Guide for Authors

All journal information and instructions compiled in one document (PDF) in just one mouse-click Author information pack

INTRODUCTION
• ARTICLE TYPES
PREPARATION
• SUBMISSION FILES
• MANUSCRIPT CONTENT
• Title page
• Abstract
• Text's structure
• REFERENCES
• FIGURE LEGENDS
• TABLES
• FIGURES
• VIDEOS
• ARTICLE ENRICHMENTS
• AudioSlides
• 3D neuroimaging
• 3D radiological data
• Virtual Microscope
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
• Ethics in publishing
• Declaration of interest
• Submission declaration
• Contributors
• Changes to authorship
• Role of the funding source
• Peer review
• Page charges
• Open access
• ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
• RESEARCH DATA
AFTER ACCEPTANCE
• Online proof correction
• Offprints
• Author rights
• Elsevier supports responsible sharing
AUTHOR INQUIRIES



Journal of Cardiology (JC), one of the official journals of the Japanese College of Cardiology (JCC), is a monthly peer-reviewed international journal in English that is committed to publishing high-quality material of the latest findings in original basic and clinical research on all aspects of cardiovascular medicine.

JC publishes original research articles, review articles, letters to the editor, and other invited content related to cardiovascular health and disease. Topics covered include ischemic heart disease, cardiomyopathy, valvular heart disease, vascular disease, hypertension, arrhythmia, congenital heart disease, pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatments, new diagnostic techniques, and cardiovascular imaging.

Please note, JC no longer accepts case reports; however authors are encouraged to submit them to the sister journal, Journal of Cardiology Cases (JC Cases). For more details, and to submit your case report or case series, go to http://www.journalofcardiologycases.com/.

JC will receive materials prepared and submitted according to these instructions. However, we reserve the right to make any changes necessary to make the contribution conform to the editorial standards of the journal, as deemed by the Editorial Board based on the recommendations of the reviewers.

Any contributions accepted for publication will become the copyright of this journal. No responsibility is assumed by the Editorial Board for the opinions or the ethics expressed by the contributors.

Correspondence
All contributions and all communications relating to the publication should be addressed to:

Editor-in-Chief, Journal of Cardiology
c/o Elsevier Japan, 1-9-15 Higashi-Azabu, Minato-ku, Tokyo 106-0044, Japan
Fax: +81 3 3589 6364, Tel: +81 3 3589 5037
E-mail: jp.jjcc@elsevier.com

ARTICLE TYPES

Manuscripts substantially exceeding the word limits specified below will not be sent for review.

Revisions addressing reviewer comments should also not substantially exceed word limits even if reviewers request additional information.

Original Articles
These may describe original clinical or laboratory research.

  • Word count: no more than 3,500 words (word count does not include title page, abstract, references, tables, and figure legends)
  • Abstract: Structured with the following headings and no more than 300 words: Background, Methods, Results, Conclusions.
  • Figures/Tables: No more than 8 figures and tables.
  • Highlights: Required.
  • Graphical abstract: Optional.

Reviews
Reviews may concern either clinical or laboratory scientific topics.

  • Word count: no more than 4,000 words (word count does not include title page, abstract, references, tables, and figure legends)
  • Abstract: Unstructured and no more than 300 words.
  • Figures/Tables: No more than 8 figures and tables.
  • Highlights: Required
  • Graphical abstract: Optional

Letters to the Editor
Focus on specific manuscript that has published in JC. Authors of the original article cited in the letter will be invited to reply and publish together, when possible.

  • Word count: no more than 1,000 words, including references.
  • References: no more than 5.
  • Figures/Tables: None

Editorial
The editors will solicit all editorials. Instructions pertaining to the writing of an editorial will be included with the request from the editorial office. Please do not submit unsolicited editorials.



All manuscripts must be submitted electronically to;http://ees.elsevier.com/jjcc.

Before proceeding to the online submission site, please prepare your manuscript according to the instructions below.

Use of word processing software
It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier). Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork.

To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.

SUBMISSION FILES

All submissions should be prepared with the following files:

  • Authorship Agreement and Statement of Conflicts of Interest: Every author listed in the manuscript must read and sign the Authorship Agreement and Statement of Conflicts of Interest form.
  • Cover letter: Manuscripts must be submitted with a cover letter stating that: 1) the paper is not under consideration elsewhere; 2) none of the paper's contents have been previously published; 3) all authors have read and approved the manuscript; and 4) the full disclosure of any relationship with industry. A short paragraph telling the editors why the authors think their paper merits publication priority may be included in the cover letter. Potential reviewers may be suggested in the cover letter, as well as reviewers to avoid.
  • Highlights file: Highlights are a short collection of bullet points that convey the core findings of the article. Highlights must be submitted in a separate editable file in the online submission system. Please use 'Highlights' in the file name and include 3 to 5 bullet points (maximum 85 characters, including spaces, per bullet point). You can view example Highlights on our information site.
  • Manuscript file: Manuscripts should be double-spaced and include page numbers. Assemble the manuscript in this order: Title Page, Abstract, Text, Acknowledgments, Funding, Disclosures, References, and Figure legends.
  • Tables (if any)
  • Figures (if any)
  • Graphical abstract (optional): The graphical abstract should summarize the contents of the article in a concise, pictorial form designed to capture the attention of a wide readership. Graphical abstracts should be submitted as a separate file in the online submission system. Image size: Please provide an image with a minimum of 531 × 1328 pixels (h × w) or proportionally more. The image should be readable at a size of 5 × 13 cm using a regular screen resolution of 96 dpi. Preferred file types: TIFF, EPS, PDF or MS Office files. You can view Example Graphical Abstracts on our information site. Authors can make use of Elsevier's Illustration and Enhancement service to ensure the best presentation of their images and in accordance with all technical requirements.
  • Supplementary material (if any)

For all revisions, please note that two additional files are required:

  • Response to Reviewers
  • Tracked changes and clean versions of the revised manuscript

NOTICE: Provide the Cover letter, Manuscripts and Tables files in Word format (.doc, .docx).

MANUSCRIPT CONTENT

The order in which these items appear should also be the order in which they appear in your submission.

Title page

The title page (page 1) should contain these elements:

  • Article Type
  • Full title of the article (within 25 words)
  • Every authors' full and complete names, academic degrees, and affiliations
  • Corresponding author's Full name, postal address, e-mail, telephone and fax numbers
  • Up to 3-6 keywords or phrases suitable for use in an index.
  • Word count - excluding title page, Abstract, Referenes, Figure legends, and tables.

Abstract

Provide a structured abstract of no more than 300 words, presenting essential data in 4 paragraphs introduced by separate headings in the following order :

  • Background - rationale for study
  • Methods - brief presentation of methods
  • Results - brief presentation of significant results
  • Conclusions - succinct statement of study or/and data interpretation
    A nonstructured abstract is appropriate for review articles.

Text's structure

Typical main body headings include Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, and Conclusion. Create a structured disclosures section at the end of the manuscript with the headings Acknowledgments, Funding, and Disclosures.

Introduction
Clearly and briefly describe the background and the rational objective of the study, with a review of earlier publications. It is recommended that the previous studies described only be the most relevant. Avoid exhaustive review of the literature.

Materials and Methods
Clearly describe the subjects and sample size, the experimental procedures and apparatus (manufacturer's name and address) used in the study. In the case of experiments on human or animal subjects, give an account that the methods were regarded as ethically sound. In the event of an original design, the details should be provided. Otherwise, references accompanied by sufficient information for interdisciplinary evaluation will suffice. The type of statistical analysis used must be stated in this section as well as the commercial software. Do not include discussion in this section. Demonstrate precisely all drugs and chemicals used, including generic names, doses, and routes of administration.

Results
Present the essential results in the text in a clear and concise manner. Use tables and figures to compare and contrast the findings. Do not repeat in the text all the detailed data in the tables or figures. Do not include discussion in this section. In describing the statistical analysis, please define the probability values and prove that the differences reported were found to be statistically significant.

Discussion
This should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. A combined Results and Discussion section is often appropriate. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature.

Conclusions
The main conclusions of the study may be presented separately as a short Conclusions section, or as a subsection of a Discussion or Results and Discussion section. The progress with respect to the available research and the critical elements of the proposed investigation should also be discussed.

Acknowledgements
Acknowledgements should appear at the end of the article prior to funding, Disclosures and the References.

The Acknowledgement section should include:

  • The information on previous presentation of the information reported in the article (i.e., the scientific meeting at which the data has already been presented).
  • Anyone who contributed towards the study by making substantial contributions to conception, design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data, or who was involved in drafting the manuscript or revising it critically for important intellectual content, but who does not meet the criteria for authorship.
  • Authors should obtain permission to acknowledge from all those mentioned in the Acknowledgements section.

Funding
All authors are requested to disclose the sources of funding for the study in the 'Funding' section after Acknowledgements.

You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article. The names of funding organizations should be written in full, and Grant numbers should be given in brackets as follows: '[grant number xxxx]'.

The sentence should begin: 'This research was supported by ...'.

If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then should be stated: 'This research received no grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.''

Disclosures
All authors are requested to disclose any actual or potential conflict of interest including any financial, personal or other relationships with other people or organizations which could inappropriately influence, or be perceived to influence their work. The 'Disclosures' section should appear after Funding.

If no declaration is made then should be stated: 'The Author(s) declare(s) that there is no conflict of interest'.

Examples:

A (author name) serves as a consultant to Z (entity name);
B's spouse is chairperson of Y;
C received a research grant from X;
D received lecture fees from V;
E holds a patent on U; F has been reimbursed by T for attending several conferences;
G received honoraria for writing promotional material for S;
H has no conflict of interest.

REFERENCES

  • The authors are responsible for verifying the accuracy of the references.
  • The Vancouver referencing style should be used. List citations numerically in the order they appear in the text.
  • Follow general arrangement, abbreviations, and punctuation as given in "Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts submitted to Biomedical Journals" (J Am Med Assoc 1997;277:927–34) (see also Samples of Formatted References).
  • For periodicals, follow Index Medicus, listing all authors when 6 or fewer; when 7 or more, list only first 6 and add "et al".
  • Personal communications are discouraged. If included, they must be noted parenthetically in the text, dated by month and year, and accompanied by a written acknowledgement.
  • Do not use periods after the authors' initials. Please provide inclusive page numbers, e.g., 51-9.

Reference links
Increased discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, CrossRef and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the DOI is encouraged.

Web references
As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.

Data references
This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. This identifier will not appear in your published article.

Reference style
Text: Indicate references by number(s) in square brackets in line with the text. The actual authors can be referred to, but the reference number(s) must always be given.

List: Number the references (numbers in square brackets) in the list in the order in which they appear in the text.

Examples:

  • Reference to a journal publication: [1] Van der Geer J, Hanraads JAJ, Lupton RA. The art of writing a scientific article. J Sci Commun 2010;163:51-9.
  • Reference to a book: [2] Strunk Jr W, White EB. The elements of style. 4th ed. New York: Longman; 2000.
  • Reference to a chapter in an edited book: [3] Mettam GR, Adams LB. How to prepare an electronic version of your article. In: Jones BS, Smith RZ, editors. Introduction to the electronic age, New York: E-Publishing Inc; 2009, p. 281-304.
  • Reference to a website: [4] Cancer Research UK. Cancer statistics reports for the UK, http://www.cancerresearchuk.org/aboutcancer/statistics/cancerstatsreport/; 2003 [accessed 13.03.03].
  • Reference to a dataset: [dataset] [5] Oguro M, Imahiro S, Saito S, Nakashizuka T. Mortality data for Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions, Mendeley Data, v1; 2015. http://dx.doi.org/10.17632/xwj98nb39r.1.

FIGURE LEGENDS

  • All figures must have a number, title, and caption.
  • Figures should be cited in numerical order in the text.
  • Supplemental figures should be cited as “Online Figure 1, Online Figure 2,” etc.
  • Figure titles should be short and followed by a 2 to 3 sentence caption.
  • Your Graphical abstract, if not an existing figure, should be listed first.
  • If the figure has been previously published, cite the figure source in the legend.
  • All abbreviations used in the figure should be identified in alphabetical order at the end of each legend (see also Figures).

TABLES

Each table should be on a separate page, with the table number and title centered above the table and explanatory notes below the table. Use Arabic numbers. Table numbers must correspond with the order cited in the text. Tables should be self-explanatory, and the data presented in them should not be duplicated in the text or figures.

  • All tables must have a title.
  • Abbreviations should be listed in a footnote under the table in alphabetical order.
  • Name each column and each row. The headings should be brief, but sufficiently.
  • If previously published tables are used, written permission from the original publisher/author is required.
  • Cite the source of the table in the footnote.

FIGURES

This journal encourages authors to use color figures where they will enhance the presentation of the data. Any figure submitted in color will be published in color at no cost to the author.

  • Figure numbers must correspond with the order in which they are mentioned in the text.
  • Submit each figure as a separate file.
  • Figures should be sized as close as possible to their final print size.
  • Figure titles and captions should appear in the figure legends on a separate page, not attached to the figure. All abbreviations used in the figure should be identified in an alphabetical order at the end of each legend.
  • Use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork. Fonts: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or similar.
  • All symbols used (arrows, circles, etc.) must be explained.

Electronic artwork
A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available.
You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.

Formats

If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format.
Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.

Please do not:

  • Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
  • Supply files that are too low in resolution;
  • Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

VIDEOS

This journal accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the files in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 150 MB. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect. Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages. Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.

Supplementary material
Supplementary material can support and enhance your scientific research. Supplementary files offer the author additional possibilities to publish supporting applications, high-resolution images, background datasets, sound clips and more. Please note that such items are published online exactly as they are submitted; there is no typesetting involved (supplementary data supplied as an Excel file or as a PowerPoint slide will appear as such online). Please submit the material together with the article and supply a concise and descriptive caption for each file. If you wish to make any changes to supplementary data during any stage of the process, then please make sure to provide an updated file, and do not annotate any corrections on a previous version. Please also make sure to switch off the 'Track Changes' option in any Microsoft Office files as these will appear in the published supplementary file(s). For more detailed instructions please visit our artwork instruction pages.

ARTICLE ENRICHMENTS

AudioSlides

The journal encourages authors to create an AudioSlides presentation with their published article. AudioSlides are brief, webinar-style presentations that are shown next to the online article on ScienceDirect. This gives authors the opportunity to summarize their research in their own words and to help readers understand what the paper is about. More information and examples are available. Authors of this journal will automatically receive an invitation e-mail to create an AudioSlides presentation after acceptance of their paper.

3D neuroimaging

You can enrich your online articles by providing 3D neuroimaging data in NIfTI format. This will be visualized for readers using the interactive viewer embedded within your article, and will enable them to: browse through available neuroimaging datasets; zoom, rotate and pan the 3D brain reconstruction; cut through the volume; change opacity and color mapping; switch between 3D and 2D projected views; and download the data. The viewer supports both single (.nii) and dual (.hdr and .img) NIfTI file formats. Recommended size of a single uncompressed dataset is maximum 150 MB. Multiple datasets can be submitted. Each dataset will have to be zipped and uploaded to the online submission system via the '3D neuroimaging data' submission category. Please provide a short informative description for each dataset by filling in the 'Description' field when uploading a dataset. Note: all datasets will be available for downloading from the online article on ScienceDirect. If you have concerns about your data being downloadable, please provide a video instead. More information.

3D radiological data

You can enrich your online article by providing 3D radiological data in DICOM format. Radiological data will be visualized for readers using the interactive viewer embedded within your article, and will enable them to: browse through available radiological datasets; explore radiological data as 2D series, 2D orthogonal MPR, 3D volume rendering and 3D MIP; zoom, rotate and pan 3D reconstructions; cut through the volume; change opacity and threshold level; and download the data. Multiple datasets can be submitted. Each dataset will have to be zipped and uploaded to the online submission system via the '3D radiological data' submission category. The recommended size of a single uncompressed dataset is 200 MB or less. Please provide a short informative description for each dataset by filling in the 'Description' field when uploading each ZIP file. Note: all datasets will be available for download from the online article on ScienceDirect. So please ensure that all DICOM files are anonymized prior to submission. More information.

Virtual Microscope

The journal encourages authors to supplement in-article microscopic images with corresponding high resolution versions for use with the Virtual Microscope viewer. The Virtual Microscope is a web based viewer that enables users to view microscopic images at the highest level of detail and provides features such as zoom and pan. This feature for the first time gives authors the opportunity to share true high resolution microscopic images with their readers. More information and examples. Authors of this journal will receive an invitation e-mail to create microscope images for use with the Virtual Microscope when their manuscript is first reviewed. If you opt to use the feature, please contact virtualmicroscope@elsevier.com for instructions on how to prepare and upload the required high resolution images.

Ethics in publishing

Please see our information pages on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication.

Declaration of interest

All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. If there are no conflicts of interest then please state this: 'Conflicts of interest: none'. More information.

Submission declaration

Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' section of our ethics policy for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere including electronically in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the copyright-holder.

Contributors

All authors should have made substantial contributions to all of the following: (1) the conception and design of the study, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data, (2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content, (3) final approval of the version to be submitted.

Changes to authorship

Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the journal Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed.
Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted. While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the Editor will result in a corrigendum.

Copyright
Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (see more information on this). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.

Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations. If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases.

Role of the funding source

You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.

Funding body agreements and policies
Elsevier has established a number of agreements with funding bodies which allow authors to comply with their funder's open access policies. Some funding bodies will reimburse the author for the Open Access Publication Fee. Details of existing agreements are available online.

Peer review

This journal operates a single blind review process. All contributions will be initially assessed by the editor for suitability for the journal. Papers deemed suitable are then typically sent to a minimum of two independent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor's decision is final. More information on types of peer review.

Page charges

This journal has no page charges. If you select the open access option, you will be required to pay the standard Elsevier open access fee upon acceptance of your article.

Open access

This journal offers authors a choice in publishing their research:

Subscription
• Articles are made available to subscribers as well as developing countries and patient groups through our universal access programs.
• No open access publication fee payable by authors.
Open access
• Articles are freely available to both subscribers and the wider public with permitted reuse.
• An open access publication fee is payable by authors or on their behalf, e.g. by their research funder or institution.

Regardless of how you choose to publish your article, the journal will apply the same peer review criteria and acceptance standards.

For open access articles, permitted third party (re)use is defined by the following Creative Commons user licenses:

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND)
For non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.

The open access fee for this journal is $3,000, excluding taxes. Learn more about Elsevier's pricing policy.

Green open access
Authors can share their research in a variety of different ways and Elsevier has a number of green open access options available. We recommend authors see our green open access page for further information. Authors can also self-archive their manuscripts immediately and enable public access from their institution's repository after an embargo period. This is the version that has been accepted for publication and which typically includes author-incorporated changes suggested during submission, peer review and in editor-author communications. Embargo period: For subscription articles, an appropriate amount of time is needed for journals to deliver value to subscribing customers before an article becomes freely available to the public. This is the embargo period and it begins from the date the article is formally published online in its final and fully citable form. Find out more.

This journal has an embargo period of 12 months.

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

Elsevier Publishing Campus
The Elsevier Publishing Campus (www.publishingcampus.com) is an online platform offering free lectures, interactive training and professional advice to support you in publishing your research. The College of Skills training offers modules on how to prepare, write and structure your article and explains how editors will look at your paper when it is submitted for publication. Use these resources, and more, to ensure that your submission will be the best that you can make it.

Illustration services
Elsevier's WebShop offers Illustration Services to authors preparing to submit a manuscript but concerned about the quality of the images accompanying their article. Elsevier's expert illustrators can produce scientific, technical and medical-style images, as well as a full range of charts, tables and graphs. Image 'polishing' is also available, where our illustrators take your image(s) and improve them to a professional standard. Please visit the website to find out more.

Language (usage and editing services)
Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop.

Submission
Elsevier's online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files (e.g., Word, LaTeX) are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.

RESEARCH DATA

This journal encourages and enables you to share data that supports your research publication where appropriate, and enables you to interlink the data with your published articles. Research data refers to the results of observations or experimentation that validate research findings. To facilitate reproducibility and data reuse, this journal also encourages you to share your software, code, models, algorithms, protocols, methods and other useful materials related to the project.

Below are a number of ways in which you can associate data with your article or make a statement about the availability of your data when submitting your manuscript. If you are sharing data in one of these ways, you are encouraged to cite the data in your manuscript and reference list. Please refer to the "References" section for more information about data citation. For more information on depositing, sharing and using research data and other relevant research materials, visit the research data page.

Data linking
If you have made your research data available in a data repository, you can link your article directly to the dataset. Elsevier collaborates with a number of repositories to link articles on ScienceDirect with relevant repositories, giving readers access to underlying data that gives them a better understanding of the research described.

There are different ways to link your datasets to your article. When available, you can directly link your dataset to your article by providing the relevant information in the submission system. For more information, visit the database linking page.

For supported data repositories a repository banner will automatically appear next to your published article on ScienceDirect.

In addition, you can link to relevant data or entities through identifiers within the text of your manuscript, using the following format: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN).

Mendeley Data
This journal supports Mendeley Data, enabling you to deposit any research data (including raw and processed data, video, code, software, algorithms, protocols, and methods) associated with your manuscript in a free-to-use, open access repository. Before submitting your article, you can deposit the relevant datasets to Mendeley Data. Please include the DOI of the deposited dataset(s) in your main manuscript file. The datasets will be listed and directly accessible to readers next to your published article online.

For more information, visit the Mendeley Data for journals page.

Data statement
To foster transparency, we encourage you to state the availability of your data in your submission. This may be a requirement of your funding body or institution. If your data is unavailable to access or unsuitable to post, you will have the opportunity to indicate why during the submission process, for example by stating that the research data is confidential. The statement will appear with your published article on ScienceDirect. For more information, visit the Data Statement page.

Online proof correction

Corresponding authors will receive an e-mail with a link to our online proofing system, allowing annotation and correction of proofs online. The environment is similar to MS Word: in addition to editing text, you can also comment on figures/tables and answer questions from the Copy Editor. Web-based proofing provides a faster and less error-prone process by allowing you to directly type your corrections, eliminating the potential introduction of errors.
If preferred, you can still choose to annotate and upload your edits on the PDF version. All instructions for proofing will be given in the e-mail we send to authors, including alternative methods to the online version and PDF.
We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication. Please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.

Offprints

The corresponding author will, at no cost, receive a customized Share Link providing 50 days free access to the final published version of the article on ScienceDirect. The Share Link can be used for sharing the article via any communication channel, including email and social media. For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's Webshop. Corresponding authors who have published their article open access do not receive a Share Link as their final published version of the article is available open access on ScienceDirect and can be shared through the article DOI link.

Author rights

As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. More information.

Elsevier supports responsible sharing

Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.



Visit the Elsevier Support Center to find the answers you need. Here you will find everything from Frequently Asked Questions to ways to get in touch.
You can also check the status of your submitted article or find out when your accepted article will be published.