Guide for Authors

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We differentiate between the requirements for new (or revised) submissions and the requirements for final files after manuscript acceptance. You may choose to submit your manuscript as a single Word or PDF file to be used in the refereeing process. Only when your paper is accepted will you be requested to put your paper into a 'correct format' and provide the items required for the publication of your article.
To find out more, please visit the "NEW AND REVISED SUBMISSIONS" and "ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPTS" sections below.


You can use this list to carry out a final check of your submission before you send it to the journal for review. Please check the relevant section in this Guide for Authors for more details.

  • One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details (E-mail address and full postal address).
  • All necessary files have been uploaded:
    • Cover letter(only if necessary: see below)
    • Manuscript
    • Graphical Abstracts / Highlights files (where applicable; please note that Highlights are not required on initial submission)
    • Supplemental files (where applicable)
  • Cover letter: A cover letter is NOT necessary. Please provide a cover letter ONLY if you need to explain extraordinary circumstances contrary to journal policy (examples: (i) you cannot make your data publicly available; (ii) you have used deception in your experimental design: (iii) you have not used incentives in your experiments). Please do not upload a cover letter to tell us that you are submitting a paper. We know that. Please do not upload a cover letter to tell us what the paper is about. That is what the abstract is for.
  • Manuscript: Your article. The first page should include the title, authors' names, affiliations, acknowledgements and any Declaration of Interest statement, and a complete address for the corresponding author including an e-mail address. Please also include abstract and keywords in this page.
  • For the initial submission, please ensure that all figures and tables are embedded in the manuscript file and placed next to the relevant text in the manuscript, rather than at the bottom or the top of the file. The corresponding caption should be placed directly below the figure or table. Alternatively, you can provide individual files for figures and tables, but this is not recommended at this stage. For accepted submissions, you will be asked to provide individual files for figures. If doing so, please ensure all figures (including relevant captions) and all tables (including titles, description, footnotes) have been provided and also ensure all figure and table citations in the text match the files provided.
  • Manuscript has been spell-checked and 'grammar-checked'. See "Journal Standards" below.
  • All references mentioned in the Reference List are cited in the text, and vice versa.
  • Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Internet).
  • If any of the authors has competing interests to declare, please detail them in a cover letter.
  • Journal policies detailed in this guide have been reviewed (see below).
  • Referee suggestions and contact details provided, based on journal requirements. For further information, visit our Support Center.

Ethics in publishing

Please see our information pages on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication.


Authors submitting manuscripts to JoEP are expected to adhere to the author guidelines and to the general standards of the journal. Please read these instructions carefully to avoid desk rejections.

Types of Submissions and Length of Articles

  • Research Articles should not exceed 12,000 words in length.
  • Review Articles are focused surveys reviewing some part of the literature. Review Articles and invited pieces can exceed the limit of 12,000 words.
  • Brief Articles are short research articles, limited to 4,000 words in length. Brief Articles include focused reports on single empirical studies, data re-analyses for new purposes, variants of previously-published empirical studies (especially those published in the journal), and short formal-analytical contributions linked to well-established empirical phenomena. Brief Articles do not include opinion pieces, qualitative studies, or verbal discussions of the literature (such contributions are out of the scope of the journal). The introduction of a Brief Article should be concise and refer only to the key related literature.
  • Replications are short, focused articles reporting replications (successful or not) of previously-published studies. In general, they should not exceed 4,000 words in length. It is recommended that the title of such contributions starts with "Replication: ..."
  • Book Reviews should be submitted through the journal's online system as any other contribution. In general, Book Reviews written at the invitation of the Book Review Editor, but non-invited reviews are also possible. If you are interested in reviewing a book for JoEP, it is advised to contact the Book Review Editor (listed in the Editorial Board) in advance.

All word counts include the total text (abstract, main text, references, tables and figures, appendix), but not the supplementary (online) materials.

Formal standards
The time of editors, associate editors, and reviewers, is just as valuable as that of authors. At the Journal of Economic Psychology, papers which have not been exhaustively checked and polished before submission are never sent out for reviewing. Authors should carefully triple-check (and we mean this literally) their papers before submission to avoid typographic, grammar, and formatting errors, ensure that there are no language problems (if unsure, please enlist the help of a language editing service or a native speaker), and generally make sure that the paper is in a highly-polished state. For instance, make sure that your bibliography precisely corresponds to your citations and that there are no errors in it; if working under LaTeX, please use a bibliographic environment as BibTeX or BibLaTeX.

Statistical standards
Authors should ensure that statistical analyses are conducted rigorously and in accordance with the highest standards. In particular, the journal enforces a number of clear criteria. Failure to comply with them will result in desk rejection.

First, the threshold for statistical significance is 5%(p<0.05). Test results with p-values above 0.05 and below 0.10 are not "significant at the 10% level" or "marginally significant." At the Journal of Economic Psychology, they are simply not significant. As a general rule, non-significant results should not be interpreted. Remember: absence of evidence (of an effect) is not evidence of absence. In the case of regression tables, it might be appropriate to mark the coefficients with p<.10 for the reader's information but authors should refrain from giving interpretations. In this case, the label "p<.10" should be used instead of "significant at 10% level." Likewise, it might be appropriate to occasionally report that a test "missed significance" and report the exact p-value, but interpretations of non-significant tests should be avoided in general. See, however, next point.

Second, the journal does welcome the publication of null results, where a postulated effect is not found (replications, however, should be submitted as such and not as Research Articles: see "Types of Submissions and Length of Articles" above). However, null effects can only be properly interpreted if a careful power analysis has been carried out before conducting the experiment and is properly reported in the design section. In doing so, please be aware of the distinction between a proper (ex ante or equivalent) power analysis and a post hoc (or observed) power analysis. A post hoc power analysis, where one just reports the effect sizes that would have been significant given the actual parameters of the study, including actual sample size, is not useful: it simply restates the p-value in other terms. In contrast, a proper (ideally ex ante, but not exclusively) power calculation clarifies which effect sizes a study could detect with sufficient power. This is done through power calculations estimating the probability to obtain a significant effect given a particular effect size (e.g., in terms of Cohen's d). The effect sizes are derived from previous studies, theoretical background, or simply the literature standards, meaning that power is estimated for large, medium, and small effects, as given in Cohen, J. (1977), Statistical Power Analysis for the Social Sciences, Elsevier.

Third, even if a paper does not report null effects, it is necessary to report how the sample size was determined. This can be part of the power analysis (a sample size of N was computed to be sufficient to detect a certain effect size for given alpha and beta values) or refer to the previous literature, but a careful justification is necessary. Independently ofpower analyses, however, please be advised that an article reporting on small-sample studies only is likely to be considered anecdotal and rejected without review. Generally, we expect a reasonable number of independent observations and will not publish articles which rely on just a few dozens of independent observations. Of course, in some justified cases independent observations are particularly costly (e.g., brain imaging studies or market experiments) and the standards for sample sizes are different. This will be taken into account.

Fourth, if multiple tests are conducted on the same data within a given study, p-values must be adjusted accordingly by using the appropriate corrections for multiple testing (e.g., Holm-Bonferroni, adjusting the false discovery rate, etc). For instance, this applies whenever the same hypothesis is tested with several different tests, or when pairwise tests of the same hypothesis are conducted among several experimental conditions. It is often not necessary to correct when a few separate, different hypotheses are tested, but if multiple hypotheses are tested on the same data set, the likelihood of deriving some erroneous inferences increases and adjustments might be needed. If multiple hypotheses all affect the same dependent variable but different independent variables, consider a regression analysis instead of an array of separate tests (for conceptually-related regressors, however, adjustment might still be needed depending on the exact hypothesis).

Use of deception
An issue of particular relevance for the fields of behavioral/experimental economics and economic psychology is the use of deception in empirical (particularly, experimental) studies. The Journal of Economic Psychology will only publish empirical research using deception if the authors can and do explain in their manuscript why the use of deception was strictly necessary for the purposes of their research. The use of deception and the reasons for doing so should also be detailed in the cover letter. If, at any point of the editorial process, a paper is deemed to have used deception without the authors having explicitly stated it so, the process will be interrupted and the paper will be rejected. Please note that the reasons for avoiding deception are related to lab credibility and reliability of the data, and not to philosophical issues of any kind.

Incentivization in experiments
For experimental work to be published in the Journal of Economic Psychology, the default is that, at least, one of the reported experiments should show the central effect of the paper in an incentivized setting. Of course, exceptions to this are possible (e.g., providing monetary incentives dependent on performance might run counter to some research topics or questions). However, to avoid an immediate rejection of the manuscript, such exceptions should be explained in the cover letter. Studies focusing on the effect of incentives using hypothetical questions only are likely to be rejected without review.

Disclosure of experimental conditions and variables
Authors are required to state in writing (e.g., in the cover letter) that they have reported all implemented experimental conditions (given that the study is experimental) and disclosed all measured variables, unless otherwise reported in the paper or a publicly available appendix to the paper. Furthermore, authors have to either declare that they have reported or cited all of the studies that they have run on the research question of the paper, or they have to outline which additional data on this question they have collected in the past, and why they did not report these data in the current manuscript.

Awareness of previous publications
Authors should be aware of articles previously published in the Journal of Economic Psychology on the topic of their manuscript. Submitted manuscripts should reflect such awareness. Authors are encouraged to review the published issues of the last 2-3 years before submitting, and to use the search function in the journal's webpage to look for related publications.

Citing discussion papers
Our audience comprises many behavioral and experimental economists, and in economics discussion papers are a fully-accepted way to disseminate scientific knowledge. Hence, the Journal of Economic Psychology follows the conventions in economics with respect to discussion papers. That is, discussion papers are fully citable, preferably as institutional working papers with details of the working paper series. The argument that "what is not published (in a journal) should not be quoted" does not apply to our journal.

Resubmission of previously-rejected manuscripts
Don't. Rejections are final, even if they happened on the grounds of excessive number of typos or insufficient language proficiency. Exceptions to this rule can only be granted by direct invitation by the Editor(s) in Chief, and authors should start an email inquiry on this possibility before attempting to re-submit a previously-rejected manuscript. In case a manuscript is discovered to be a resubmission of a previously-rejected manuscript, not previously approved by the Editor(s) in Chief, the evaluation process will be terminated regardless of its state.

Publication of data and materials
If an experimental or empirical paper is accepted for publication in the Journal of Economic Psychology, it is currently expected that authors will make their data, the codes of their statistical analyses (if not straightforward), and the materials of their study publicly available. Exceptions are possible but should be justified in advance and explained in the cover letter upon submission. For the publication of data and codes, authors might either use Elsevier's own data repository "Mendeley data", or one of the many domain-specific data repositories that are being covered by Elsevier's program. More information on data publication can be found at The experimental materials may be either published using the same source, or may be part of an appendix to the original article (to be provided as "Supplementary Material" together with the final files after acceptance). In cases where such an open access to the data and/or to the experimental materials may not be possible (e.g., due to third-party rights), this has to be stated and explained in the cover letter accompanying the initial submission.

We encourage authors to already submit the data, the codes, and particularly the experimental materials at the initial submission stage (as Supplementary Materials), because often question arise during the review process that are related to the materials or the data.


Declaration of interest
All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential competing interests include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. Authors must disclose any interests in two places: 1. A summary declaration of interest statement in the title page file. If there are no interests to declare then please state this: 'Declarations of interest: none'. This summary statement will be ultimately published if the article is accepted. 2. Detailed disclosures as part of a separate Declaration of Interest form, which forms part of the journal's official records. It is important for potential interests to be declared in both places and that the information matches. More information.

Submission Declaration
Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere including electronically in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the copyright-holder.

Use of inclusive language
Inclusive language acknowledges diversity, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and promotes equal opportunities. Articles should make no assumptions about the beliefs or commitments of any reader, should contain nothing which might imply that one individual is superior to another on the grounds of race, sex, culture or any other characteristic, and should use inclusive language throughout. Authors should ensure that writing is free from bias, for instance by using 'he or she', 'his/her' instead of 'he' or 'his', and by making use of job titles that are free of stereotyping (e.g. 'chairperson' instead of 'chairman' and 'flight attendant' instead of 'stewardess').

Changes to authorship
Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the journal Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed.
Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted. While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the Editor will result in a corrigendum.

Article transfer service
This journal is part of our Article Transfer Service. This means that if the Editor feels your article is more suitable in one of our other participating journals, then you may be asked to consider transferring the article to one of those. If you agree, your article will be transferred automatically on your behalf with no need to reformat. Please note that your article will be reviewed again by the new journal. More information.


Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.

As part of the Your Paper Your Way service, you may choose to submit your manuscript as a single file to be used in the refereeing process. This should preferably be a PDF file, but it can also be a .doc/.odt document, in any lay-out that can be used by referees to evaluate your manuscript. It should contain figures of high-enough quality for refereeing. If you prefer to do so, you may already provide all or some of the source files at the initial submission, but this is not required or recommended (PDF is always preferred at this stage). Please note that individual figure files larger than 10 MB must be uploaded separately. For revised manuscripts, it is highly advisable to already format your article and all your files following the guidelines for "accepted manuscripts" below.

Formatting requirements
There are no strict formatting requirements, but all manuscripts must contain the essential elements needed to convey your manuscript, for example Abstract, Keywords, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Conclusions, Artwork and Tables with Captions. Please divide the article into clearly defined sections.

If your article includes any Videos and/or other Supplementary material, this should be included in your initial submission for peer review purposes.

Figures and tables embedded in text
Please ensure the figures and the tables included in the single file are placed next to the relevant text in the manuscript, rather than at the bottom or the top of the file. The corresponding caption should be placed directly below the figure or table.

There are no strict requirements on reference formatting at submission. References can be in any style or format as long as the style is consistent. Where applicable, author(s) name(s), journal title/book title, chapter title/article title, year of publication, volume number/book chapter and the article number or pagination must be present. Use of DOI is highly encouraged. The reference style used by the journal will be applied to the accepted article by Elsevier at the proof stage. Note that missing data will be highlighted at proof stage for the author to correct.

Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article. Avoid endnotes.

A concise and factual abstract is required. The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results and major conclusions. An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. For this reason, References should be avoided, but if essential, in the abstract they should be given in full. Also, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself

Graphical abstract
A Graphical abstract is optional and should summarize the contents of the article in a concise, pictorial form designed to capture the attention of a wide readership online. In case a graphical abstract is chosen, authors must provide images that clearly represent the work described in the article. Graphical abstracts should be submitted as a separate file in the online submission system. Image size: Please provide an image with a minimum of 531 × 1328 pixels (h × w) or proportionally more. The image should be readable at a size of 5 × 13 cm using a regular screen resolution of 96 dpi. Preferred file types: TIFF, EPS, PDF or MS Office files. See for examples.

Authors can make use of Elsevier's free Graphical abstract check to ensure the best display of the research in accordance with our technical requirements. 24-hour Graphical abstract check

Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 6 keywords, using American spelling and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, 'and', 'of'). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes. Keywords should be separated by semicolons, e.g., discounting; consumer confidence; endowment effect; consumer credit; household decision making.

Classification Codes
Please enter at least one PsycINFO Classification code (from the APA's "PsycINFO Classification Categories and Codes") and at least one JEL Classification code (from the Journal of Economic Literature).

Highlights are mandatory for this journal. They consist of a short collection of bullet points that convey the core findings of the article and should be submitted in a separate editable file in the online submission system. Please use 'Highlights' in the file name and include 3 to 5 bullet points (maximum 85 characters, including spaces, per bullet point). You can view example Highlights on our information site.

Define abbreviations that are not standard in this field in a footnote to be placed on the first page of the article. Such abbreviations that are unavoidable in the abstract must be defined at their first mention there, as well as in the footnote. Ensure consistency of abbreviations throughout the article.

Language (usage and editing services)
Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop. Please note that poor language is a reason for desk rejection.

Data statement
To foster transparency, we expect you to state the availability of your data in your submission (cover letter). This may also be a requirement of your funding body or institution. If your data is unavailable to access or unsuitable to post, you will have the opportunity to indicate why during the submission process, for example by stating that the research data is confidential. The statement will appear with your published article on ScienceDirect. For more information, visit the Data Statement page.

Researcher Academy is a free e-learning platform designed to support early and mid-career researchers throughout their research journey. The "Learn" environment at Researcher Academy offers several interactive modules, webinars, downloadable guides and resources to guide you through the process of writing for research and going through peer review. Feel free to use these free resources to improve your submission and navigate the publication process with ease.


Use of word processing software
Regardless of the file format of the original submission, after acceptance editable files (e.g., Word, LibreOffice, LaTeX) are required to typeset your article for final publication. It is highly advisable to already provide such files for revised manuscripts. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. See also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier, and the section on Electronic artwork below. To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor or LaTeX editor.

Article structure
Subdivision - numbered sections: Divide your article into clearly defined and numbered sections. Subsections should be numbered 1.1 (then 1.1.1, 1.1.2, ...), 1.2, etc. (the abstract is not included in section numbering). Use this numbering also for internal cross-referencing: do not just refer to 'the text'. Any subsection may be given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line.

Introduction: State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results.

Material and methods: Provide sufficient details to allow the work to be reproduced by an independent researcher. Methods that are already published should be summarized, and indicated by a reference. If quoting directly from a previously published method, use quotation marks and also cite the source. Any modifications to existing methods should also be described.

  • Results: Results should be clear and concise.
  • Discussion: This should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. A combined Results and Discussion section is often appropriate. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature.

Conclusions: The main conclusions of the study may be presented in a short Conclusions section, which may stand alone or form a subsection of a Discussion or Results and Discussion section.

Appendices: If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq. (A.1), Eq. (A.2), etc.; in a subsequent appendix, Eq. (B.1) and so on. Similarly for tables and figures: Table A.1; Fig. A.1, etc.

Essential title page information

  • Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
  • Author names and affiliations. Please clearly indicate the given name(s) and family name(s) of each author and check that all names are accurately spelled. You can add your name between parentheses in your own script behind the English transliteration. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
  • Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. This responsibility includes answering any future queries about Methodology and Materials. Ensure that the e-mail address is given and that contact details are kept up to date by the corresponding author.
  • Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.

For the final version of the manuscript (after acceptance; not for initial or revised submissions), collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.).

Formatting of funding sources
List funding sources in this standard way to facilitate compliance to funder's requirements: Funding: This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health [grant numbers xxxx, yyyy]; the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, WA [grant number zzzz]; and the United States Institutes of Peace [grant number aaaa].

It is not necessary to include detailed descriptions on the program or type of grants and awards. When funding is from a block grant or other resources available to a university, college, or other research institution, submit the name of the institute or organization that provided the funding.

If no funding has been provided for the research, please include the following sentence: This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Electronic artwork: General points

  • Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
  • Preferred fonts: Arial (or Helvetica), Times New Roman (or Times), Symbol, Courier.
  • Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
  • Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
  • Indicate per figure if it is a single, 1.5 or 2-column fitting image.
  • For Word submissions only, you may still provide figures (and their captions) and tables within a single file at the revision stage.
  • Please note that individual figure files larger than 10 MB must be provided in separate source files.

A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available. You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.

Formats: Regardless of the application used, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings. Embed the font or save the text as 'graphics'.
TIFF (or JPG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones): always use a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF (or JPG): Bitmapped line drawings: use a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF (or JPG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale): a minimum of 500 dpi is required.

Please do not:

  • Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); the resolution is too low.
  • Supply files that are too low in resolution.
  • Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

Color artwork
Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPG), EPS (or PDF), or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color online (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. For color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article. Please indicate your preference for color: in print or online only. Further information on the preparation of electronic artwork.

Figure captions
Ensure that each illustration has a caption. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.

Please submit tables as editable text and not as images. As a rule, tables should be placed next to the relevant text in the article, but large tables might be placed on separate page(s) at the end instead. Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text and place any table notes below the table body. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in them do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article. Please avoid using vertical rules and shading in table cells.

Citation in text: Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication. Discussion and Working Papers are fully citable, following conventions in economics.

Web references: As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.

Data references: This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in your published article.

References in a special issue: Please ensure that the words 'this issue' are added to any references in the list (and any citations in the text) to other articles in the same Special Issue.

Reference management software: Most Elsevier journals have their reference template available in many of the most popular reference management software products. These include all products that support Citation Style Language styles, such as Mendeley, and also LaTeX .bst files. Using citation plug-ins from these products, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article, after which citations and bibliographies will be automatically formatted in the journal's style. If no template is yet available for this journal, please follow the format of the sample references and citations as shown in this Guide. If you use reference management software, please ensure that you remove all field codes before submitting the electronic manuscript. More information on how to remove field codes from different reference management software.

Users of Mendeley Desktop can easily install the reference style for this journal by clicking the following link:

When preparing your manuscript, you will then be able to select this style using the Mendeley plug-ins for Microsoft Word or LibreOffice.

Reference formatting: The reference style used by the journal will be applied to the accepted article by Elsevier at the proof stage. Note that missing data will be highlighted at proof stage for the author to correct. If you do wish to format the references yourself they should be arranged according to the following examples:
Text: Citations in the text should follow the referencing style used by the American Psychological Association. You are referred to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Sixth Edition, ISBN 978-1-4338-0561-5, copies of which may be ordered from or APA Order Dept., P.O.B. 2710, Hyattsville, MD 20784, USA or APA, 3 Henrietta Street, London, WC3E 8LU, UK. Details concerning this referencing style can also be found at
List: references should be arranged first alphabetically and then further sorted chronologically if necessary. More than one reference from the same author(s) in the same year must be identified by the letters 'a', 'b', 'c', etc., placed after the year of publication.

  • Reference to a journal publication:
    Van der Geer, J., Hanraads, J. A. J., & Lupton, R. A. (2010). The art of writing a scientific article. Journal of Scientific Communications, 163, 51-59.
  • Reference to a book:
    Strunk, W., Jr., & White, E. B. (1979). The elements of style. (4th ed.). New York: Longman, (Chapter 4).
  • Reference to a chapter in an edited book:
    Mettam, G. R., & Adams, L. B. (2009). How to prepare an electronic version of your article. In B. S. Jones, & R. Z. Smith (Eds.), Introduction to the electronic age (pp. 281-304). New York: E-Publishing Inc.
  • [dataset] Oguro, M., Imahiro, S., Saito, S., Nakashizuka, T. (2015). Mortality data for Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions. Mendeley Data, v1.


Supplementary material such as additional appendices, experimental instructions, applications, images and sound clips, can be published online with your article to enhance it. Submitted supplementary items are published exactly as they are received (Excel or PowerPoint files will appear as such online). After acceptance (or already at the revision stage), please make sure to provide supplementary materials as "Supplementary Materials" and not as part of the manuscript file.

Please supply a concise, descriptive caption for each supplementary file. If you wish to make changes to supplementary material during any stage of the process, please make sure to provide an updated file. Do not annotate any corrections on a previous version. If using Microsoft Office or Libre Office, please switch off the 'Track Changes' option as these will appear in the published version.

Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. . In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the file in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 150 MB per file, 1 GB in total. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect. Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages. Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.

Data visualization
Include interactive data visualizations in your publication and let your readers interact and engage more closely with your research. Follow the instructions here to find out about available data visualization options and how to include them with your article.

Research data
This journal encourages and enables you to share data that supports your research publication where appropriate, and enables you to interlink the data with your published articles. Research data refers to the results of observations or experimentation that validate research findings. To facilitate reproducibility and data reuse, this journal also encourages you to share your software, code, models, algorithms, protocols, methods and other useful materials related to the project.

Below are a number of ways in which you can associate data with your article or make a statement about the availability of your data when submitting your manuscript. If you are sharing data in one of these ways, you are encouraged to cite the data in your manuscript and reference list. Please refer to the "References" section for more information about data citation. For more information on depositing, sharing and using research data and other relevant research materials, visit the research data page.

Data linking: If you have made your research data available in a data repository, you can link your article directly to the dataset. Elsevier collaborates with a number of repositories to link articles on ScienceDirect with relevant repositories, giving readers access to underlying data that gives them a better understanding of the research described.

There are different ways to link your datasets to your article. When available, you can directly link your dataset to your article by providing the relevant information in the submission system. For more information, visit the database linking page.

For supported data repositories a repository banner will automatically appear next to your published article on ScienceDirect.

In addition, you can link to relevant data or entities through identifiers within the text of your manuscript, using the following format: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN).

Mendeley Data: This journal supports Mendeley Data, enabling you to deposit any research data (including raw and processed data, video, code, software, algorithms, protocols, and methods) associated with your manuscript in a free-to-use, open access repository. During the submission process, after uploading your manuscript, you will have the opportunity to upload your relevant datasets directly to Mendeley Data. The datasets will be listed and directly accessible to readers next to your published article online.

For more information, visit the Mendeley Data for journals page.

Data in Brief
You have the option of converting any or all parts of your supplementary or additional raw data into one or multiple data articles, a new kind of article that houses and describes your data. Data articles ensure that your data is actively reviewed, curated, formatted, indexed, given a DOI and publicly available to all upon publication. You are encouraged to submit your article for Data in Brief as an additional item directly alongside the revised version of your manuscript. If your research article is accepted, your data article will automatically be transferred over to Data in Brief where it will be editorially reviewed and published in the open access data journal, Data in Brief. Please note an open access fee of 500 USD is payable for publication in Data in Brief. Full details can be found on the Data in Brief website. Please use this template to write your Data in Brief.


Online proof correction
Corresponding authors will receive an e-mail with a link to our online proofing system, allowing annotation and correction of proofs online. The environment is similar to MS Word: in addition to editing text, you can also comment on figures/tables and answer questions from the Copy Editor. Web-based proofing provides a faster and less error-prone process by allowing you to directly type your corrections, eliminating the potential introduction of errors.

If preferred, you can still choose to annotate and upload your edits on the PDF version. All instructions for proofing will be given in the e-mail we send to authors, including alternative methods to the online version and PDF.

We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication. Please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.

The corresponding author will, at no cost, receive a customized Share Link providing 50 days free access to the final published version of the article on ScienceDirect. The Share Link can be used for sharing the article via any communication channel, including email and social media. For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's Webshop. Corresponding authors who have published their article gold open access do not receive a Share Link as their final published version of the article is available open access on ScienceDirect and can be shared through the article DOI link.

Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement'. An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.

Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations. If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases.

For gold open access articles: Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an 'Exclusive License Agreement' (more information). Permitted third party reuse of gold open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license.

Author rights
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. More information.

Elsevier supports responsible sharing
Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.

Role of the funding source
You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.

Funding body agreements and policies
Elsevier has established a number of agreements with funding bodies which allow authors to comply with their funder's open access policies. Some funding bodies will reimburse the author for the gold open access publication fee. Details of existing agreements are available online.

Open access
This journal offers authors a choice in publishing their research: Subscription and Gold Open Access. Regardless of how you choose to publish your article, the journal will apply the same peer review criteria and acceptance standards. Additionally, the journal encourages Green Open Access (see below).


  • Articles are made available to subscribers as well as developing countries and patient groups through our universal access programs.
  • No open access publication fee payable by authors.
  • The Author is entitled to post the accepted manuscript in their institution's repository and make this public after an embargo period (known as green Open Access). The published journal article cannot be shared publicly, for example on ResearchGate or, to ensure the sustainability of peer-reviewed research in journal publications. The embargo period for this journal can be found below.

Gold open access

  • Articles are freely available to both subscribers and the wider public with permitted reuse.
  • A gold open access publication fee is payable by authors or on their behalf, e.g. by their research funder or institution.
  • The gold open access publication fee for this journal is USD 1800, excluding taxes. Learn more about Elsevier's pricing policy:

For gold open access articles, permitted third party (re)use is defined by the following Creative Commons user licenses:

Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY): Lets others distribute and copy the article, create extracts, abstracts, and other revised versions, adaptations or derivative works of or from an article (such as a translation), include in a collective work (such as an anthology), text or data mine the article, even for commercial purposes, as long as they credit the author(s), do not represent the author as endorsing their adaptation of the article, and do not modify the article in such a way as to damage the author's honor or reputation.

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND): For non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.

Green open access
Authors can share their research in a variety of different ways and Elsevier has a number of green open access options available. We recommend authors see our open access page for further information. Authors can also self-archive their manuscripts immediately and enable public access from their institution's repository after an embargo period. This is the version that has been accepted for publication and which typically includes author-incorporated changes suggested during submission, peer review and in editor-author communications.

Embargo period: For subscription articles, an appropriate amount of time is needed for journals to deliver value to subscribing customers before an article becomes freely available to the public. This is the embargo period and it begins from the date the article is formally published online in its final and fully citable form. Find out more. This journal has an embargo period of 24 months.

Open access

Please visit our Open Access page for more information.


Highlights are optional yet highly encouraged for this journal, as they increase the discoverability of your article via search engines. They consist of a short collection of bullet points that capture the novel results of your research as well as new methods that were used during the study (if any). Please have a look at the examples here: example Highlights.

Highlights should be submitted in a separate editable file in the online submission system. Please use 'Highlights' in the file name and include 3 to 5 bullet points (maximum 85 characters, including spaces, per bullet point).

Visit the Elsevier Support Center to find the answers you need. Here you will find everything from Frequently Asked Questions to ways to get in touch.
You can also check the status of your submitted article or find out when your accepted article will be published.