must be followed by an expression that unambiguously denotes that they are new (e.g., 'sp. nov.', 'gen. nov.', 'gen. et sp. nov.', 'fam. nov.', etc.) in the title, the abstract, the systematics section, and the first time they are mentioned in the text. Expressions 'sp. nov.' and 'gen. nov.' will be used instead of other equivalents, such as 'n. sp.' and 'n. g.', respectively. Authors are encouraged to use open nomenclature modifiers to express doubts in taxonomic assignments. Indeterminate species must be denoted by 'sp.' after genus name, indeterminate subspecies by 'subsp.' after species name, and 'indet.' for after the family-group taxon name in the remaining instances. When a taxon may be assigned to two different species, separate the two binomina by 'vel' (meaning 'or') or slash, not the species epithets by a slash or an hyphen (e.g., Homo erectus vel Homo ergaster or Homo erectus/H. ergaster, instead of Homo erectus/ergaster or Homo erectus-ergaster). Other standard abbreviations are 's.l.' (sensu lato, in broad sense), 's.s.' (sensu stricto, in strict sense), 'cf.' (confer, compare with), 'aff.' (affinis, closely related to) and '?' (question mark). The latter three conventions should must not be mistaken with one another: 'cf.' means that a particular specimen is likely to belong to the taxon, but the assignment cannot be confidently confirmed due to the lack of enough data; 'aff.' means that a particular specimen appears most closely related to that taxon but probably represents a different one (likely to be new); the question mark indicates that the taxonomic (not nomenclatural) validity of a particular taxon is doubtful. These conventions must precede the relevant taxonomic rank, separated by space in the case of 'cf.' and 'aff.', and without space in the case of question marks. Therefore, uncertainly at the species rank should be denoted by putting these modifiers before the species epithet without repeating the genus name (e.g., Australopithecus cf. afarensis, not Australopithecus cf. A. afarensis); if taxonomic uncertainty applies to the genus rank as well, then the modifier must be written only once (e.g., cf. Australopithecus afarensis). When the inclusion of a particular species within a genus is questioned but there is no better alternative, then the genus name must be written within simple (not double) quotation marks, which should not be italicized (e.g., 'Sivapithecus' occidentalis). All the taxonomic abbreviations and symbols mentioned above are standard in taxonomy; hence, they should not be italicized, and their meaning should not be further specified anywhere in the manuscript. The same applies to other taxonomic terms, such as 'nomen nudum', 'nomen dubium', 'nomen oblitum', etc.
Citing the CodeWhen articles of the Code must be cited to discuss a particular nomenclatural decision, the Code must be cited by mentioning the relevant articles: ICZN (1999:Art. 9.3) or (ICZN, 1999:Art. 9.3). In such cases, the Code must be included in the references list as follows:
International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN), 1999. International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. The International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature, London. http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted-sites/iczn/code/
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