Guide for Authors

All journal information and instructions compiled in one document (PDF) in just one mouse-click Author information pack

• INTRODUCTION
• Articles Type:
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
• Ethics in publishing
• Use of animals in biomedical research
• Informed consent
• Conflict of interest in peer-review process and disclosure
• Checklist for Journal of Current Ophthalmology submission
• Submission declaration and verification
• Attesting to authorship contributions
• Copyright
• Online Manuscript Submission
• General manuscript preparation guidelines
• Article structure
• Abstract
• Units
• Illustration services
• Accepted manuscript/supplemental material
• Use of the Digital Object Identifier
• Publication process
• Offprints
• Confidentiality
AUTHOR INQUIRIES

INTRODUCTION

The Journal of Current Ophthalmology is a peer-reviewed, scientific publication that welcomes the submission of original, previously unpublished manuscripts directed to ophthalmologists and visual science specialists. The manuscripts describe clinical investigations, clinical observations, and clinically relevant laboratory investigations. Published quarterly since 1969, Journal of Current Ophthalmology, is a continuum of Iranian journal of Ophthalmology which was one of the first ophthalmology journals in Middle East.

Manuscripts are accepted with the understanding that they have not been and will not be published elsewhere substantially in any format, and that there are no ethical concerns with the content or data collection. Authors may be requested to produce the data upon which the manuscript is based and to answer expeditiously any questions about the manuscript or its authors.

Articles Type:

The Journal of Current Ophthalmology publishes Full-Length Articles, Review articles, Editorials, Correspondence, Short Reports.

FULL-LENGTH ARTICLES

Full-Length Articles should be previously unpublished manuscripts directed to ophthalmologists and visual science specialists. They include clinical investigations, clinical observations, and clinically relevant laboratory investigations.

The authors are highly recommended to follow the guidelines for specific study designs according to the following sources.

Initiative Type of Study Source
CONSORT Randomized controlled trials http://www.consort-statement.org
STARD Studies of diagnostic accuracy http://www.consort-statement.org/stardstatement.htm
QUOROM Systematic reviews and meta-analyses http://www.consort- statement.org/Initiatives/MOOSE/moose.pdf statement.org/Initiatives/MOOSE/moose.pdf
STROBE Observational studies in epidemiology http://www.strobe-statement.org
MOOSE Meta-analyses of observational studies in epidemiology http://www.consort- statement.org/Initiatives/MOOSE/moose.pdf

Authors should begin each component on a new page in the following order: (1) title page, (2) text, (3) acknowledgments, (4) references, (5) figure captions, (6) tables, (7) figures. The abstract should be embedded in the main manuscript.

Articles Type:

Editorials provide a forum for interpretive, analytical, or reflective opinions related to manuscripts in the Journal of Current Ophthalmology or statements about clinical, scientific, or socioeconomic issues, by invitation-only. Editorial should be objective and dispassionate, but is likely to provide alternative points of view and some bias. Editorials should not exceed 1200 words with no more than 15 references. In general, figures and tables should not be used, except deemed necessary.

Because the essence of an Editorial is selection and interpretation of the literature, the Journal of Current Ophthalmology expects that authors of such articles will not have any significant financial interest in a company (or its competitor) that makes a product discussed in the article. Funding and financial disclosure is required in the Acknowledgments before the references. Editorials do not have an Abstract.

CORRESPONDENCE

Letters about recent articles published in the Journal of Current Ophthalmology are encouraged and should be submitted through the Elsevier Editorial System soon. Correspondence may correct errors, provide support or agreement, or offer different points of view and additional information. Correspondence submitted should not exceed 500 words of text and six references. One of the references should be the Article in question.

Figures and tables are generally not accepted, except deemed necessary. The Journal of Current Ophthalmology does not use the Correspondence section for reporting case reports or short clinical research articles. Correspondence is considered for publication by the Editorial Board and is subject to editing. The authors of articles discussed in the correspondence are given an opportunity to reply in an expedited fashion, adhering to the Journal of Current Ophthalmology policy on Responsibility of Authors. If authors do not reply to the correspondence within 14 days, this statement may appear in the Journal of Current Ophthalmology print issue in association with the correspondence: "The Authors failed to provide a response to the correspondence in a timely manner." Please provide a complete title page as defined above under Full-Length Article instructions. Financial disclosures should be provided at the end of the correspondence and may be published. (see Acknowledgment section B for information to disclose).

When appropriate, an effort is made before publication to resolve any controversies between correspondents and the authors of an article.

SHORT REPORTS

Case reports and case series less than four cases are published under short reports. The case reports are generally cases with unexpected and rare presentations or it can be new methods, or a preliminary report that can be accepted as two page papers; maximum length 750 words including abstract, tables, and legends. Short report should have an structured abstract.

Word count: up to 750 words

Illustrations and tables: up to 3

References: 10-15

Ethics in publishing

Please see our information pages on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication.

Use of animals in biomedical research

If animals are used in the protocol or the study, the manuscript should describe in the Methods section the animal care protocol that was followed, name the institution that sponsored the study, and identify relevant IRB approval. Biomedical research involving animals must conform to generally accepted principles of animal maintenance and care, such as those of the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (http://www.arvo.org).

Informed consent

When human subjects participate in studies or reports, the authors must state in the Methods section that the study and data accumulation were carried out with approval from the appropriate Institutional Review Board (IRB), Informed Consent for the research was obtained from the patients or subjects, and, for US authors, the study is in accordance with HIPAA regulations. Alternatively, the authors can state that the IRB (name the IRB) waived the need for IRB approval; the authors, however, cannot make the decision that IRB approval was not needed. If waived, the authors must confirm that the study and data accumulation were in conformity with all country, federal, or state laws, informed consent was obtained, and the study was in adherence to the tenets of the Declaration of Helsinki. Do not use patients' names, initials, dates, or hospital numbers, especially in illustrative material. Informed Consent for research requires that the subjects agreed to participate after explanation of the nature and possible consequences of the study. This Informed Consent for Research is distinct from the simple informed consent to perform a procedure or test on a patient.

Conflict of interest in peer-review process and disclosure

Authors, editors, or reviewers may hold conflicting or competing interests that could result in bias. These conflicts may be real, potential, or perceived. Authors and participants in the peer-review and publication should disclose their conflicting interests, and the information should be made available so that others can judge their effects for themselves.

Checklist for Journal of Current Ophthalmology submission

Below is a checklist of items required by the Journal of Current Ophthalmology for evaluation of a submission. These items should be included in each submission. Please be sure that you have thoroughly read the instructions for preparation and submission of your manuscript before submitting it. Otherwise, the peer reviewers may refuse to proceed with review.

o Cover Letter (Optional) indicating the manuscript's category (Full-Length Article, Review article, Editorial, Correspondence)

o Permission for figures if there is identifiable material or photograph .

o One copy of the manuscript, single-spaced and formatted according to the instructions.

o Title page should be submitted separately.

- Title

- Each author's complete name and affiliation. Academic degrees are no longer requested.

- The complete and correct address, phone number, fax number, and e-mail address of the Corresponding Author.

- Running title

- Authors conflict of interest

- Repetitive and double publication

o Structured abstract limited to 300 words for Full-Length Articles and Review article and Short reports

o Main text with no authors list

o References

o Figure Captions

o Tables

o Figures (properly formatted and labeled according to the instructions)

Revised manuscripts

Revisions must be returned to the Journal of Current Ophthalmology within 1 month to retain revision status; after that time, the Editor-in-Chief may accept, request another cycle of peer-review or reject the manuscript. The Corresponding Author must reply to each point made in the revision request and may state points of disagreement with the reviewer's comments. Please submit revisions in your account under "Submissions Needing Revision" on Elsevier Editorial System with the files prepared according to online manuscript submission guidelines. Please follow the instructions on the Elsevier Editorial System under "Guidelines for Revisions".

Submission declaration and verification

Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' section of our ethics policy for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service CrossCheck.

Attesting to authorship contributions

All persons designated as authors should qualify for authorship, and all those who qualify should be listed. The corresponding author is responsible to verify the authorship criteria before submission. The authors should involve in all following processes:

1.Concept and design of study or acquisition of data or analysis and interpretation of data;

2.Drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and

3.Final approval of the version to be published.

Copyright

Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (see more information on this). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.

Author rights
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. More information.

Elsevier supports responsible sharing
Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND)
For non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.

Elsevier Publishing Campus
The Elsevier Publishing Campus (www.publishingcampus.com) is an online platform offering free lectures, interactive training and professional advice to support you in publishing your research. The College of Skills training offers modules on how to prepare, write and structure your article and explains how editors will look at your paper when it is submitted for publication. Use these resources, and more, to ensure that your submission will be the best that you can make it.

Language (usage and editing services)
Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop.

Online Manuscript Submission

The Journal of Current Ophthalmology accepts online submission of manuscripts through Elsevier Editorial System. When a manuscript is submitted online, authors, selected reviewers, editors, and the Journal of Current Ophthalmology office can track the progression of the manuscript until a final disposition is made.

Elsevier Editorial System. can be accessed at EVISE.

Submit your article

Please submit your article via EVISE.

Peer review: manuscript review and selection

Full-Length Articles, Editorials, short reports and review articles are peer-reviewed. Only finely polished, publication ready manuscripts should be submitted to the Journal of Current Ophthalmology or risk possible rejection prior to peer review. After an initial review of the manuscript, the Editor-in-Chief determines whether the manuscript is in scope of the Journal of Current Ophthalmology and selects a section editor from the Editorial Board who is an expert in the field and who will be responsible for guiding the manuscript through the review process. The Executive Editor then selects several outside reviewers to ensure that at least two reviews are completed. The Journal of Current Ophthalmology follows a double-blind review process and does not reveal the identity of its reviewers and authors. Once these reviews are completed, the Executive Editor critiques and synthesizes the comments of the reviewers, and provides additional Executive Editor's comments to the Editor-in-Chief. The Editor-in-Chief reviews the manuscript together with all comments and makes the publication decision, which is then e-mailed to the Corresponding Author, along with consolidated comments of the reviewers of the manuscript.

General manuscript preparation guidelines

COVER LETTER

Manuscripts may be accompanied by a cover letter that includes information on prior or duplicate publication or submission, as well as the originality of the manuscript and any other information that the authors want to convey to the Editor-in-Chief. The authors may indicate whether the manuscript was previously rejected or evaluated in any form by another journal, and they should describe specifically how they have improved the manuscript.

Manuscripts (including title page, abstract, text, references, figure captions, and tables) should be double-spaced. One-inch (2.5 cm ) margins should be used on all sides. The right margin should be ragged, not justified.

STATISTICS

The Journal of Current Ophthalmology requests authors to ensure statistical expertise for a study that has statistical content. Statistical methods must be identified in the manuscript whenever they are used. Software programs used for statistical analyses should be identified so reviewers or readers may verify calculations. When P values are used, the actual P value (for example, P = .032) is preferred to an inequality (for example, P < .05). Reporting basic summary statistics, such as the mean and the standard error, as well as confidence limits, also helps the reader understand the conclusions of the study. Models such as analysis of variance, covariance, multiple regressions, and the like must be specified. A sample size calculation and power analysis should be included when appropriate. Authors should state the levels for alpha and beta errors and the clinically significant difference that was used to determine the power calculation. Numeric equivalents should precede all percentages, as in the following examples: "Of 80 patients, 20 (25%) had retinopathy " or "20 (25%) of 80 patients had retinopathy."

Use of word processing software It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier: http://www.elsevier.com/guidepublication). See also the section on Electronic artwork.

To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.

Article structure

Title page

Title page should be submitted separately and all authors information and identifiers including the name of the institution should be removed from main text file. The manuscript's title should be as brief as possible and no longer than 135 characters and spaces. The title page must include:

1. The title of the article (informative and concise; avoid questions, declarative sentences, and abbreviations).

2. The full name of each author and complete address of institutional affiliations.

3. The name, address, phone number, fax number and e-mail address of the Corresponding Author.

4. Once a manuscript has been submitted, the order and number of authors should not change.

5. The Corresponding Author will be responsible for all questions about the manuscript and for reprint requests. Only one author can be designated as Corresponding Author; the Corresponding Author need not be the first author on the manuscript. Select a Corresponding Author who will be located at the same address for an extended period in order to respond to post-publication correspondence. Corresponding authors that do not reply in an expeditious manner to all correspondence from Journal of Current Ophthalmology both before and after acceptance may be restricted from further submissions to the Journal of Current Ophthalmology.

6. Conflict of interest should be declared.

7. Running title.

8. No duplicate or repetitive submission.

Number the pages of the manuscript consecutively, beginning with the Abstract page as page 1. Please use a spell-checker in addition to careful editing of the manuscript before submission. Authors should not add line numbering as this is automatically added by Elsevier Editorial System. Organize and prepare the manuscript to include the following sections:

Introduction: Describe the purpose of the study, the research rationale, and any major hypothesis that was tested. The Introduction should present the hypothesis and limit references to only the most pertinent previous publications.

Methods: The first paragraph of the Methods section should describe all the specifics of the study design (see glossary of study designs below) and information about human informed consent or animal care. Indicate precisely what the IRB approved. Name of IRB that approved the research or provide a statement and rationale as to why the named IRB waived approval. Indicate proper informed consent for the treatment and/ or participation in the research, and confirm compliance with HIPAA, Clinical Trials registration (number and location of the registration), Investigational New Drug (IND) or Investigational Device Exemption (IDE) (provide number), and Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee guidelines. If the IRB waived the need for approval of this research or study, then indicate adherence to the Declaration of Helsinki and all federal or state laws in your country. Authors cannot make the decision as to whether IRB approval is needed; your IRB should make that decision and provide a waiver if they feel it does not require IRB approval. Methods section should also include setting (multicenter, institutional, or clinical practice); patients and study population (including patient numbers, selection procedures, inclusion/exclusion criteria, randomization, and masking); intervention or observation procedure; and main outcome measure(s). Previously published procedures should be identified by reference only unless they are uncommon to Journal of Current Ophthalmology readers. Provide sufficient detail to enable others to duplicate the research. Use standard chemical or nonproprietary pharmaceutical nomenclature. Identify in parentheses specific sources by brand name, company, city, state, and/or country.

Describe outcomes and measurements in an objective sequence with a minimum of discussion. Tables and figures should be cited in text in sequence. Data should be accompanied by confidence intervals (usually at the 95% interval) and exact P values or other indications of statistical significance.

Discussion: Elucidate (but do not reiterate) the results, identify any statistically or clinically significant limitations or qualifications of the study, provide responses to other and contradictory literature, and state the conclusions that are directly supported by the data. Excessive generalization and undue speculation should be avoided. Give equal emphasis to positive and negative findings, state whether and what additional study is required, and conclude with the clinical applications or implications supported by the study. The conclusions should be incorporated into the end of the discussion.

Authors should avoid statements of economic benefits and costs unless their manuscript includes economic data and analyses. Avoid claiming priority (first publication) of the content unless you provide the literature search protocol used. Do not allude to work that has not been completed.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS:

Acknowledgments such as Statisticians, Medical Writers, Expert contributions may be added. Because readers may infer endorsement of the data and conclusions, all persons must have given permission to be acknowledged and this must be confirmed in the cover letter.

APPENDIX

Appendixes should be used sparingly, but they are appropriate to provide survey forms, list the members of a study group, or complex formulas and information. Please note that Supplemental Material for the Journal of Current Ophthalmology website may be provided for Full-Length Articles at the time of acceptance.

Abstract

Provide a structured abstract of 300 words or less with the following four headings for all full-length articles, review articles and short reports:

Purpose: State the principal question or objective of the study and the major hypothesis tested, if any.

Methods: Identify the study design, Setting, Patient or Study Population, Intervention or Observation Procedure(s), and main Outcome Measure(s).

Results: Describe the outcome and measurements, when applicable. Results should be accompanied by data with confidence intervals and the exact level of statistical significance. Results should also identify any significant limitations or qualifications of the data.

Conclusions: State the conclusions directly supported by the data and describe the clinical applications. Avoid over-generalizations. Give equal emphasis to positive and negative findings, and note specific additional study required.

Abbreviations

Restrict abbreviations to those that are widely used and understood by all ophthalmologists. Avoid abbreviations that have meaning only within the context of the specific manuscript. Introduce each abbreviation in parentheses after the first use of the full term in the abstract, in the text, in the figures captions, and in the tables. Système International units and abbreviations of standard measurements, such as mm Hg, cm, and mL, are used without initial expansion. Avoid abbreviations in any titles, headings, or subheadings.

Units

Follow internationally accepted rules and conventions: use the international system of units (SI). If other units are mentioned, please give their equivalent in SI.

Math formulae

Please submit math equations as editable text and not as images. Present simple formulae in line with normal text where possible and use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line for small fractional terms, e.g., X/Y. In principle, variables are to be presented in italics. Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp. Number consecutively any equations that have to be displayed separately from the text (if referred to explicitly in the text).

Artwork

Digital figures

Digital figures must be uploaded individually into the Elsevier Editorial System according to publication-ready requirements. Figures cannot be embedded in the manuscript text file. Photographic figures should not be in Word, nor are PDFs, Excel files, or PowerPoint slides permitted for any figure due to their low native resolution.

a) Journal of Current Ophthalmology Requirements for Publication Quality Digital Figures: Digital figures should be of high quality and in one of the following file formats only: TIFF (with LZW compression), JPEG (with "maximum quality" setting), or EPS. Line art and graphs only may be submitted in Word, if they were created in Microsoft Word or Excel. Figures must be at least 3.5 inches wide, at least 300 dpi resolution, and a minimum of 1050 pixels wide. NIH guidelines for online figures suggest a minimum of 1500 pixels wide. Individual figure files should not be larger than 12 MB.

Text on figures should be avoided unless absolutely necessary. Multi-part figures should be named according to location, ie, Top Right, Center, etc., rather than by letter. Any text, arrows, and other symbols should be large enough to remain legible after reduction. All symbols or abbreviations that appear on the figures should be defined in the caption. Arial font at an appropriate size should be used for any text on a figure. PLEASE NOTE: Manuscripts cannot be reviewed until publication-quality figures have been submitted.

b) Other General Figure Guidelines

Figures should be cropped to show only significant details. When a patient is identifiable in a photograph, the author(s) must supply the Journal of Current Ophthalmology with evidence of the patient's permission to publish the photograph. (The permission must be submitted to the Journal of Current Ophthalmology as a scanned document through Elsevier Editorial System.) The Editor-in-Chief reserves the right to withdraw a previously accepted manuscript if the author cannot produce high-quality figures in a timely manner to accompany the text.

Color Artwork

The authors should use color figures only when necessary. If a manuscript has been submitted and reviewed with color photos, it will be published in color unless the Editor-in-Chief elects otherwise after communication with the Corresponding Author. All color figures and art works will be published free of charge.

Illustration services

Elsevier's WebShop (http://webshop.elsevier.com/illustrationservices) offers Illustration Services to authors preparing to submit a manuscript but concerned about the quality of the images accompanying their article. Elsevier's expert illustrators can produce scientific, technical and medical-style images, as well as a full range of charts, tables and graphs. Image 'polishing' is also available, where our illustrators take your image(s) and improve them to a professional standard. Please visit the website to find out more.

Figure captions

All captions should be listed together on a Caption page after the references. Each caption should be numbered consecutively in the text, have a brief title, and contain a complete description of each figure. The brief title should generally name the disease process or study patients that are in the manuscript. The title and caption should contain enough information so that the figure can be understood independently of the manuscript text and as a "stand alone. Use complete sentences for the captions except in the title, and avoid abbreviations. Single figures should not be numbered.

When multiple-panel figures are submitted, refer to each panel from Top left to Top right, then Bottom left to Bottom right. Do not use lettering (eg, A, B, C, etc) on the figures.

Tables

Tables take up substantial space in the print journal and should be limited in number. The information in the text and tables should not be duplicative.

Tables should be numbered consecutively in Arabic numerals by order of citation in the text. Each table should have a brief title so that the reader can understand what is being displayed in the table without reference to the text. The table number and table title should be on the same line at the top of the table. Avoid abbreviations in any titles. All abbreviations within the table and comments about the table should be included in a footnote to the table. All tables should be created in a Microsoft Word document using the table tools. Do not format tables as columns or tabs. Do not use picture tools to create tables. Use additional pages when a table does not fit onto one page. Footnotes to tables are indicated by superscripted letters a, b, c, etc.

References should be numbered consecutively in the text and in the reference list. In the text, reference numbers are entered as superscripts. If you use an automated reference numbering software (eg, Endnote or Reference Manager) the linkage must be turned off. The references must be verified by the author(s) against the original documents. PubMed offers a useful reference checker at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query/static/citmatch.html.

References to journal articles should follow the current AMA format and include:

1) Authors' surnames and initials (list 6; for more than 6authors, list the first 3 followed by "et al.")

2) Title of Article

3) Italicized Journal name (as abbreviated in PubMed)

4) Year

5) Volume number

6) Issue number

7) Inclusive page numbers

References to books should include:

1) The author or authors

2) Chapter title (if any)

3) Editor or editors (if any)

4) Book title

5) Edition (other than the first)

6) City of publication

7) Publisher

8) Copyright year

9) Inclusive pages of the chapter or section cited

Examples are as follows:

Journal article: Robinson MR, Reed G, Csaky KG, et al. Immune-recovery uveitis in patients with cytomegalovirus retinitis taking highly active antiretroviral therapy. Am J Ophthalmol 2000;130(1):49-56.

Book: Rootman J, Stewart B, Goldberg RA. Orbital surgery: a conceptual approach. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven, 1994:1-394.

Book chapter: Macsai MS, Mannis MJ, Huntley AC. Acne rosacea. In: Mannis MJ, Macsai MS, Huntley AC, editors. Eye and skin disease. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven, 1996:335-341.

A reference for an article accepted but not yet in print or online, indicate as "forthcoming": van der Hoek L, Pyrc K, Jebbink MF, et al. Identification of a new human coronavirus. Nat Med. (In press).

A reference for article accepted and published online but not yet in print, provide the e Pub specification: van der Hoek L, Pyrc K, Jebbink MF, et al. Identification of a new human coronavirus. Nat Med. 2012 February 25. [PubMed ahead of print]

Unpublished data, such as studies in preparation or submitted for publication, posters, and unpublished abstracts the reader cannot retrieve in a literature search, are to be incorporated parenthetically in the text. The Corresponding Author is to provide authorization for use of this personal communication.

Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO) and other abstract references are discouraged. If used, ARVO abstract citations should appear parenthetically within the text, not as bibliographic references, in the exact format recommended by ARVO. Citations should include: (1) name of first author, (2) "IOVS", (3) year, (4) volume number, (5) "ARVO E-Abstract", and (6) program number. Eg., (Roska BM, et al. IOVS 2002;43:ARVO E-Abstract 1415).

Personal communications should be cited parenthetically in the text, as in this example: (Evans DW, written communication, September 1, 1997). The Corresponding Author should provide authorization for use of this personal communication.

Internet references should be limited to important Full-Length articles that are not available in print or have been updated on the Internet since initial print publication. If a print reference is available, it should be used. The online reference should be listed with complete information including title and authors with the addition of the URL address and accession date. The URL address and availability must be confirmed again with any revision submission. Because Internet articles frequently are not available at a future date, the authors must make a print copy of the material they are referencing from the Internet, hold it indefinitely, and provide it to the Journal of Current Ophthalmology at any time in the future.

Example: International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals. Available at http://www.icmje.org . Accessed November 12, 2006.

Reference management software

Most Elsevier journals have a standard template available in key reference management packages. This covers packages using the Citation Style Language, such as Mendeley (http://www.mendeley.com/features/reference-manager) and also others like EndNote (http://www.endnote.com/support/enstyles.asp) and Reference Manager (http://refman.com/support/rmstyles.asp). Using plug-ins to word processing packages which are available from the above sites, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article and the list of references and citations to these will be formatted according to the journal style as described in this Guide. The process of including templates in these packages is constantly ongoing. If the journal you are looking for does not have a template available yet, please see the list of sample references and citations provided in this Guide to help you format these according to the journal style.

Journal abbreviations source

Journal names should be abbreviated according to the List of Title Word Abbreviations: http://www.issn.org/services/online-services/access-to-the-ltwa/.

Reference style

Text: Indicate references by (consecutive) superscript Arabic numerals in the order in which they appear in the text. The numerals are to be used outside periods and commas, inside colons and semicolons. For further detail and examples you are referred to the AMA Manual of Style, A Guide for Authors and Editors, Tenth Edition, ISBN 0-978-0-19-517633-9 (see http://www.amanualofstyle.com).

List: Number the references in the list in the order in which they appear in the text.

Reference to a journal publication:

1. Van der Geer J, Hanraads JAJ, Lupton RA. The art of writing a scientific article. J Sci Commun. 2010;163:51-59.

Reference to a book:

2. Strunk W Jr, White EB. The Elements of Style. 4th ed. New York, NY: Longman; 2000.

Reference to a chapter in an edited book:

3. Mettam GR, Adams LB. How to prepare an electronic version of your article. In: Jones BS, Smith RZ, eds. Introduction to the Electronic Age. New York, NY: E-Publishing Inc; 2009:281-304.

Video data

Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the files in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 150 MB. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: http://www.sciencedirect.com. Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages at http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions. Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.

Accepted manuscript/supplemental material

With revision or acceptance of the manuscript, the Corresponding Author may submit Supplemental Material for consideration for posting on the Internet. For Supplemental Material, the text must be in Microsoft Word format, and the digital audio/visual must adhere to the requirements for figures listed above.

Use of the Digital Object Identifier

The Digital Object Identifier (DOI) may be used to cite and link to electronic documents. The DOI consists of a unique alpha-numeric character string which is assigned to a document by the publisher upon the initial electronic publication. The assigned DOI never changes. Therefore, it is an ideal medium for citing a document, particularly 'Articles in press' because they have not yet received their full bibliographic information. Example of a correctly given DOI (in URL format; here an article in the journal Physics Letters B): http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physletb.2010.09.059 When you use a DOI to create links to documents on the web, the DOIs are guaranteed never to change.

Proofs

One set of page proofs (as PDF files) will be sent by e-mail to the corresponding author or a link will be provided in the e-mail so that authors can download the files themselves. Elsevier now provides authors with PDF proofs which can be annotated; for this you will need to download Adobe Reader version 7 (or higher) available free from http://get.adobe.com/reader. Instructions on how to annotate PDF files will accompany the proofs (also given online). The exact system requirements are given at the Adobe site: http://www.adobe.com/products/reader/tech-specs.html. If you do not wish to use the PDF annotations function, you may list the corrections (including replies to the Query Form) and return them to Elsevier in an e-mail. Please list your corrections quoting line number. If, for any reason, this is not possible, then mark the corrections and any other comments (including replies to the Query Form) on a printout of your proof and return by fax, or scan the pages and e-mail. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately - please let us have all your corrections within 48 hours. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication: please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility. Note that Elsevier may proceed with the publication of your article if no response is received or may reject your article.

Publication process

The Editor-in-Chief accepts the manuscript with the understanding that the authors cooperate in a timely manner with the production process, including any response to future correspondence from the Journal of Current Ophthalmology or its readers. The authors are required to provide an edited print-ready version of the manuscript at the final revision stage (or earlier). The Publisher employs copy editors that format the manuscript to Journal of Current Ophthalmology style but do not perform extensive editorial copyediting.

The article will then be processed into page proofs, with all art and tables in place. The Production Editor will send the Corresponding Author a galley proof by e-mail or mail, which should be corrected and returned within 48 hours. Authors must check their proofs very carefully, because approval indicates that all copyediting changes have been accepted unless corrections are returned to the Production Editor. A second proof will not be provided. Authors must also answer any copyediting queries within the proof. Good quality illustrations using the above guidelines must be made available to the printer; the Editor-in-Chief reserves the right to withdraw acceptance at any time if the images do not meet expectations, the authors do not provide them in a timely fashion, or other aspects of the publication process are not diligently followed to the satisfaction of the Editor-in-Chief.

The authors may participate in scientific programs and presentations providing the highlights of the manuscript but should be aware that the manuscript acceptance will be withdrawn if it is published in substantive content elsewhere in print or electronically prior to the Journal of Current Ophthalmology publication, per the Policy on Duplicate Publication.

Journal of Current Ophthalmology policies

CORRECTIONS AND RETRACTIONS Errors may be noted in published articles that require the publication of a correction or an erratum. Most corrections are minor. Some errors, however, may negate the value of the initial manuscript. These do not include inadequacies exposed by the emergence of new scientific information, in which case no corrections or withdrawals are needed.

If substantial doubts arise about the honesty of a work, either submitted or published, it is the Editor-in-Chief's responsibility to ensure that the possible fraud is addressed. It is not usually the task of the Editor-in-Chief to conduct a full investigation or to make a determination; that responsibility lies with the institution where the work was done or with the funding agency. The Editor-in-Chief should be promptly informed of the final decision of the institution involved, and if a fraudulent article has been published, the Journal of Current Ophthalmology will print a retraction. If the study was not under the aegis of an IRB or if this method of investigation does not result in a satisfactory conclusion, the Editor-in-Chief may choose to publish an expression of concern with an explanation or a full retraction, following an attempt for clarification from the authors.

The Editor-in-Chief may ask the authors' institution to assure the Journal of Current Ophthalmology of the validity of earlier work published in the Journal of Current Ophthalmology or to retract it.

Offprints

The corresponding author will be notified and receive a link to the published version of the open access article on ScienceDirect. This link is in the form of an article DOI link which can be shared via email and social networks. For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's Webshop. Authors requiring printed copies of multiple articles may use Elsevier Webshop's 'Create Your Own Book' service to collate multiple articles within a single cover.

Confidentiality

The Editorial Board and reviewers should respect authors' confidentiality because authors have entrusted the Journal of Current Ophthalmology with the results of their scientific work and creative effort. Authors' rights may be violated by disclosure of the confidential details of the review of their manuscript.

Reviewers also have rights to confidentiality, which must be respected. Editors should not disclose information about manuscripts (including their receipt, their content, their status in the reviewing process, their criticism by reviewers, or their ultimate fate) to anyone other than the authors themselves and reviewers.



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