Guide for Authors

General information
The Journal of Chiropractic Humanities (JCH) is an international, interdisciplinary, and peer-reviewed journal dedicated to fostering scholarly debate and interaction within the chiropractic profession regarding the humanities, which includes: history, philosophy, linguistics, literature, jurisprudence, ethics, theory, sociology, and various aspects of social sciences that address historical or philosophical approaches. The journal's objective is to fulfill this purpose through careful editorial review and publication of expert work, by creating legitimate dialogue in a field where a diversity of opinion exists, and by providing a professional forum for interaction of these views.

Submissions must be original work, not previously published, and not currently under consideration for publication in another medium, including both paper and electronic formats. The JCH does not publish articles containing material that has been reported at length elsewhere. The journal uses AMA style and follows the standards as set forth in the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts (, the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) (, World Association of Medical Editors (, and Enhancing the QUAlity and Transparency Of health Research (EQUATOR) ( The JCH is owned by the National University of Health Sciences and published by Elsevier (ISSN: 1556-3499). The journal publishes papers in press and is published in a print volume 1 time per year. Manuscripts should be submitted online.


JCH Title Page Form
JCH Copyright Form
ICMJE Conflict of Interest Form
Figure and Information Permissions Form
Consent for Acknowledgment Form


All authors of papers submitted to JCH must have an intellectual stake in the material presented for publication and must be able to answer for the content of the entire work. Authors must be able to certify participation in the work, vouch for its validity, acknowledge reviewing and approving the final version of the paper, acknowledge that the work has not been previously published elsewhere, and be able to produce raw data if requested by the editor. All authors are required to complete and submit an authorship copyright form.

As stated in the Uniform Requirements (, credit for authorship requires all 4 of the following:

  1. "Substantial contributions to: the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work; AND
  2. Drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content; AND
  3. Final approval of the version to be published; AND
  4. Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved."

Authors should meet conditions 1, 2, 3 and 4. Each author must sign a statement attesting that he or she fulfills the authorship criteria of the Uniform Requirements, which is included on the copyright assignment form. Any change in authorship (ie, adding, subtracting or change in authorship order) after initial submission must be: submitted with a signed letter by all authors with an explanation for the change, an updated title page form, and submitted to the editor prior to being considered. No changes to authorship are allowed after the paper has been accepted for publication.

For each author, how the author contributed to the manuscript shall be included in the title page form. Categories include: concept development (provided idea for the research), design (planned the methods to generate the results), supervision (provided oversight, responsible for organization and implementation, writing of the manuscript), data collection/processing (responsible for experiments, patient management, organization, or reporting data), analysis/interpretation (responsible for statistical analysis, evaluation, and presentation of the results), literature search (performed the literature search), writing (responsible for writing a substantive part of the manuscript), critical review (revised manuscript for intellectual content, this does not relate to spelling and grammar checking), and other (list other specific novel contributions).

Human subjects and animal studies
Studies with human subjects or animals must go through approval from the appropriate ethics review board/committee, animal board, or institutional review board in advance. The JCH endorses the ICMJE guidelines and the Declaration of Helsinki. All related conditions regarding the experimental use of human subjects and their informed consent apply. Studies using animals should follow the Animal Research: Reporting In Vivo Experiments (ARRIVE) guidelines. Information about review board approval should be included in the Methods section of the paper. Manuscripts that report the results of experimental investigations with human subjects must include a statement that informed consent was obtained (in writing, from the subject or legal guardian) after the procedure(s) had been fully explained. Evidence of board approval (eg, approval letter from the IRB/REB/Ethics Board Chair) should be submitted at the initial time of submission.

Clinical trial registration
Clinical trials must be included in a clinical trial registry as outlined by the ICMJE. The clinical trial registration number should be included in the methods section of the manuscript. Clinical trials should be registered in a public trials registry at or before the onset of patient enrollment as a condition of consideration for publication. This policy applies to clinical trials starting enrollment after July 1, 2005. For trials that began enrollment before this date, registration should be completed by September 13, 2005, before considering the trial for publication. The ICMJE ( defines a clinical trial as a study that prospectively assigns human subjects to intervention or comparison groups to evaluate the cause-and-effect relationship between an intervention and a health outcome. Trial registration numbers and the URLs for the registry should be included in the title page form at the time of submission.

Patient anonymity

It is the authors' responsibility to maintain appropriate records as well as protect subjects' and patients' identities. Ethical and legal considerations require careful attention to the protection of a subject's or patient's anonymity in case reports and other publications. Identifying information such as names, initials, actual case numbers, and specific dates must be avoided; identifying information about a patient's personal history and characteristics should be disguised. Anonymity should be maintained for case reports regardless of the patient providing permission to publish. Photographs or artistic likenesses of subjects, patients, or models are publishable only with their written consent or the consent of legal guardian; the signed consent form, giving any special conditions, must accompany manuscript.

HIPAA compliance

For more information about HIPAA as it relates to obtaining patient consent for publication, please refer to or your country's legal guidelines.

Conflict of interest

Authors - Each author is required to complete an ICMJE conflict of interest form and submit this form at the time of initial submission to the JCH. Conflict of interest exists when an author has financial or other interests that may influence his or her actions in regard to the authors' work, manuscript development, or decisions. In addition to the form, any concerns or additional conflict of interest issues may be included in the cover letter to the editor. Authors must also disclose to the editor in the cover letter the conflicts of interest of any other person or entity involved with the paper (eg, non-author, contributor, funding body). As it may be difficult to judge material from authors where conflicts of interests are concerned, authors should be ready to answer requests from the editor regarding potential conflicts of interest. The editor makes the final determination concerning the extent of information included in the published paper. It is expected that authors are truthful when declaring conflicts on their submission materials. An editor's role is not to be policeman, so the burden is upon the author to properly declare COI. If an author did not accurately and completely declare their interests upon submission, and it is discovered later, the editor will follow up with an ethics investigation. The results may include rejection or retraction of the paper, prevention of future submissions, and notification of ethical misconduct to the proper authorities.

Editorial Staff and Peer Reviewers - It is expected that individuals involved with handling manuscripts for the journal will properly disclose their financial and professional interests that may be viewed as potential conflicts of interest and recuse themselves from any actions in which their conflicts of interest will hamper their judgment or actions. Peer reviewers should inform the editor if they feel they are not able to properly review a manuscript and recuse themselves from reviewing that manuscript. Editorial staff should disclose information that might influence decisions in journal editing. Please refer to ICMJE website for more information on COI.

Funding sources

Sources of financial support of the study, such as grants, funding sources, donation of equipment and supplies, should be clearly stated in the title page form. The role of any funding organizations in the conduct of the study should be described. If the study is funded directly by an NIH grant or other national funding, it is the corresponding author's responsibility to inform the editor at the time of submission.

Copyright of journal contents

Materials published in the JCH are covered by copyright. No content published by the JCH (either in print or electronic) may be stored or presented in other locations such as on another private website, an organization's site, or displayed or reproduced by any other means, without the express permission of the copyright holder.

Redundant or duplicate publication

Manuscripts must be submitted to only one journal at a time and published in only one journal. The JCH does not publish articles containing material that has been reported at length elsewhere. The corresponding author must include in the cover letter a statement to the editor about all submissions and previous materials that might be considered to be redundant or duplicate publication of similar work, including if the manuscript includes materials on which the authors have published a previous report or have submitted similar or related work to another publication. Copies of the related material may be requested by the editor in order to assist with the editorial decision of the paper.

If redundant or duplicate publication is attempted or occurs without proper disclosure to the editor, editorial action will be taken according to COPE guidelines. The results may include rejection or retraction of the paper, prevention of future submissions, and notification of ethical misconduct to the proper authorities. If it is confirmed that a paper is a duplicate or redundant publication and is discovered in the prepublication phase, the paper will be rejected, even if an accept notice has been distributed previously to the authors. If duplicate or redundant publication is confirmed after publication, the paper will be retracted and the appropriate boards/institutions notified.

Non-compliance with author instructions

Authors who do not comply with the items set forth in these instructions may have the submission returned, rejected, or brought to higher authorities, such as ethics, licensing, or institutional boards for further review at the editor's discretion.


Pre-peer review, and internal review by editors

To ensure that only relevant and appropriate papers are sent to review, submitted manuscripts are pre-reviewed for relevance, appropriate submission format, and basic quality before sending out to peer review. Reasons for early rejection may include: the submission does not meet the requirements as stated in the instructions for authors, the work is of poor quality, and/or the topic is not relevant to the mission of journal. The editorial staff reads each manuscript and then decides whether to send the paper to outside reviewers. If a submission is rejected without external review, the author will typically be notified electronically within 2 to 3 weeks of receipt. Over 80% of submitted papers are sent to external peer review, which is usually made up of 3 reviewers, but may be more.

Review process

The JCH uses double-blind peer review methods (author and reviewer are blinded). The journal staff will do their best to support blinded review methods, however due to the special nature of the topics published, we cannot guarantee that reviewers or authors will not be able to guess the identity of each other. All manuscripts are subject to blind critical review by experts in a related field to assist the editor in determining appropriateness to JCH objectives, originality, validity, importance of content, substantiation of conclusions, and possible need for improvement. Manuscripts are considered privileged communications and should not be retained or duplicated during or after the review process. Reviewers' comments may be returned with the manuscript if rejected or if strong recommendations for improvement are made.

Rapid review

Rapid review speeds up the process of peer review and publication. Priority is given to large clinical trials and meta-analysis. Only manuscripts that are of very high quality with findings likely to directly influence clinical practice immediately will be considered for rapid review. Authors who feel that their research warrants rapid review should email the editor and submit justification regarding the merits of the paper to substantiate its inclusion for rapid review. The editor will make the final decision regarding the suitability of a submission for rapid review and publication. If a paper is not deemed appropriate by the editor for rapid review, the manuscript may still be submitted through the regular submission process and timeline. If a manuscript is accepted for rapid review, it will then be handled through an expedited peer review process for decision. All papers that are selected for rapid review will be processed through peer review. The expedited review process will take approximately 15 business days. The results may include acceptance, major revision, minor revision, or rejection. Inclusion in the rapid review process guarantees neither acceptance of the paper nor promise of rapid publication if accepted. Each decision and paper review will be done separately. Authors will be notified about revision no later than 5 weeks after the manuscript is initially received. If revision is requested, authors of a rapid review submission should return a revised manuscript within 2 weeks of notification. At this time, a decision will be made for acceptance or rejection. If the manuscript is accepted, it will be scheduled immediately for in press publication.

Criteria for editorial decisions

The JCH can publish only a portion of all papers submitted each year. Papers are selected based on quality and strength of the paper in regard to scientific merit and the potential impact on improving patient care.

Revisions, rejections, and resubmissions

Processing of a manuscript for peer review does not imply acceptance to publish, even though the paper may be found to be within JCH editorial objectives. Submissions may receive one of the following responses from the editor: incomplete or not ready for submission, major revision, minor revision, accept, accept pending additional changes or requests, or reject. Aside from rejection for uncorrectable faults, a well-compiled manuscript may also be rejected because it adds little new information to work that was previously published in the literature or addresses a new topic that deserves more in-depth reporting. In these cases, the editor may provide the author of a rejected manuscript recommendations that may be helpful for submission elsewhere.

If the authors have been given the opportunity by the editor to make specific changes to a manuscript and return it for further consideration, this is considered a "revision." The manuscript will have the same manuscript number and may be sent out to the same or different reviewers, depending on the needs of the revision. A request for revision does not imply that the manuscript will be accepted. Manuscripts that are revised and returned may still be rejected.

If the authors have received a rejection decision but wish the editor to reconsider the decision, this is considered a "resubmission." A new file will be created, and the paper will receive a new manuscript number. The cover letter must explain that the paper is being resubmitted and provide explanations for why the paper should be allowed to be resubmitted.

Acceptance for publication

Once a manuscript has been accepted, the authors should not distribute content relating to the article while it is being prepared for publication. It is permissible at this time to refer to this manuscript as "accepted for publication" in a forthcoming issue of JCH; however, it is requested that no further details of the paper, or the research on which it may have been based, be given out in consideration that abridged or inexact versions of research or scholarly work can be misleading, or even hazardous where clinical procedures are involved. Authors may use the EVISE website to track accepted articles and set up e-mail alerts to inform you of when an article's status has changed. Answers to questions arising after acceptance of an article, especially those relating to proofs, are provided after registration of an article for publication. Accepted papers will be edited for clarity, journal style, and accuracy of information. The intention is to provide the highest quality version of the paper for final publication. Authors will have the opportunity to review the manuscript before final publication during the proof stage to make sure all corrections are accurate. The editor reserves the right to accept or deny any correction requests from authors prior to final publication.


All manuscripts accepted for publication are subject to postacceptance editing; revision may be necessary to ensure clarity, completeness, conciseness, correct usage, and conformance to approved style. Almost all papers that are accepted require some editorial revision before publication. Authors will have the opportunity to review corrections/revisions made during the copy editing process during the reviewing of the proofs. Editors will work with authors to arrive at agreement when authors do not find the revisions acceptable, but the JCH reserves the right to refrain from publishing a manuscript if discussion with the author fails to reach a solution that satisfies the editors. The journal reserves the right to deny requested changes that do not affect accuracy. Authors may be charged for changes to the proofs beyond those required to correct errors or to answer queries. Authors must carefully check and correct the proofs and reply within 24 to 48 hours of receipt and follow all instructions in the proof email.

Publication scheduling of accepted papers and proofs

Authors will be sent proofs by email. Authors who cannot examine email proofs by the deadline (48 hours of receipt) should email the editor to designate a colleague who will review proofs. All requests for changes within the proofs are reviewed and either approved or denied by the editor. Authors should email promptly for additional information requests from the journal personnel. Once proof changes have been submitted and approved by the editor, no further changes will be considered.

JCH e-papers

The JCH offers electronic only paper publication in the journal. Electronic papers have their abstract published in the print version of the journal, while the full-text version of the paper is included on the JCH web site ( While the editor will attempt to honor requests to publish or not publish a paper as an E-paper, the editor reserves the right to make a final decision as to whether a given paper will be published as an E-paper. It is important to note that electronic publication includes all the same rights and privileges as print publication, including inclusion in indexing agency databases.

Funding sources and NIH funded studies

Statements about funding sources and conflicts of interests should be included in the title page form. If there were no funding sources or identified conflicts of interest to declare, then this should be clearly stated. The JCH is compliant with the open access NIH publication policy and will deposit the final version of the accepted manuscript to PubMedCentral (PMC) within 12 months of final publication. It is the corresponding author's responsibility to inform the editor in both the cover letter and the copyright form that the study was directly funded by an NIH grant.

Reprints and copies

Authors of papers published in the JCH are encouraged to make reprints available to interested members of the scientific, academic, and clinical communities so that the inherent knowledge may be more widely disseminated; a reprint order form will be provided with the proofs to facilitate ordering quantity reprints. One complimentary copy of the JCH issue in which an author's work appears will be provided at no charge to the corresponding author. Additional copies, if desired, must be ordered at regular cost directly from the publisher. Authors are responsible for payment of reprints or additional copies.


The entire content of the JCH is protected by copyright, and no part may be reproduced (outside of the fair use stipulation of Public Law 94-553) by any means without prior permission from the editor or publisher in writing. In particular, this policy applies to the reprinting of an original article in print or in electronic format, in another publication and the use of any illustrations or text to create a new work.

Open Access

This journal offers authors a choice in publishing their research:

Open access

  • Articles are freely available to both subscribers and the wider public with permitted reuse.
  • An open access publication fee is payable by authors or on their behalf, eg, by their research funder or institution.


  • Articles are made available to subscribers as well as developing countries and patient groups through our universal access program.
  • No open access publication fee payable by authors.

Regardless of how you choose to publish your article, the journal will apply the same peer review criteria and acceptance standards.

For open access articles, permitted third party (re)use is defined by the following Creative Commons user licenses:
Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND)
For non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.


Experimental and observational investigations

Reports of new research findings include investigations into the improvement of health factors, the causal aspects of disease, and the establishment of clinical efficacies of related diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. These types of studies may include: clinical trials, intervention studies, cohort studies, case-control studies, observational studies, cost-effectiveness analyses, epidemiologic evaluations, studies of diagnostic tests, etc. These reports should follow current and relevant guidelines (eg, CONSORT, MOOSE, QUOROM, STARD, TREND, etc.) (text word limit, approximately 4000 words, word count does not include abstract, tables, figure/table captions, or references)

Systematic reviews and meta-analyses

Assessments of current knowledge of a particular subject of interest that synthesize evidence relevant to well-defined questions about diagnosis, prognosis, or therapy with emphasis on better correlation, the demonstration of ambiguities, and the delineation of areas that may constitute hypotheses for further study. (text word limit, approximately 4000 words, word count does not include abstract, tables, figure/table captions, or references)

Clinical guidelines

Succinct and informative summaries of official or consensus positions on issues related to health care delivery, clinical practice, or public policy. (text word limit, approximately 4000 words, word count does not include abstract, tables, figure/table captions, or references)

Letters to the editor

Communications that are directed specifically to the editor that add to the information base or clarify a deficiency in a paper recently published in the JCH (must be within the last 2 months) and include relevant references to substantiate comments. No unidentified letters are accepted for publication. All letters are subject to editing and abridgement. If a letter is accepted for publication, a blinded copy will be sent to the author of the article who will have an opportunity to provide a response and new information that will be considered for publication along with the letter. Direct communication between the writer of a letter and the author of an article should be avoided, in the interest of scientific objectivity differences of opinion are best handled by a third party-the editor-who can serve as an arbitrator if there is a dispute, thus avoiding unnecessary irritation to either party. Also, if deficiencies exist in an article published in the JCH, all readers (and the scientific community in general) have a right to be informed. For more information about letters to the editor, please read this editorial. (text word limit, 500 words maximum, reference limit 8, word count does not include references)


Manuscript preparation and submission

All manuscripts must be submitted through the JCH online submission and review web site (EVISE: JCH). Authors may send queries concerning the submission process, manuscript status, or journal procedures to the Editorial Office at Once the submission files have been uploaded, the system automatically generates an electronic (PDF) proof for your review. All correspondence, including the Editor's decision and request for revisions, will be sent by e-mail to the corresponding author. Authors who are unable to provide an electronic version or have other circumstances that prevent online submission must contact the Editorial Office prior to submission to discuss alternate options. The Publisher and Editors will not be able to consider submissions that do not follow these procedures.

Materials due at initial submission

All materials associated with the manuscript are due at the time of initial submission. These include: cover letter, title page form, manuscript files, assignment of copyright forms for all authors, conflict of interest forms for all authors, and any permission forms (eg, patient consent to publish forms, permission to have name printed in acknowledgements, permission to reprint table or figure, permission to include person's picture, etc.). It is the corresponding author's responsibility to obtain these permissions and upload them to the website. In the event that the paper is rejected, the permissions and files associated with this manuscript will no longer be valid so that the authors may pursue publication elsewhere.

File requirements

Original source files, not PDF files, are required for submission. Files should be labeled with appropriate and descriptive file names (eg, SmithText.doc or Fig1.tif). It is recommended that each file uploaded during the submissions process is no larger than 2MB.

Journal Style

The JCH follows the AMA Manual of Style (10th edition). The manuscript should be written in English (American spelling). Authors who are nonnative speakers may wish to use the Elsevier service ( to provide an English translation of their manuscript for submission. Please note that this Elsevier service is not connected in any way with the journal and using this service does not influence acceptance or rejection of the manuscript.


Manuscript revisions are expected within 30 days of request for revision. The corresponding author should contact the editor if there are any questions or more time is needed. If revision has been requested, all comments, concerns, suggestions must be addressed and include whether the change is made or not. The corresponding author should upload a Word document with a list of itemized changes made in the manuscript addressing each of the revision requirements. Changes made in the manuscript (insertions or corrected information) should be highlighted within the text (either highlight or color font) to show reviewers and editor where the changes have been made.

Accepted Manuscripts

It is likely that your paper will be substantially edited after acceptance to ensure that it is accurate and understandable to readers. Once the proof is ready, the corresponding author will receive the proof from and the proof should be corrected, all queries answered, and returned within 48 hours.

Funded Studies and Access Policies

The JCH supports studies, such as those that are funded by the NIH and other national funding bodies, to comply with the public-access policy by the Journal Publishing Agreement which is sent to the corresponding author of accepted Articles. It is the author's responsibility to inform the JCH Editor of any requirements at the initial time of manuscript submission. It is the authors' responsibility once the paper has been accepted to follow up with forms related to NIH and other funding bodies. The JCH complies with Elsevier's agreements with funding bodies.


Submission checklist

The following items should be ready before submitting to the JCH website:

  • Cover letter
  • JCH Title page form
  • Blinded manuscript Word file should include:
    • structured abstract
    • body of manuscript
    • references
    • tables
  • Figures submit as separate JPEG files or if done in Excel, as an Excel file. Files should be no bigger than 2 MB.
  • Signed assignment of copyright form for each author
  • Completed conflict of interest form for each author
  • Permissions to publish, consent forms, permissions forms, for human or animal studies, evidence of ethics board approval

Cover letter

The cover letter should explain why the paper should be published in the JCH rather than elsewhere and note that the submission is original and not currently under consideration for publication in another peer-reviewed medium. The cover letter should include a statement of intent to submit to the JCH. The corresponding author should state if he/she had full access to all study data and assumes all responsibility to submit the manuscript for publication. The cover letter should also include any special information regarding the submission that may be helpful in its consideration for publication, including if the study has been presented in another form (eg, conference proceeding or other similar publication). Authors may recommend reviewers for consideration and should include name and email of the suggested reviewers. If the study was funded by an NIH grant, this information should be included in the cover letter.

Title Pate

Please fill in title page form from the JCH website. Submit title page form as a Word document.

Blinded manuscript file

Manuscript format and style

Manuscripts must be prepared in accordance with the Declaration of Vancouver "Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals" (available from the JCH Editorial Office or from The manuscript should be in double-spaced format. Do not break any words (hyphenate) at the end of any line and do not insert hard page breaks. The journal follows American Medical Association Manual of Style (10th ed. Oxford University Press, NY, 2007).

Structured abstract

The structured abstract should be no more than 250 words. The abstract should consist of 4 paragraphs, labeled: Objectives, Methods (include relevant information such as design, subjects/population, setting, statistical methods, etc), Results, and Conclusions. For commentary, please use these headings: Objective, Discussion, and Conclusion.

Manuscript organization

The text of observational and experimental articles is usually divided into sections with the headings Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, and Conclusion. Longer articles may need subheadings within some sections to clarify or break up content. Studies with randomized controlled designs should follow published guidelines (eg, CONSORT, MOOSE, QUOROM, STARD, TREND, etc.). Any questions about format should be directed to the editor.


Clearly state the purpose of the article. Summarize the rationale for the study or observation. Give only pertinent references and do not review the subject extensively; the introduction should serve only to introduce what was done and why it was done. End introduction by stating the specific purpose, research objective, or hypothesis tested by the study (typically found at the end of the introduction section).


The selection and description of participants, technical information, and statistics used should be reported in this section. Describe the selection of the observational or experimental subjects (patients or experimental animals, including controls). Papers of a specific study design should follow current and relevant guidelines (eg, CONSORT, MOOSE, QUOROM, STARD, TREND, etc.) and include appropriate materials in the text. Identify the methods, apparatus (manufacturer's name and address in parentheses) and procedures in sufficient detail to allow others to reproduce the work for comparison of results. Give references to establish methods, provide references and brief descriptions for methods that have been published but may not be well known, describe new or substantially modified methods, giving reasons for using them and evaluating their limitations.

When reporting experiments with human subjects, indicate the procedures used in accordance with the ethical standards of the Committee on Human Experimentation of the institution in which the research was conducted and/or done in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975. Clearly indicate the ethics review board or IRB that approved the study. When reporting experiments on animals, indicate whether the institution's or the National Research Council's guide for the care and use of laboratory animals was followed. Do not use patient names, initials, or hospital numbers or in any manner give information by which the individuals can be identified. The author must provide the editor documentation from the ethics board and may be requested to methods used to review the work.

If statistics are used, describe the statistical methods in sufficient detail to allow a knowledgeable reader with access to the original data to verify the results. Findings should include appropriate indicators of measurement error or uncertainty, such as confidence intervals. Examples of statistical details that should be included in the methods section are: the eligibility of experimental subjects, details about randomization, methods for blinding, complications of treatment, numbers of observations, dropouts from a clinical trial, the statistical programs used. In the results section, state the statistical methods used to analyze the results. All statistical terms, abbreviations, and symbols should be defined. Include numbers of observations and the statistical significance of the findings when appropriate. Detailed statistical analyses, mathematical derivations, and the like may sometimes be suitably presented in the form of one or more appendices.


Present your results in logical sequence within the text, tables, and figures. Do not repeat findings in multiple places (eg, do not include the same data in both text and tables). Emphasize or summarize only important observations, do not discuss findings in this section.


The discussion should emphasize the important aspects of the study and include conclusions that follow from these observations. Do not repeat data presented in the Results section and do not include information or work that is not directly relevant to the study. State new hypotheses when indicated, but clearly label them as such. Statements that are unsupported, that generalize, or that overextrapolate the findings should not be included. Conclusions that may be drawn from the study may be included in the discussion; however, they may be more appropriately presented in a separate section. The principal conclusions should be directly linked to the goals of the study. Unqualified statements and conclusions not supported by your data should not be included. Avoid claiming priority or referring to work that has not been completed or published. Recommendations (for further study, etc), when appropriate, may be included.

Limitations subsection

Place the limitation subsection at the end of the Discussion section. List and discuss the limitations of the study, possible sources of bias, and any reasonable alternate explanations for the findings and interpretation for the study.


The conclusion of a paper should provide insightful statements about the importance and relevance of the study without generalizing beyond the study's findings. It is not meant to replicate the abstract or other areas already mentioned in the paper. The conclusion should not interject author opinions, make unsupported claims, or give statements that go beyond the limits of the study findings. This section should be brief, perhaps 1 or 2 paragraphs, and provide clear answers and summarize how the research thesis or hypothesis presented in the introduction was addressed. Do not include references in the conclusion section.


Acknowledge only those who have made substantive contributions to the study itself; this includes support personnel such as statistical or manuscript review consultants, but not subjects used in the study or clerical staff. Clearly state what each contributor has provided. Authors are responsible for obtaining the written permission (to be included at time of submission) that is required from persons, institutions, or businesses being acknowledged by name as readers may infer their endorsement of the data and conclusions.


Authors are responsible for accurate reference and citation information, especially accuracy of author names, journal titles, volume numbers, and page numbers. References should be numbered consecutively when they are first used in the text. Reference citation in the text should be in superscript format and after punctuation (eg, The quick fox jumped over the dog.1). References should be listed in numeric order (not alphabetically) following the text pages. The original citation number assigned to a reference should be reused each time the reference is cited in the text, regardless of its previous position in the text: do not assign it another number. References should not be included in abstracts. References that are only used in tables or figure legends should be numbered in the sequence established by the first use of the particular table or figure in the text. Only references that provide support for a particular statement in the text, tables, and/or figures should be used. Reference or referring to unpublished work should be avoided. Excessive use of references should be avoided. Each reference should only be listed in the reference section once. Authors are responsible for verifying references against the original document and not from reading the abstract alone. Care should be taken to accurately represent the original work and not misconstrue the original meaning of the paper.

Unacceptable reference sources

Using only the abstract, referring to "unpublished observations" and "personal communications" should be avoided. Unpublished references (submitted but not accepted) should not be listed as references. Manuscripts that are accepted but not yet published may be included in the references with the designation "in press." The author should obtain written permission to cite these papers and may be requested by the editor to provide documentation to verify the paper was accepted for publication. For the most part, sources of information and reference support for a bioscientific paper should be limited to journals (rather than books) because that knowledge is generally considered more recent and (in the case of refereed journals) more accurate.

Reference Style

Reference style should be in accordance with that specified by the US National Library of Medicine. If using a reference management software (eg, Endnote), please use the NLM setting. Specific examples of correct reference form for journal articles and other publications can be found at:

The format for a reference for a typical journal article is as follows:

  1. Last name of author(s) and their initials in capitals separated by a space with a comma separating each author. (List all authors when 6 or fewer; when 7 or more, list only the first 6 and add et al.)
  2. Title of article with first word capitalized and all other words in lower case, except names of persons, places, etc.
  3. Name of journal, abbreviated according to Index Medicus; year of publication (followed by a semicolon); volume number (followed by a colon); and inclusive pages of article (with redundant number dropped, ie, 105-10).


Tables should be placed at the end of the blinded manuscript file at the time of submission. If the paper is accepted, tables will be placed appropriately in the final publication. Tables should be numbered as they appear in the text (eg, Table 1). Identify statistical measures of variation, such as standard deviation and standard error of mean. If data are used from another source, the author should acknowledge the original source in the text and include the written permission from the copyright holder to reproduce the material with the submission. Using Arabic numerals, number each table consecutively (in the order in which they were listed in the text in parentheses) and supply a brief title to appear at the top of the table above a horizontal line; place any necessary explanatory matter in footnotes at the bottom of the table below a horizontal line and identify with footnote symbols a, b, c, d. etc.

Do not submit tables as images or photographs. Avoid the use of too many tables in relation to length of the text, as this may produce difficulties in layout of the pages. Avoid the use of tables that do not fit in the "portrait" layout. Table contents and number of tables may be subject to editing. Legends for tables should be included above each table. Include expanded versions of all acronyms and symbol meanings in the legend. Identify each table with Arabic numerals in the same manner and sequence as it was indicated in the text in parentheses (eg, Table 1). Include in the manuscript text where the table should be placed. For example "call out" where the table should be located using (Table 1) in the text.


Standard spelling and terminology should be used whenever possible. Avoid creating new terms or acronyms for entities that already exist. Technical terms that are used in statistics should not be used as non-technical terms, such as "random" (which implies a randomizing device), "normal," "significant" (which implies statistical significance), and "sample."

Unit of Measurement

In most countries the International System of Units (SI) is standard, or is becoming so, and bioscientific journals in general are in the process of requiring the reporting of data in these metric units. However, insofar as this practice is not yet universal, particularly in the United States, it is permissible for the time being to report data in the units in which calculations were originally made, followed by the opposite unit equivalents in parentheses; ie, English units (SI units) or SI units (English units). Nevertheless, researchers and authors considering submission of manuscripts to the JCH should begin to adopt SI as their primary system of measurement.

Abbreviations and Symbols

Use only standard abbreviations for units of measurement, statistical terms, biological references, journal names, etc. Avoid abbreviations in titles and abstracts. The full term should precede its abbreviation for the first use in the manuscript, unless it is a standard unit of measurement. For standard abbreviations, consult the following: 1) Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals (Ann Intern Med 1997;126:36-47); 2) American Medical Association manual of style. 10th ed. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins; 2007; 3) Scientific style and format, the CBE manual for authors, editors, and publishers. 6th ed. Cambridge (UK): Cambridge University Press; 1994.


Figures include images, charts, graphs, and lists of information (eg, inclusion criteria). Figures should not be embedded in the manuscript file. Instead, they should be uploaded separately. Photographs of people or patients should not be masked and require permission from the person in the photo. Illustrations (including lettering, numbering and/or symbols) must be of professional quality and of sufficient size so that when reduced for publication all details will be clearly readable. Rough sketches with freehand or typed lettering are not acceptable. Include legends for figures after the reference section in the blinded manuscript file. Identify each figure with Arabic numerals in the same sequence as it appears in the text in parentheses (eg, Fig 1). Do not type legends in the image file. When symbols, arrows, numbers, or letters are used to identify parts of the illustrations, identify and explain each one clearly in the legend.

Include in the manuscript text where the figure should be placed. For example "call out" where the figure should be located using (Figure 1) in the text. Color versions of all figures are preferred. Hard copy will be printed in black and white and electronic version will include color at no extra cost to the author. All illustrations (including radiographs, diagnostic imaging) must be uploaded as at least 200 dpi resolution in JPEG format. The file should be 2MB or less in size. Figures should be submitted as separate JPEG files and not embedded in the manuscript or Word file. Each figure should be saved using the figure number in its file name (eg, Fig1) and uploaded as a separate file. Original data (eg, Excel file) for graphs or charts may be requested by the editor if the submitted figure is not clear or of poor quality for printing. Typically no more than eight figures are acceptable (eg, Fig 1A and Fig 1B are considered two figures). If photographs of persons are used the submission must be accompanied by signed written permission to publish the photographs. If a figure has been previously published, acknowledge the original source and submit written permission from the copyright holder to reproduce the image. Permission is required, regardless of authorship or publisher, except for documents in the public domain, in which case the source of the image should be clearly labeled. Since JCH articles appear in both the print and online versions of the journal, and wording of the letter should specify permission in all forms and media. Failure of the author to obtain electronic permission rights will result in the images not appearing in the paper or rejection. The acceptance of color illustrations is at the discretion of the editor. Costs of color printing for the hard copy publication will be incurred by the authors.

Assignment of copyright and permissions

At the time of initial submission, all manuscripts must be accompanied by a properly completed authorship form for all authors. Upon submission, authors will not disseminate of any part of the material contained in the manuscript without prior written approval from the editor. Nonobservance of this copyright stipulation may result in rejection of the submission for publication. Assignment of copyright should be uploaded to the website in order to initiate manuscript processing for peer review. Multiple authors should submit separate versions of the form (all signatures should not be on the same form). Manuscripts will not be processed until all signatures have been received.


All source(s) of support in the form of funds, grants, equipment, or other real goods should be clearly stated in the JCH title page form.

Conflict of Interest

At the time of initial submission, all manuscripts must be accompanied by a properly completed conflict of interest form for all authors. The conflict of interest form may be obtained on the JCH submission website or directly from the ICMJE:


All permissions should be submitted at the time of initial manuscript submission. It is the corresponding author's responsibility to secure all permissions and provide these to the JCH editorial office. Permissions include but are not limited to permission to reprint previously published works, to state names or institutions in the acknowledgements, to include images of models who are identifiable in figures, and to publish information from patients of case reports (when applicable), etc. Illustrations or content from other publications (print or electronic) must be submitted with written permission from the copyright holder and must be acknowledged in the manuscript as delineated by the permission granting publisher. For animal or human subject studies, evidence of board approval should be submitted to the website at the initial time of submission. Please upload a jpeg or pdf scan of the approval/exemption letter to the website. Files should be no bigger than 1MB each. Permissions letters require signatures (eg, emails are not sufficient).

Supplemental Digital Files

Supplemental digital files associated with your manuscript, such as video or data files, may be uploaded at the time of submission. For any questions regarding supplemental files, please contact the editor.

Instructions for authors updated: March 2016