The Journal of Cataract & Refractive Surgery (JCRS), a preeminent peer-reviewed monthly ophthalmology publication, is the official journal of the American Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery (ASCRS) and the European Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgeons (ESCRS).
JCRS publishes high quality articles on all aspects of anterior segment surgery. In addition to original clinical studies, the journal features a consultation section, practical techniques, important cases, and reviews as well as basic science articles.
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- General Guidelines
- Files Required for New Submissions
- Manuscript File
- Synopsis File
- Figure File(s)
- Table File(s)
- Video File
- Downloadable Forms
- Files Required for Revised Submissions
- Description of Article Types
- Clinical and Laboratory Studies
- Review/Update Articles
- Case Reports
- Letters to the Editor
- Reply to Letter
- Astigmatism Reporting
- Video/Computer Graphics
- Statistical Guidelines
Manuscripts will not be reviewed until all these items have been submitted.(back to top) General Guidelines
All manuscripts, including letters to the editor, replies to the editor, and correspondence, must be submitted online via the Elsevier Editorial System (EES) website. Go to http://ees.elsevier.com/jcrs and select "log in." You will immediately see the screen "Elsevier Editorial System Log-In." You will be asked for your username and password. If you have not yet registered, you will see a place to do so. If you are registered, type in your username and password and click on author login. You will be guided step-by-step through the creation and uploading of various files including the manuscript, synopsis, figures, and tables. Once the uploading is complete, the system will automatically generate an electronic (PDF) proof, which is used for reviewing. All correspondence regarding submitted manuscripts will be handled via email through EES.Manuscripts submitted to the journal must be original material that has not been published or accepted for publication, in whole or in part, in English or in another language, elsewhere. All papers are submitted to an international panel for peer review. Criteria for editorial review include suitability of subject matter, originality of content contribution to the field, and timeliness.
The article must be in 12-point type, double-spaced, with 1-inch margins (with all pages numbered consecutively). It should follow the general instructions for authors about content and style. The text should use the wrap-around-end-of-line feature; i.e., returns at the end of paragraphs only. Place 2 returns after every element such as title, headings, paragraph.If a citation generating program (e.g., EndNote), or any automatically generated numbering or bulleting systems or hidden text (e.g., for footnotes, lists) is used in the manuscript preparation, the program fields should be removed before submission. See your software documentation for instructions. Please always keep a backup copy of each document version (e.g., original, revision 1) with reference fields still enabled to facilitate manuscript revision, which may require edits to the citations. The fields can then be removed again from the resubmitted version.
See the JCRS Information for Authors for descriptions of the content and format of each type of article (full length article, laboratory science, case report, technique, review/update, letter, reply to letter, correspondence). Manuscripts with incorrect formatting will be returned unreviewed for modifications.Files Required for New Submissions
The following files must be included with each submission. The files should be in the following order:Manuscript File
Must be submitted as a Word (.doc) file, not as a PDF and include the following items:1. Title page: The title of the paper should be short and specific. A short running head should also be provided. The title page should include the following:
- each author's full name (ie, first name, middle initial if used, and last name) and no more than 4 degrees (only first 4 will be published);
- affiliation of each author;
- if presented at a meeting, provide the exact name of meeting and city, country, and month and year of the meeting;
- sources of public and private financial support, including organization's name, city, and country;
- statement about the authors' financial or proprietary interest in a product, method, or material, or lack thereof; and
- name and address of author to receive reprint requests.
2. Abstract: This should follow the title page. It is required in 2 places: at the beginning of the submission process, where requested, and in the manuscript file.
- Techniques, case reports, and review/updates: 150-word descriptive abstract
- No sections titles are required for this type of abstract as are needed in the structured abstract.
- Full length and laboratory science articles: 250-word structured abstract
WHAT WAS KNOWN
- In phakic eyes prior to endothelial transplantation, it is common practice to first remove the patient's crystalline lens, even in the absence of a cataract. This measure, while believed to facilitate DSEK/DSAEK surgery, and/or to reduce subsequent cataract formation, has not been studied in DMEK patients.
- Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty can be easily performed in phakic eyes, and leaving the crystalline lens in-situ rarely results in secondary cataract formation.
- As better overall optical quality may be achieved in phakic DMEK eyes when accommodative function is spared, it is worth considering leaving the (clear) crystalline lens in situ prior to DMEK.
"What This Paper Adds" should not simply restate the results. Rather, it should specifically highlight the novelty of the findings relative to prior studies or reports. It should also not repeat the synopsis text, which is a brief summary of the results and conclusions of the paper.If there are figures, the figure legends must follow the references. (The figures themselves go in a separate file(s).
References and legends for figures should be double-spaced. There is a limit of 30 references in clinical studies.All papers are subject to revision to conform with terminology and style used by the journal. Authors should adhere to accepted English usage and syntax.)
Suggested reference: AMA Manual of Style, 10th ed. New York, NY, Oxford University Press, 2007.(back to top)
A synopsis is required for full-length articles and review/date articles, but not for case reports or techniques. The synopsis goes in the table of contents. It should be no more than 30 words and should describe the main finding(s) of the paper and the significance but should not duplicate the abstract conclusion.(back to top)
They should not be embedded within a Word document.(back to top)
They should not be embedded in the manuscript.(back to top)
Elsevier recommends 10 MB as the optimal size as this ensures that end users are able to download and view files in a reasonable timeframe. Elsevier can handle up to 160 MB but anything larger will have to be compressed for conversion as a ZIP file, meaning the video will be online as a .zip file.The video must be cited within the manuscript and a video legend provided. The legend should go after the figure legends in the manuscript. Downloadable FormsInternational Committee of Medical Journal Editors for authorship. To qualify for authorship, each author must make a substantial contribution to the intellectual content of the manuscript in each of the following categories;• Substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work; AND• Drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content; AND• Final approval of the version to be published; AND• Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.
The corresponding author is responsible for ensuring that all coauthors meet the requirements for authorship. Each author agrees that the corresponding author will be responsible for the submission of the manuscript to the Journal and any associated activities. By submitting this manuscript, each of the authors indicates that he or she has had full access to all data in this study and takes complete and public responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. The issue of authorship must be resolved before submission of the manuscript.All authors must personally sign the bottom of the authorship form confirming he or she has made the contributions listed.
For authorship form, click the following link: formConflict of Interest Disclosure Form
A separate, signed disclosure of potential Conflict of Interest must be submitted for each author. The signed disclosure must be submitted even in cases in which no conflicts are being reported. Each author is responsible for the accuracy and completeness of his or her own disclosure.For COI form, click the following link: disclosure
Elsevier supports responsible sharing. Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.(back to top)
Revision NotesIndicate the specific changes that were made to the submission.
Revised Manuscript with Highlighted ChangesHighlight all the changes that were made to the text.
Revised Manuscript (without highlighting)Do not include any highlighting or notations in this file as it is the one that will be used for production purposes.
Synopsis FileInclude the synopsis even if it is the same as the one in the first submission.
Figure FileAttach the figures even if they are the same as the ones in the new submission. (The figure legends should be in the revised manuscript files.)
Table FileAttach the tables with their legends even if they are the same as those in the new submission. TECHNICAL SUPPORT
If you need technical support with the online system, please visit our Support Center.(back to top)European Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgeons.
The Journal of Cataract & Refractive Surgery® is published by Elsevier Science Inc., New York, NY, USA.(back to top) Description of Article Types—Including Content and Format
Reports of clinical studies should include a synopsis for the table of contents. The synopsis should be no more than 30 words and should describe the main finding of the paper but not duplicate the abstract conclusion.The text must follow a standard format: introduction, materials and methods used, presentation of results, and discussion. Conclusions should be incorporated into the discussion. The discussion should contain no subheads.
The description of materials and methods must be explicit enough that the study can be repeated by others; results must be reproducible. If a method has been published in an English language, peer-reviewed journal, a reference is adequate. Use generic or descriptive nomenclature for drugs and instruments, with the brand name in parentheses. Brand names should be used sparingly and not at all in the results.For a copy of the journal's brand name policy, click the following link: brand name policy
In clinical studies involving experimental investigations, the manuscript must state that informed consent was obtained from all participants and that the study was reviewed by an ethics committee or review board (IRB) or that no IRB approval was required.In experimental studies using animals, the manuscript must describe the care of the animals and indicate ethics committee or IRB approval. These studies should conform to principles of animal maintenance such as those described in the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology Statement for Use of Animals in Ophthalmic and Vision Research.
Statistical methods should be defined; any not in common use should be described in detail or supported by references. General guidelines on the use of statistical methods and specific recommendations on statistical estimation and significance are given under Statistical Guidelines.Visual acuity should be reported in Snellen format for means and ranges. Mean visual acuity should be determined by calculating the geometric mean with standard deviation stated in logMAR format (Holladay JT, Prager TC. Mean visual acuity. Am J Ophthalmol 1991; 111:372-374)
In the results section, avoid redundant data presentation. As a rule, information stated in the text should not be repeated in the tables or figures. Figures and tables should be used for detailed lists of findings. Note: If reporting preoperative and postoperative data for more than 3 factors, data should be presented in a table. If too many data are presented in the text, the article will be returned to the author for revision.(back to top)
All phase 3 trials should be registered and many phase 2 trials are appropriate to register. Most phase 1 trials need not be registered.Satisfactory public databases include the NIHs http://www.clinicaltrials.gov and the site from the International Standard Randomized Controlled Trials at http://www.controlled-trials.com.
For additional information, please consult:Levin LA, Gottlieb JL, Beck RW, Albert DM, Liesegang TL, Hoyt CS, Dick A, Bhisitkul R, Schachat AP. Registration of clinical trials. Arch Ophthalmol 2005;123:1263-4.
The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICJME) has information at http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/manage-recs/resources#InternationalCommittee.Our policies are similar to those of The Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) and The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM). The JAMA policy can be viewed at http://jama.ama-assn.org/misc/authors.dtl. The NEJM summarizes their policy in 2 editorials: Clinical Trial Registration: A Statement from the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. N Engl J Med 2004;351:1250-1 and Is this Clinical Trial Fully Registered? N Engl J Med 2005;352:2436-8.
JCRS supports the National Institutes of Health Principles and Guidelines for Reporting Preclinical Research. Please refer to the following site for additional information: http://www.nih.gov/about/reporting-preclinical-research.htm(back to top) Techniques
Articles that describe a technique should be prefaced by a 150-word descriptive abstract. The text should include an introduction, description of the technique, discussion, and references. If the technique was used in patients, the results should be presented as a subsection of the technique section; in a technique article, the emphasis should be on the technique, not on the clinical results.Although not required, inclusion of a video is encouraged. All technique videos will become part of a Technique Video Collection on the JCRS website.
The video must not include the device/product names, manufacturer, or surgeon name, must be cited in the text, and a legend that fully describes the video with the figure legends. The video and legend will appear on the ASCRS and JCRS websites.The purpose of the video is to supplement, but not replace, the description of the technique in the article itself. Therefore, the manuscript should be self-contained; i.e., the reader should be able to understand and repeat the technique based on the text and figures in the manuscript alone. The article and video will be reviewed according to the journal's standard review process.
Format for Video: Preferred video files are MPEG-4 video/MP3 audio. If another format file is used, the typesetter will have to convert it to .mpg format so it can be accepted by the online platforms.Elsevier recommends 10 MB as the optimal size as this ensures that end users are able to download and view files in a reasonable timeframe. Elsevier can handle up to 160 MB but anything more than that will have to be compressed for conversion as a zip file, meaning the video will be online as a .zip file. Review/Update Articles
To facilitate the peer-review process, please submit a detailed outline of your proposed review article to permit an assessment of the appropriateness of the topic and to prevent duplication of similar topics already in preparation. Please include planned references for your review manuscript.Please submit your detailed outline in an e-mail to: email@example.com
Review articles can be formatted as focused reviews or systematic reviews. Focused reviews explore current literature and should be useful to practicing cataract and refractive surgeons. A focused review submission should not exceed 3500 words. Systematic reviews are a more in-depth analysis of a clinically relevant topic that might also contain metaanalyses in its review of the literature.In addition to the above requirements, review subjects should be on major topics only. All other review papers on smaller specific topics should be categorized as an original article. Case Report
Case reports should be prefaced by a 150-word descriptive abstract. The text should include 4 primary sections: introduction, case report(s), discussion, and references.(back to top) Letters to the Editor
Letters about recently published JCRS articles are encouraged and should be submitted within 8 weeks of the article's publication. A letter should have a title that indicates the focus of the letter; i.e., not the same as the title of the article. The text should not exceed 500 words and can have no more than 5 references and 1 figure or table. Gratuitous comments (e.g., "We congratulate . . . on their excellent work") should be avoided. A title page or cover sheet must provide full names of all authors, a financial interest statement, and the postal and email addresses of the corresponding author. Letters are reviewed by the journal editors and are subject to editing. The authors of the article will be given an opportunity to reply.(back to top)
Replies to LettersThe text for a Reply to a Letters should not exceed 500 words and can have no more than 5 references and 1 figure or table. Gratuitous comments (e.g., "We appreciate . . . on the excellent comments") should be avoided. A title page or cover sheet must provide full names of all authors, a financial interest statement, and the postal and email addresses of the corresponding author. Replies to Letters are reviewed by the journal editors and are subject to editing.(back to top)
- All sources must be acknowledged by a reference, and all references must be cited in the text. They must be numbered by order of mention, including those used in tables.
- Use caution when citing review papers, editorials, and correspondences. They are appropriate to cite when novel concepts, data, models or metaanalyses are presented, but primary sources should always take precedence.
- Don't overlook papers with negative results. First, consider whether sample sizes were adequate and methods were sound, and if so, such results may be important to address.
- Use more specific callout text to the literature. Be sure the reader knows why the source is critical to the current argument. If a reference does not have a clear connection to the argument, perhaps it can be omitted.
- Include the citation immediately after the clause or phrase that calls on it. Clustering references at the end of a sentence with a string of callouts dissociates references from the text.
- Avoid listing references for the sake of showing the number of manuscripts available on a topic. Such lists are often cited at the end of an introductory statement such as "LASIK is the most commonly performed refractive surgical procedure" to efficiently acknowledge a body of generally related work. A problem with this practice is that it significantly increases the number of citations, inflates the impact of each paper in the list, and dilutes the impact of other cited papers that were chosen on the basis of specific impact. An alternate approach is to indicate that a search was performed, specify the search engine and key word(s) used, and report the number of relevant articles that were identified. In general, though, such statements rarely require references.
- Scrutinize self-citations carefully and subject them to the same criteria used for other references. Awareness of the omnipresent temptation to promote one's own work or that of close colleagues can help keep these forces in check.
FormatsJCRS uses a 2-part reference list: REFERENCES for peer-reviewed material and published texts, which should appear in the text of the paper as superscript numbers, and OTHER CITED MATERIAL for non-peer-reviewed material (websites, abstracts, meeting presentations, drug/manufacturer material), which should appear in the text as superscript letters. This change avoids cumbersome text insertions citing non-peer-reviewed sources.
Peer-Reviewed MaterialThe list of references should be numbered in the order that the references are cited in the text. Journal names must be abbreviated according to the form used by Index Medicus. All authors should be listed.
Article:Yildirim R, Aras C, Ozdamar A. Reproducibility of corneal flap thickness in laser in situ keratomileusis using the Hanstome microkeratome. J Cataract Refract Surg 2000; 26:1729-1732
Book:Apple DJ, Kincaid MC, Mamalis N, Olson RJ. Intraocular Lenses; Evolution, Designs, Complications, and Pathology. Baltimore, MD, Williams & Wilkins, 1989
Chapter:Bains RA, Anderson Penno EE, Gimbel HV. Laser in situ keratomileusis. In: Gimbel HV, Anderson Penno EE, eds, Refractive Surgery: A Manual of Principles and Practice. Thorofare, NJ, Slack, Inc, 2000; 127-157
Other Cited MaterialNon-peer-reviewed material includes manuscripts not yet in press, abstracts, websites, meeting presentations, articles in news magazines, personal communications, and drug/manufacturer material. These items should be cited alphabetically in the text as superscripts and in an "Other Cited Material" list following the peer-reviewed reference list.
A. Smith JD, "The AcrySof IOL and Its Complications," presented at the ASCRS Symposium on Cataract, IOL and Refractive Surgery, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA, June 2002B. Smith JD, "The AcrySof IOL and Its Complications," Ocular Surgery News, December 12, 2005, pages 3-5
C. Lamasil [package insert]. East Hanover, NJ, USA: Sandoz Pharmaceuticals Corp; 1993(back to top)
For details of the Alpins methodology and graphical reporting, please consult the following resources:1. Alpins N. Astigmatism analysis by the Alpins method. J Cataract Refract Surg 2001; 27:31-49
2. Alpins NA. Vector analysis of astigmatism changes by flattening, steepening, and torque. J Cataract Refract Surg 1997; 23:1503-15143. Alpins NA. A new method of analyzing vectors for changes in astigmatism. J Cataract Refract Surg 1993; 19:524-533
4. Reinstein DZ, Archer TJ, Randleman JB. JRS standard for reporting astigmatism outcomes of refractive surgery [editorial]. J Refract Surg 2014; 30:654-659; erratum 2015; 31:129Video/Computer Graphics
The Journal of Cataract & Refractive Surgery® (JCRS) will not edit any video or computer graphics, but reviewers, following the usual policy with illustrations, may suggest changes in the video or computer graphic. A sound track is highly recommended. The maximum cumulative length of videos or computer graphics is 8 minutes, and may be divided into several smaller clips not to exceed 8 minutes in total. If the video or animation is divided into several clips, each clip should be identified at the beginning of the section and on the CD-ROM, eg, Video Clip 1 or Graphic 1. Concise legends (placed after figure legends in the manuscript document) must accompany each video clip or computer graphic presentation.A graphic will be used to indicate the location of a video clip or computer graphic. Videos/computer graphics for accepted manuscripts will not be returned. Videos and computer graphics will not be accepted separately from a manuscript that has been rejected. If the article is accepted for publication, the video will be digitized and archived on the JCRS website (http://www.jcrsjournal.org). The location of the video on the Web will be linked in the online version of the article. Reminder: Videos must not include the device, product name, manufacturer, or surgeon name. Statistical Guidelines
To ensure meaningful statistical analysis of the study results, authors should consider the following questions:1. Was the source of subjects satisfactorily stated?
2. Were concurrent controls used (as opposed to historical controls)?
3. Were the treatments well-defined?
4. Was random allocation to treatment used?
5. Was the randomization method described?
6. Was the duration of posttreatment follow-up satisfactory (at least 6 months)?
Conduct of Study7. Were the treatment and control groups comparable with relevant measures?
8. Did a high proportion of subjects achieve adequate follow-up?
9. Were the dropouts characterized by treatment received?
10. Were the side effects of treatment reported?
Analysis and Presentation11. Was there a statement adequately describing or referencing all statistical procedures used?
12. Were the statistical analyses appropriate?
13. Were confidence intervals given for the main results?
14. Was the level of significance stated for outcomes that were reported as significant?
15. Was the reported level of significance corrected for the number of statistical analyses that were performed?
16. When the null hypothesis was accepted (no difference between experimental groups), was the statistical power of the study calculated and reported?
17. Was the conclusion justified by the statistical analysis? Alterations
If authors make extensive changes to the text or the figures at the production stage (on page proofs), the journal reserves the right to charge the cost of the changes to the authors. No charge will be made for correcting errors made during the editorial process or by the printer.(back to top)
The study design should be reviewed by a methodologist.(back to top)
This journal encourages and enables you to share data that supports your research publication where appropriate, and enables you to interlink the data with your published articles. Research data refers to the results of observations or experimentation that validate research findings. To facilitate reproducibility and data reuse, this journal also encourages you to share your software, code, models, algorithms, protocols, methods and other useful materials related to the project.Below are a number of ways in which you can associate data with your article or make a statement about the availability of your data when submitting your manuscript. If you are sharing data in one of these ways, you are encouraged to cite the data in your manuscript and reference list. Please refer to the "References" section for more information about data citation. For more information on depositing, sharing and using research data and other relevant research materials, visit the research data page.
If you have made your research data available in a data repository, you can link your article directly to the dataset. Elsevier collaborates with a number of repositories to link articles on ScienceDirect with relevant repositories, giving readers access to underlying data that gives them a better understanding of the research described.
When available, you can directly link your dataset to your article by providing the relevant information in the submission system. For more information, visit the database linking page.For supported data repositories a repository banner will automatically appear next to your published article on ScienceDirect.
In addition, you can link to relevant data or entities through identifiers within the text of your manuscript, using the following format: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN).Mendeley Data
This journal supports Mendeley Data, enabling you to deposit any research data (including raw and processed data, video, code, software, algorithms, protocols, and methods) associated with your manuscript in a free-to-use, open access repository. During the submission process, after uploading your manuscript, you will have the opportunity to upload your relevant datasets directly to Mendeley Data. The datasets will be listed and directly accessible to readers next to your published article online.
For more information, visit the Mendeley Data for journals page.
To foster transparency, we encourage you to state the availability of your data in your submission. This may be a requirement of your funding body or institution.