Guide for Authors

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The Journal of Ginseng Research (JGR) is a quarterly, peer-reviewed publication featuring high-quality studies related to basic and clinical aspects of ginseng to reflect recent progresses in ginseng research. Manuscripts are classified mainly into review articles, original research articles, and brief reports. The Journal of Ginseng Research has published original works, either experimental or theoretical, that advance our understanding of ginseng science, including cultivation, biology, chemistry, pharmacology, veterinary science, biochemistry, manufacture, and clinical study of ginseng since 1976. It also includes new paradigm of integrative research, covering alternative medicinal approaches.
JGR is the only international journal for scholarly reports of ginseng science in the world. Main subjects of the journal are focused on basic and pre-clinical research on ginseng.
JGR helps understand biology and chemistry of ginseng and mechanisms of traditional efficacy of ginseng, and to put their clinical evidences together. It provides researchers, manufacturers, practitioners, teachers, scholars, and medical doctors balanced information on basic science and clinical applications


JGR publishes editorials, commentaries, Research Articles, review articles, special articles, short communications, research notes, and letter to the editor.

Editorials provide solicited perspectives on the topics of Journal of Ginseng Research (JGR), dealing with very active fields of research, current interests, novel insights and debates. An abstract is not required, but a brief unstructured text should be prepared. Although editorials are normally invited or written by an editor, unsolicited editorials may be submitted. The typical length of an editorial is usually up to 1,000 words and 20 references.

Research Articles
Research articles report the results of areas covered by JGR and investigations that are thoroughly documented. Section headings should be written in the following format: title page; abstract and keywords; introduction; materials and methods; results; discussion; conclusions (if any); Acknowledgments; references; tables and figures. The results and discussion sections may be combined.

The introduction should provide brief background information on the study and allow the readers to gain better understanding of the study without detailed literature survey or a summary of the results.

Materials and methods should contain detailed description of the study procedure including investigation period, methods of subject selection, information on subjects such as age, gender, and other significant features, where the study could be replicated. Procedures which have already been published or standardized shall be briefly described using literature citations. Clinical trials or experiments involving laboratory animals or pathogens must elaborate on animal care, use and experimental protocols, in addition to mentioning approval from relevant committees. The sources of special equipment and chemicals must be stated with the name and location of the manufacturer (city and country). Provide a citation for all information derived from other resources. Do not include extensive details unless there is substantial modification to the methods. For commonly used materials and methods, a simple reference is sufficient. If several alternative methodologies are commonly employed, it is useful to briefly identify the methods and cite all sources. Describe new methods completely and provide the source of the chemicals, equipment or microbial strains used. When using products manufactured by KGC, describe the nutrition factors and the analysis of the 11 ginsenoside components provided by KGC. Otherwise, describe the analysis of the 8 ginsenoside components (ginsenoside-Rb1, -Rb2, -Rc, -Rd, -Re, -Rf, -Rg1, -Rg2). All statistical procedures used in the study and the criteria for determining statistical significance must be described. Specify the statistical software package(s) and versions used.

The Theory/Calculation should expand on and provide the foundation for further investigation, rather than repeat the background information of the article already stated in the introduction. In contrast, the calculation should be a practical development based on the theory.

The results should be presented in a logical sequence. Only the most important observations/results should be emphasized and summarized where the primary finding is mentioned first. Tables and figures must be kept to a minimum and numbered in the order they are cited in the text without being repeated. Supplementary materials and other details can be separately cited in the appendix. State the statistical methods used for the results analysis (including p-values) with the probabilities stated in parentheses. The statistical analysis package program should also be stated.

The discussion section should interpret/explain the results and important aspects of the study, followed by the conclusion. The information already mentioned in the introduction or results sections should not be repeated and the main conclusions may be presented in the discussion. The conclusion must be relevant to the purpose of the study stated in the abstract, clearly supported by the data. New hypotheses may be proposed when warranted and must be clearly stated.

Typical length: Up to 5,000 words and 60 references, and 6 figures (including tables). The word count includes manuscript text, as well as the title page, abstract, and figure legends.

Review and Mini-Review Articles
Review articles may be voluntarily submitted or solicited. Previously published material should be incorporated into our current understanding of review topic. Topics that are in consensus or controversy in the research community may be dealt with in the reviews. A review is organized as follows: Title page, Introduction, Body Text, Conclusion, Acknowledgments, References, Tables & Figures and Figure Legends.

Mini-reviews are brief summaries (limited to 8 printed pages) of developments in hot issues of ginseng research. Mini-reviews may be either voluntarily submitted by the authors or solicited by the editorial committee but are all subject to editorial review. There is no standard format for mini-reviews. However, the tables and citation should follow the regular research articles guidelines.

Typical length: One paragraph with maximum of 200 words for the abstract; maximum of 6,500 words from introduction to conclusion; maximum of 100 references, 10 figures and 10 tables.

Research Notes
Research notes submission is similar to the submission of regular articles. Research notes will undergo the same review process as regular articles and will not be published sooner than regular articles. Research notes are not considered as preliminary communications. Research notes must have an abstract of no more than 50 words. Excluding the title page, the limit should be a maximum of 2,400 words including references. Methods, results, and discussion should be included in a single section without section headings in the body of the paper. The number of figures and tables should also be kept to a minimum. Acknowledgments and reference citation methods should be identical to those of regular articles.

Letters to the Editor
Letters to the editor should include brief yet constructive comments concerning previously published articles and case studies. Letters to the editor should be submitted within 3 months of the paper being published. Cover pages should be formatted in the same manner as those of ginseng research articles. Do not include a title page. The corresponding author should be the first author. Letters may be edited by the Editorial Board, and if necessary, the author's response may be provided.

Typical length: Maximum of 500 words.


The Editorial Office of JGR receives and reviews all submitted manuscripts which are considered confidential. The authors, investigators and peer-review referees are kept anonymous during the editorial and peer-review process. The submitted manuscripts are initially screened for compliance to the 'Instructions for Authors'. Once the manuscript is provisionally accepted, it is reviewed by at least two reviewers. The reviewers are selected by the editor (associate editor or editor-in-chief) from the Editorial Board's database or the board members' recommendation. The reviewers will evaluate based on originality, validity, presentation, significance and interest. If necessary, the statistical analysis will also be reviewed.

Acceptance of a manuscript depends on the evaluation, critiques, and decisions made by the reviewers. A reviewer may recommend 'accept', 'minor revision', 'major revision', or 'reject'. In case of conflicting decisions between reviewers, the Associate Editor or Editor-in-Chief has the full right to determine the publication of the manuscript.

If three reviews come back as 'major revision', the manuscript is considered a 'reject' which will not be further considered. Manuscripts that fail to comply with the 'Instructions for Authors' three times will also be considered as rejected.

Reviewed manuscripts with feedback and other revisions are returned to the corresponding author. The corresponding author is to submit the revised manuscript accompanied by point-to-point replies to the editor's comments and how the revisions have been made. There should be a reasonable explanation for any noncompliance with the recommendations. In cases where references, tables or figures are moved, added or deleted during the revision process, renumbering must be done so that all references, tables and figures are cited in numeric order. If the revised paper is not received within 2 months of acceptance from initial review, the manuscript is considered to have been withdrawn.

When the final decision on the manuscript acceptance is made, the Editorial Office notifies the corresponding author. The peer-review process takes approximately 8–12 weeks.


The corresponding author will be provided with galley proofs for correcting the manuscript. Before publication, corresponding authors will receive a PDF file of the typeset pages for copyediting. JGR recommends authors to keep the corrections to a minimum. The modifications made to the page proofs should be sent to JGR Editorial Office via email or fax within 2 working days. The Editorial Office may contact the corresponding author regarding the modifications made to the page proof. If the corresponding author fails to submit the page proof within 2 working days, the manuscript may be rescheduled to be published in the subsequent issue.


Manuscripts to JGR, as outlined above, cannot have been published previously, and are not being considered for publication by other journals.

Original raw data must be available for review by the editorial board when required. All authors of a manuscript must have agreed to submit the manuscript to JGR and are responsible for the entire content, including literature citations and Acknowledgments. The authors must also have agreed that the corresponding author has the authority to act on their behalf on all matters pertaining to the publication of the paper, and that it is their responsibility to comply with copyright laws. When a manuscript is published in JGR, it is understood that authors have agreed to JGR's rights to protect the manuscript from misappropriation of their work, and that the manuscript becomes the permanent property of JGR, which may not be published elsewhere without official permission.


The entire process of manuscript submission, peer-review, and resubmission to JGR is done through the JGR online system ( Manuscripts must be written in English and must be submitted by the corresponding author. Manuscripts submitted to JGR will be preliminarily reviewed by the Editorial Office. Manuscripts not conforming to the instructions will be returned to the corresponding authors without being considered for publication.

Any inquiry concerning manuscript submission should be directed to:
The Korean Society of Ginseng
#803 Seocho World Officetel, 19, Seoun-ro, Seocho-gu
Seoul 137-862, Korea
Phone: +82-2-3473-8772; Fax: +82-2-3474-2330


Research ethics
All manuscripts should be prepared under strict observation of research and publication ethics guidelines recommended by the Council of Science Editors, International Committee of Medical Journal Editors and the World Association of Medical Editors. Any study including human subjects or human data must be reviewed and approved by a responsible institutional review board (IRB). For further information on investigations involving human material, please refer to the principles in the Declaration of Helsinki (

Animal experiments should also be reviewed by an appropriate committee (IACUC: Institutional Animal Care and use Committee) for the care and the use of animals. Studies involving pathogens requiring a high degree of biosafety should pass review of a relevant committee (IBC: Institutional Biosafety Committee). The editor of JGR may request submission of copies of informed consents from human subjects in all studies or IRB approval documents.

Conflict of interest

The corresponding author must inform the editor of any potential conflicts of interest that could influence the author's interpretation of the data. Examples of potential conflicts of interest are financial support from pharmaceutical companies or other connections, political pressure from interest groups, and academically related issues. Conflict of interest statements will be published at the end of the article before the 'References' section. Please consult the COPE guidelines ( on conflict of interest. If there are no conflicts of interest, authors should state that none exists. When the manuscript is accepted for publication, JGR will decide whether the disclosure will be communicated in the published paper (after consulting with the corresponding author).

Use of inclusive language

Inclusive language acknowledges diversity, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and promotes equal opportunities. Content should make no assumptions about the beliefs or commitments of any reader; contain nothing which might imply that one individual is superior to another on the grounds of age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition; and use inclusive language throughout. Authors should ensure that writing is free from bias, stereotypes, slang, reference to dominant culture and/or cultural assumptions. We advise to seek gender neutrality by using plural nouns ("clinicians, patients/clients") as default/wherever possible to avoid using "he, she," or "he/she." We recommend avoiding the use of descriptors that refer to personal attributes such as age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition unless they are relevant and valid. These guidelines are meant as a point of reference to help identify appropriate language but are by no means exhaustive or definitive.

All authors must meet the authorship criteria of 'Uniform Requirement for Manuscript Submitted to Biomedical Journals' listed on Qualifying for authorship is required for all authors and the order of authorship is to be decided between the coauthors. The authorship credit should be based on substantial contributions to: (1) Conception and design of the study, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; (2) Drafting of the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and (3) Final approval of the version to be published. Authors should meet all conditions.

One author should be chosen to act as a corresponding author. The corresponding author does not have to be the first author. The corresponding author will be responsible for the entire communications to/from the Editorial Office, editors and etc. In case of multicenter studies, a corporate author directly responsible for the manuscript should be appointed.

Redundant publication and plagiarism
Attempting to publish substantially similar work without attributing to the original source(s) is considered a redundant publication. Definition of being substantially similar can be explained as follows:

  1. At least one of the authors is common to all reports (it is likely to be plagiarism if there are no common authors);
  2. The subject or study populations are the same or similar;
  3. The methodology is typically identical or similar;
  4. The results and interpretation has little to no variation.

If all or part of the study population has been reported previously, it should be declared in the materials and methods and must be appropriately referenced. In cases where authors are concerned with any overlap with currently reviewed or published manuscripts, the authors must include a letter explaining how the manuscript submitted to JGR significantly differs from other manuscripts. For more information, please refer to 'Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals: Writing and Editing for Biomedical Publication' (Available at:

Article transfer service
This journal is part of our Article Transfer Service. This means that if the Editor feels your article is more suitable in one of our other participating journals, then you may be asked to consider transferring the article to one of those. If you agree, your article will be transferred automatically on your behalf with no need to reformat. Please note that your article will be reviewed again by the new journal. More information.


Published manuscripts become the permanent property of The Korean Society of Ginseng, and must not be published elsewhere without written permission. All articles published in the Journal are protected by copyright which includes the exclusive rights to reproduce and distribute the article, as well as translation rights. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in any retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means (electronic, mechanical etc.) by photocopying, recording and such without prior written permission from The Korean Society of Ginseng. All authors are to thoroughly read and sign JGR's 'Authorship Responsibility and Copyright Transfer' form and submit it with the manuscript or fax a copy to +82-32-518-0866. For the copyrights of the contributions published in JGR, see Creative Commons (Attribution-Noncommercial) at

Open access

Journal of Ginseng Research is an open access journal: all articles will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download. To provide open access, the Korean Society of Ginseng charges an open access fee (also known as an article processing charge APC) which needs to be paid by the authors or research funders.
Research articles up to 6 printed pages and reviews up to 10 printed pages will be charged 400 USD. For each additional page beyond these limits, the corresponding author will be charged 300 USD.
Please note that these charges will also apply to invited authors of e.g. special issues, if applicable.
Permitted third party (re)use is defined by the following Creative Commons user licenses (see

Open access

Please visit our Open Access page for more information.

Elsevier Researcher Academy
Researcher Academy is a free e-learning platform designed to support early and mid-career researchers throughout their research journey. The "Learn" environment at Researcher Academy offers several interactive modules, webinars, downloadable guides and resources to guide you through the process of writing for research and going through peer review. Feel free to use these free resources to improve your submission and navigate the publication process with ease.

Submit your article
Please submit your article via

Double anonymized review

This journal uses double anonymized review, which means the identities of the authors are concealed from the reviewers, and vice versa. More information is available on our website. To facilitate this, please include the following separately:
Title page (with author details): This should include the title, authors' names, affiliations, acknowledgements and any Declaration of Interest statement, and a complete address for the corresponding author including an e-mail address.
Blinded manuscript (no author details): The main body of the paper (including the references, figures, tables and any acknowledgements) should not include any identifying information, such as the authors' names or affiliations.


All manuscripts must be in grammatically correct English with American spelling conventions and prepared in accordance with the "Uniform Requirement for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals" updated in October 2008 ( In addition to the Uniform Requirements, JGR requires all authors to comply with all the reporting guidelines which have been developed by groups of experts to facilitate reporting of research studies or clinical trials (

The manuscripts should be created using MS Word. It must be double-spaced and written in an A4 page format. Do not leave a space between paragraphs. Only a single font (preferably Times New Roman) should be used in 12 point with margin of 1 inch, do insert line numbers. Any manuscript without page and line numbers will not be considered and will be returned immediately to the author. Latin origin words should not be italicized and all pages including the title page should be paginated consecutively. All numbers should be written in Arabic numerals throughout the manuscript except for the first word of the sentence. Texts should be justified on both sides and not hyphenated and headings should be in bold letters, aligned in the center. If possible, avoid using abbreviated words in the beginning of sentences.
Regarding the description of ginseng, Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer or Panax ginseng Meyer should be written as Panax ginseng only in the title page and as Panax ginseng Meyer when appearing for the first time in the manuscript, and then as P. ginseng in the rest of the manuscript. When referring to Korean White ginseng or Korean Red ginseng, the first letters of White and Red should also be capitalized. Otherwise, when referring to white or red ginseng, the first letters of white or red does not need to be capitalized.

If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq. (A.1), Eq. (A.2), etc.; in a subsequent appendix, Eq. (B.1) and so on.

Title page

The title page should include: (1) the title of the article (less than 50 words); (2) name of the authors (first name, middle initial, last name in capital) and institutional affiliation including name of department(s) and institution(s) of each author; (3) name, full address (including the postal code) of the institutional affiliation, telephone and fax numbers, and email address of the corresponding author, using an asterisk (*) after the name of the corresponding author; (4) A running title, 40 characters or less including blank; and (5) any disclaimers.


An abstract and up to 5 relevant keywords (in alphabetical order) are required for the following article categories: Review Article, Original Article, and Case Report.
Abstracts should be no more than 250 words in length. Abstracts for Research Articles should be structured, with the section headings: Background, Methods, Results and Conclusion. Abstracts for Review Articles and Case Reports are unstructured in one single paragraph. But for Case Reports, it should include the significance and purpose of the case presentation, the diagnostic methods of the case, the key data, and brief comments and suggestions with regard to the case.

Graphical abstract
A graphical abstract is mandatory for this journal. It should summarize the contents of the article in a concise, pictorial form designed to capture the attention of a wide readership online. Authors must provide images that clearly represent the work described in the article. Graphical abstracts should be submitted as a separate file in the online submission system. Image size: please provide an image with a minimum of 531 × 1328 pixels (h × w) or proportionally more. The image should be readable at a size of 5 × 13 cm using a regular screen resolution of 96 dpi. Preferred file types: TIFF, EPS, PDF or MS Office files. You can view Example Graphical Abstracts on our information site.
Authors can make use of Elsevier's Illustration Services to ensure the best presentation of their images also in accordance with all technical requirements.


For selecting keywords, refer to the Index Medicus Medical Subject Headings (National Library of Medicine (US). MeSH [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 1954 [updated 2009, cited 2009 Nov 1]. Available from:

Main Text

The text for Research Articles, for example, should include the following sections: Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, and Discussion. The introduction should be as concise as possible without subheadings. The methods section should be sufficiently detailed. Subheadings may be used to organize the results and discussion. Each section should begin on a new page.


If a term/definition is referred to repeatedly (i.e. 3 times or more in the text), it is written in full when it first appears followed by the abbreviation in parentheses (even if it was previously defined in the abstract); thereafter, the abbreviation is used. For standard abbreviations generally used (d, wk, mo, yr, m.p., b.p., K, s, min, h, µL, mL, L, µg, mg, g, kg, nm, µm, cm, ppm, mmol, HPLC, TLC, GC, UV, CD, IR, GC/MS, LC/M, and NMR), their full names are not to be presented.


All persons who have made a significant contribution to the article but are not eligible for authors should be explicitly stated. Examples of persons that may be named in the acknowledgment include those who have provided purely technical help, writing assistance and general support. In case of writing assistance, the entity paid for the assistance must be disclosed. In addition to this, all sources of funding must also be stated. The authors are obliged to declare the study sponsors' roles in any part of preparing, conducting, writing, and submitting the manuscript. If there was no involvement from the study sponsors, the authors should state this.

Gene nomenclature

Current standard international nomenclature for genes should be adhered to. Genes should be italicized and include the accession number. For human genes, use genetic notation and symbols approved by the HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee ( or refer to PubMed (

Système International (SI) units must be used with the exception of blood pressure, which are to be reported in mmHg. Please use the metric system for length, area, mass and volume. There should be a space between the numerals and the unit symbol. When indicating time, the 24 hour system should be used.

Math formulae
Present simple formulae in the line of normal text where possible and use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line for small fractional terms, e.g., X/Y. In principle, variables are to be presented in italics. Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp. Number consecutively any equations that have to be displayed separately from the text (if referred to explicitly in the text).

A footnote appears at the bottom of the first page of the article, and includes the received date of the manuscript, date of acceptance for publication, and the e-mail address of the corresponding author. Any changed affiliation of authors should be noted.

Tables and figures

The main text, tables, figures and images should be prepared in separate files. Figures and images that are drawn or photographed professionally should be sent as JPG or PPT files. When the manuscript is accepted to be published, the corresponding author may be asked to submit higher resolution figure files.

Tables should be simple, self-explanatory, and supplemental, and should not duplicate the text or figures. Each table must be on a separate page, not exceeding one page when printed and have a concise and informative title. The tables should be numbered with Arabic numerals in consecutive order. Each column should be appropriately headed with units in parentheses if numerical measures are given. All units of measurements and concentrations must be indicated. Footnotes should be indicated with Arabic numbers with round blanket such as 1), 2), and 3). The symbols * and ** are used only to indicate statistical significance with p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively.

Figures must be professionally prepared. Each figure must have a caption explaining the figure. Figures should also be numbered with Arabic numerals on the left bottom corner in consecutive order as they appear in the text (top to bottom, left to right) e.g., Fig. 1, Figs 1, 2, Figs 1–3. When tables and figures are mentioned together in the text, it should be mentioned in the parentheses as follows e.g. (Table 1; Fig. 1), (Tables 1, 2; Figs 1–3).

The preferred size of the images is 8 × 8 cm but 16.5 cm in width × 8 cm in length is also acceptable. Please use the same font for all figures in your manuscript; separator letters (A, B, C etc.) is 10 font Arial, x and y axis title is 7 font Arial, x and y axis number is 6 font Arial. Figures must be submitted as separate files, not embedded in manuscript text. Authors will not be charged for color photographing expenses. It is authors' full responsibility to submit images of sufficient quality for accurate reproduction and to approve the final color galley proof. All images must be correctly exposed, sharply focused and prepared in files of 900 dpi or more. JGR will not take responsibility for the quality of the images that appear in the journal. The images should be numbered with Arabic numerals consecutively in figure legends. The images must not be interfered and must be clearly seen. The legend for each light microscopic image should include name of the stain and magnification. Electron microscopic images should contain an internal scale marker. All images may be altered in size by the editor. Legends for images should be typewritten with maximum of 40 words. Separate sheet for each legend is not necessary. The legends should briefly describe the data shown, explain abbreviations or reference points, and identify all units, mathematical expressions, abscissas, ordinates, and symbols.


Authors are responsible for the accuracy and completeness of their references and for correct text citation. References presented with [ ] following a surname in the main text, such as Kim [1] and Kim et al [2]. When a reference is cited within the content, it is shown as [3] or [4,5] at the end. References searchable online should be cited.

Main text, tables and figure legends

  • References should be identified in non-superscript and Arabic numerals in squared brackets in the order they appear in the text (Vancouver style), and be placed before punctuation.
  • References cited in tables or figure legends should be included in order at the point where the table or figure is first mentioned in the main text.
  • Do not cite abstracts unless it is the only available reference to an important concept.
  • Incomplete work or work that has not yet been accepted for publication (i.e., "unpublished observation", "personal communication") should not be cited as references.
In Korea, the industrial revolution began in the 1970s and the first occupational cancer was mesothelioma due to asbestos, reported in 1993 [5].

References list

  • References should be limited to those cited in the text and listed in the order in which they appear in the text.
  • References should include, in order, authors' surnames and initials, article title, abbreviated journal name, year, volume and inclusive page numbers. The last names and initials of all the authors up to 10 should be included. For articles with more than 10 authors, list the first 10 authors only followed by ""et al"". Abbreviations for journal names should conform to those used in MEDLINE.
  • If citing a website, provide the author information, article title, website address and the date you accessed the information.
  • Reference to an article that is in press must state the journal name and, if possible, the year and volume.
  • Those not shown in the below examples should be cited according to 'Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals' and 'style of NLM (the National Library of Medicine,'.

Journal Articles
1. Halpern SD, Ubel PA, Caplan AL. Solid-organ transplantation in HIV-infected patients. N Engl J Med 2002;347:284–7.
2. Rose ME, Huerbin MB, Melick J, Marion DW, Palmer AM, Schiding JK, et al. Regulation of interstitial excitatory amino acid concentrations after cortical contusion injury. Brain Res 2002;935:40–6.

1. Murray PR, Rosenthal KS, Kobayashi GS, Pfaller MA. Medical microbiology. 4th ed. St. Louis: Mosby; 2002.
2. Breedlove GK, Schorfheide AM. Adolescent pregnancy. 2nd ed. Wieczorek RR, editor. White Plains (NY): March of Dimes Education Services; 2001.
3. Meltzer PS, Kallioniemi A, Trent JM. Chromosome alterations in human solid tumors. In: Vogelstein B, Kinzler KW, editors. The genetic basis of human cancer. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2002. p. 93–113.

1. Borkowski MM. Infant sleep and feeding: a telephone survey of Hispanic Americans [dissertation]. Mount Pleasant (MI): Central Michigan University; 2002.

Web Sites
1. Abood S. Quality improvement initiative in nursing homes: the ANA acts in an advisory role. Am J Nurs [Internet]. 2002 Jun [cited 2002 Aug 12];102(6):[about 1 p.]. Available from:

Data references
This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in your published article.

Research data

This journal encourages and enables you to share data that supports your research publication where appropriate, and enables you to interlink the data with your published articles. Research data refers to the results of observations or experimentation that validate research findings. To facilitate reproducibility and data reuse, this journal also encourages you to share your software, code, models, algorithms, protocols, methods and other useful materials related to the project.

Below are a number of ways in which you can associate data with your article or make a statement about the availability of your data when submitting your manuscript. If you are sharing data in one of these ways, you are encouraged to cite the data in your manuscript and reference list. Please refer to the "References" section for more information about data citation. For more information on depositing, sharing and using research data and other relevant research materials, visit the research data page.

Data linking
If you have made your research data available in a data repository, you can link your article directly to the dataset. Elsevier collaborates with a number of repositories to link articles on ScienceDirect with relevant repositories, giving readers access to underlying data that gives them a better understanding of the research described.

There are different ways to link your datasets to your article. When available, you can directly link your dataset to your article by providing the relevant information in the submission system. For more information, visit the database linking page.

For supported data repositories a repository banner will automatically appear next to your published article on ScienceDirect.

In addition, you can link to relevant data or entities through identifiers within the text of your manuscript, using the following format: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN).

Mendeley Data
This journal supports Mendeley Data, enabling you to deposit any research data (including raw and processed data, video, code, software, algorithms, protocols, and methods) associated with your manuscript in a free-to-use, open access repository. During the submission process, after uploading your manuscript, you will have the opportunity to upload your relevant datasets directly to Mendeley Data. The datasets will be listed and directly accessible to readers next to your published article online.

For more information, visit the Mendeley Data for journals page.

Data statement
To foster transparency, we encourage you to state the availability of your data in your submission. This may be a requirement of your funding body or institution. If your data is unavailable to access or unsuitable to post, you will have the opportunity to indicate why during the submission process, for example by stating that the research data is confidential. The statement will appear with your published article on ScienceDirect. For more information, visit the Data Statement page.

Nomenclature of ginseng

In general, P. ginseng stands for ginseng or Korean ginseng. In case of clarifying cultivation area, describe the cultivation area in detail such as 'ginseng cultivated in Korea', 'ginseng cultivated in China', 'ginseng cultivated in USA', 'American ginseng cultivated in Canada', etc.. In particular, since 'Korean Red Ginseng' is a trade mark, just use as 'Korean Red Ginseng'. More detailed nomenclature of ginseng is described as follows: Panax ginseng (ginseng or Korean ginseng); Panax quinquefolius (American ginseng); Panax notoginseng (Chinese ginseng); Panax japonicum (Janpanese ginseng or Bamboo ginseng); Panax vietnamensis (Vietnamese ginseng); Panax pseudoginseng (Hymalayan ginseng).


The corresponding author will be notified and receive a link to the published version of the open access article on ScienceDirect. This link is in the form of an article DOI link which can be shared via email and social networks. For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's Author Services.


Authors will receive 10 free offprints and a PDF file of their article. Additional reprints are available at a charge. If additional reprints are necessary, please contact Elsevier ( Reprints normally take up to 4 weeks after publication of the issue in which the item appears.

From July 1st, 2017, all submitted articles will be published according to below rules.

Page Charge
Research articles up to 6 printed pages and reviews up to 10 printed pages will be charged 400 USD. For each additional page beyond these limits, the corresponding author will be charged 300 USD.

Please note that these charges will also apply to invited authors of e.g. special issues, if applicable.

To calculate the number of printed pages your manuscript will have, count the number of text pages, tables and figures and divide the total by three. This will give you a rough estimate.

Important: This formula only works if the manuscript is prepared according to the general guidelines of the journal. (e.g. double spaced formatting etc.).

Fast-Track paper charge:
JGR provides fast-track to publish accepted papers in the following issue of JGR.

If authors want to publish their article as a fast track paper, please mark below: I will pay 2,000 USD up to 6 printed pages and 400 USD / page exceeding 6 pages.

Color Charge
Until 2018, all color figures are free of charge. After that time, we will ask our authors to contribute towards the extra costs incurred for the reproduction of color in print. Detail information will be further notified.

Visit the Elsevier Support Center to find the answers you need. Here you will find everything from Frequently Asked Questions to ways to get in touch.
You can also check the status of your submitted article or find out when your accepted article will be published.