Fast, authoritative and in-depth reports
Journal of Cardiology Cases (JC Cases) is an official peer-reviewed online journal of the Japanese College of Cardiology (JCC) dedicated to case reports. JC Cases provides an appropriate forum for all cardiologists by publishing without delay their important clinical cases of recent occurrence. Notable articles are also discussed in the journal's editorials. One year after their publication, all articles become accessible, at no cost, also to nonsubscribers.
Learning from real cases
Learning from medical cases provides valuable experience not only for clinicians, but also for students and paramedical staff members. Rare medical cases and conditions discovered through the latest methods of examination are often not found in textbooks, but frequently they are quickly reported in JC Cases. Encountering them early will greatly contribute to the acquisition of actual clinical capability by students and staff alike. Furthermore, learning diagnostic processes from medical cases and the interpretation of symptoms is important to train and develop thinking processes used in the clinical field.
For all medical personnel
This journal provides paramedical staff members also with opportunities to learn specifically about the role of examinations and ways to manage patients. Therefore JC Cases is the leading such case report journal and should be regularly read by all cardiovascular medical researchers, doctors, and medical personnel.
The journal welcomes contributions from nonmembers of the Society. Please prepare manuscripts in conformance with the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals.
JC Cases will receive materials prepared and submitted according to these instructions. However, we reserve the right to make any changes necessary to make the contribution conform to the editorial standards of the journal, as deemed by the Editorial Board based on the recommendations of the reviewers.Any contributions accepted for publication will become the copyright of this journal. No responsibility is assumed by the Editorial Board for the opinions or the ethics expressed by the contributors. The work shall not be published in any other publication in any language without prior written consent of the publisher.
Submission to this journal proceeds totally online and you will be guided stepwise through the creation and uploading of your files. The system automatically converts source files to a single PDF file of the article, which is used in the peer-review process. Please note that even though manuscript source files are converted to PDF files at submission for the review process, these source files are needed for further processing after acceptance. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, takes place by e-mail, eliminating the need for a paper trail.
Please submit your article via http://ees.elsevier.com/jccase.
If the manuscript absolutely cannot be submitted online, please contact the editorial office at firstname.lastname@example.org
This journal operates a single blind review process. All contributions will be initially assessed by the editor for suitability for the journal. Papers deemed suitable are then sent to a minimum of two independent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor's decision is final. For more information on the types of peer review, please visit: https://www.elsevier.com/reviewers/peer-review.
Human subject experiments or the usage of human materials (such as tissues) should be in accordance with the ethical standards of a responsible committee at the institute where the research is carried out and with the Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association (Declaration of Helsinki) http://www.wma.net/en/30publications/10policies/b3/index.html. Patients should be referred to by number; do not use real names, initials or hospital numbers. Authors are fully responsible for any ethical issue of medical activity/practice described in the manuscript. JC Cases or the Japanese College of Cardiology is not responsible for any ethical issue of medical activity/practice described in the manuscript. Animal studies should be carried out within recognised guidelines for the care of laboratory animals.
Declaration of interest
All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential competing interests include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. Authors must disclose any interests in two places: 1. A summary declaration of interest statement in the title page file (if double-blind) or the manuscript file (if single-blind). If there are no interests to declare then please state this: 'Declarations of interest: none'. This summary statement will be ultimately published if the article is accepted. 2. Detailed disclosures as part of a separate Declaration of Interest form, which forms part of the journal's official records. It is important for potential interests to be declared in both places and that the information matches. More information.
All COIs must be disclosed if any of the following items apply.
(1) Employment or administrative position, or advisory role in business enterprises, for-profit corporate organizations, or commercial entities that are related to research (hereafter referred to as "Commercial Entity"), if compensation from a single Commercial Entity exceeds JPY1,000,000 (equivalent to approximately US$10,000, Euro€7,400) per year.
(2) Stock ownership or options, if profit (total of dividend and gain on sales) of at least JPY1,000,000 (equivalent to approximately US$10,000, Euro€7,400) from stocks of one commercial entity per year, or ownership of 5% or more of total shares.
(3) Patent royalties from the Commercial Entity, if the royalty fee exceeds JPY1,000,000 (equivalent to approximately US$10,000, Euro€7,400) per year.
(4) Honoraria (e.g. lecture fees) paid from one Commercial Entity, for the time and/or labor of investigator who attended or made presentations at meetings, if exceeding JPY500,000 (equivalent to approximately US$5,000, Euro€3,700) per year.
(5) Manuscript fees for promotional materials (e.g. brochures) paid by one Commercial Entity, if exceeding JPY500,000 (equivalent to approximately US$5,000, Euro€3,700) per year.
(6) Research funds paid for research (e.g. funded research, collaborative research) paid by one Commercial Entity, if exceeding JPY1,000,000 (equivalent to approximately US$10,000, Euro€7,400) per year.
(7) Subsidy or donation to an individual of a head of department to which the individual belongs received from one Commercial Entity, if exceeding JPY1,000,000 (equivalent to approximately US$10,000, Euro€7,400) per year.
(8) Endowed departments provided by a Commercial Entity, if the recipient participates in such a department.
(9) Others including trips, travel, or gifts, which are not directly related to research, provided by one Commercial Entity, if exceeding JPY50,000 (equivalent to approximately US$500, Euro€370) per year.
However, concerning items 6 and 7, if clinical funding or scholarship funds related to the publication of research results are provided by a business, organization or group, to the first author, or his/her affiliated department or field, these must also be disclosed.
Disclosure in the journal
All authors who intend to publish manuscripts (e.g. case reports) in the journal must report any financial relationship with a business, organization or group specified below, regarding the subjects discussed in the paper, within the preceding one year from the time of submission, using the online form of Conflict of Interest Statement.
(1) Sponsors of research or organizations who jointly conduct research, regardless of whether funded or non-funded.
(2) Organizations sharing rights including patent rights regarding treatment methods, drugs and/or devices that are evaluated in research.
(3) Organizations providing drugs and/or devices for research gratis or at an advantageous price.
(4) Organizations providing funding or donations for research.
(5) Organizations providing unapproved drug and/or medical devices for research.
(6) Sponsors of endowed departments.
Submission declaration and verification
Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract, a published lecture or academic thesis, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service Crossref Similarity Check.
Please note that preprints can be shared anywhere at any time, in line with Elsevier's sharing policy. Sharing your preprints e.g. on a preprint server will not count as prior publication (see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' for more information).
All authors should have made substantial contributions to all of the following: (1) the conception and design of the study, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data, (2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content, (3) final approval of the version to be submitted.
Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the journal Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed.
Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted. While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the Editor will result in a corrigendum.
On acceptance, transfer of copyright to the Japanese College of Cardiology will be required. Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (for more information on this and copyright, see https://www.elsevier.com/copyright). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.
For open access articles: Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an 'Exclusive License Agreement' (for more information see https://www.elsevier.com/OAauthoragreement). Permitted third party reuse of open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license (see https://www.elsevier.com/openaccesslicenses).Author rights
As an author you (or your employer or institution) may do the following:
- make copies (print or electronic) of the article for your own personal use, including for your own classroom teaching use
- make copies and distribute such copies (including through e-mail) of the article to research colleagues, for the personal use by such colleagues (but not commercially or systematically, e.g., via an e-mail list or list server)
- post a pre-print version of the article on Internet websites including electronic pre-print servers, and to retain indefinitely such version on such servers or sites
- post a revised personal version of the final text of the article (to reflect changes made in the peer review and editing process) on your personal or institutional website or server, with a link to the journal homepage (on elsevier.com)
- present the article at a meeting or conference and to distribute copies of the article to the delegates attending such a meeting- for your employer, if the article is a "work for hire", made within the scope of your employment, your employer may use all or part of the information in the article for other intra-company use (e.g., training)
- retain patent and trademark rights and rights to any processes or procedure described in the article
- include the article in full or in part in a thesis or dissertation (provided that this is not to be published commercially)
- use the article or any part thereof in a printed compilation of your works, such as collected writings or lecture notes (subsequent to publication of your article in the journal)
- prepare other derivative works, to extend the article into book-length form, or to otherwise re-use portions or excerpts in other works, with full acknowledgement of its original publication in the journal
Elsevier has established a number of agreements with funding bodies which allow authors to comply with their funder's open access policies. Some funding bodies will reimburse the author for the gold open access publication fee. Details of existing agreements are available online.
After acceptance, open access papers will be published under a noncommercial license. For authors requiring a commercial CC BY license, you can apply after your manuscript is accepted for publication.
• Articles are made available to subscribers as well as developing countries and patient groups through our universal access programs.
• No open access publication fee payable by authors.
• The Author is entitled to post the accepted manuscript in their institution's repository and make this public after an embargo period (known as green Open Access). The published journal article cannot be shared publicly, for example on ResearchGate or Academia.edu, to ensure the sustainability of peer-reviewed research in journal publications. The embargo period for this journal can be found below.
Gold open access
• Articles are freely available to both subscribers and the wider public with permitted reuse.
• A gold open access publication fee is payable by authors or on their behalf, e.g. by their research funder or institution.
Regardless of how you choose to publish your article, the journal will apply the same peer review criteria and acceptance standards.For gold open access articles, permitted third party (re)use is defined by the following Creative Commons user licenses:
Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND)
For non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.
The gold open access publication fee for this journal is $1500, excluding taxes. Learn more about Elsevier's pricing policy: https://www.elsevier.com/openaccesspricing.
Authors can share their research in a variety of different ways and Elsevier has a number of green open access options available. We recommend authors see our green open access page for further information. Authors can also self-archive their manuscripts immediately and enable public access from their institution's repository after an embargo period. This is the version that has been accepted for publication and which typically includes author-incorporated changes suggested during submission, peer review and in editor-author communications. Embargo period: For subscription articles, an appropriate amount of time is needed for journals to deliver value to subscribing customers before an article becomes freely available to the public. This is the embargo period and it begins from the date the article is formally published online in its final and fully citable form. Find out more.
This journal has an embargo period of 12 months.
Informed consent and patient details
Studies on patients or volunteers require ethics committee approval and informed consent, which should be documented in the paper. Appropriate consents, permissions and releases must be obtained where an author wishes to include case details or other personal information or images of patients and any other individuals in an Elsevier publication. Written consents must be retained by the author but copies should not be provided to the journal. Only if specifically requested by the journal in exceptional circumstances (for example if a legal issue arises) the author must provide copies of the consents or evidence that such consents have been obtained. For more information, please review the Elsevier Policy on the Use of Images or Personal Information of Patients or other Individuals. Unless you have written permission from the patient (or, where applicable, the next of kin), the personal details of any patient included in any part of the article and in any supplementary materials (including all illustrations and videos) must be removed before submission.
Case Reports: A case report should describe a new disease, or confirmation of a rare or new disease; a new insight into pathogenesis, etiology, diagnosis, or treatment; or a new finding associated with a currently known disease. The length should ordinarily be less than 1,500 words, with no more than a total of 3 tables and figures and 10 references. This can be exceeded only when justified by extensive special studies. Manuscripts should be written clearly in English.
Editorial: The editors will solicit all editorials. Instructions pertaining to the writing of an editorial will be included with the request from the editorial office.General Preparation
All submissions should be prepared with the following files:
- Cover letter
- Authorship Agreement and Statement of Conflicts of Interest
- Tables (if any)
- Figures (if any)
- Manuscripts should including Title page, Abstract, Learning Objective, Text, Acknowledgments (if applicable), Conflict of Interest, References, and Figure Legends.
- Provide the Cover letter, Manuscripts and Tables files in Word format (.doc, .docx). Authorship Agreement and Statement of Conflicts of Interest
At submission, every author listed in the manuscript must read and sign the Authorship Agreement and Statement of Conflicts of Interest form download from http://www.jcc.gr.jp/green/JCCASE_AuthorshipAgreement.doc.
As of May 2015, the Authorship Agreement form has been updated. For all new submissions, please use the new Authorship Agreement and Statement of Conflicts of Interest form.
Authorship Agreement and Statement of Conflicts of interest should be uploaded online and submitted with the manuscript at the time of submission by the corresponding author.Cover Letter
Manuscripts must be submitted with a cover letter stating that:
1) the paper is not under consideration elsewhere;
2) none of the paper's contents have been previously published;
3) all authors have read and approved the manuscript;
4) the full disclosure of any relationship with industry.
A short paragraph telling the editors why the authors think their paper merits publication priority may be included in the cover letter. Potential reviewers may be suggested in the cover letter, as well as reviewers to avoid.
Preparing a manuscript
Title page: All manuscripts must be covered with a title page including the following information:
- Title of the article (within 25 words)
- Every authors' full and complete names, degrees, and institutions
- Corresponding author's Full name, postal address, e-mail, telephone and fax numbers
- Up to 3-6 keywords or phrases suitable for use in an index.
- Word count - excluding title page, abstract, references, figures and tables.
Learning objective: The learning objective should explain the educational value of this case report within 80 words. It is the take-home message and should be easily understood whether the report has or has not been read.
Example: New drugs have become available for the specific treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension. However, the treatment of portopulmonary hypertension (PoPH) has not been established. An acute vasoreactivity test of sildenafil may be useful for determining a choice of drugs in the treatment of PoPH.
Case report: Clearly describe the subjects and sample size, the experimental procedures and apparatus (manufacturer's name and address) used in the study. In the case of experiments on human or animal subjects, give an account that the methods were regarded as ethically sound. In the event of an original design, the details should be provided. Otherwise, references accompanied by sufficient information for interdisciplinary evaluation will suffice. The type of statistical analysis used must be stated in this section as well as the commercial software. Do not include discussion in this section. Demonstrate precisely all drugs and chemicals used, including generic names, doses, and routes of administration. Present the essential results in the text in a clear and concise manner. Use tables and figures to compare and contrast the findings. Do not repeat in the text all the detailed data in the tables or figures. Do not include discussion in this section. In describing the statistical analysis, please define the probability values and prove that the differences reported were found to be statistically significant.Discussion: Demonstrate the objective reliability of the results as well as the propriety and limitations of the experimental procedures and subjects used. Point out the significance and the limitations of the study, including implications for future research. Describe and evaluate the results with a scientifically critical view, and discuss your findings in the context of other publications, including opposing views. The introduction or the details of the results should not be repeated in this section. Subjective comments can be made only in this section; however, speculation must be identified as such. Link the conclusions with the objectives of the study, as stated in the introduction.
Acknowledgments: Acknowledgements should appear at the end of the article prior to Conflict of Interest and the References. The Acknowledgment section should include:
- The information on previous presentation of the information reported in the article (ie, the scientific meeting at which the data has already been presented).
- Anyone who contributed towards the study by making substantial contributions to conception, design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data, or who was involved in drafting the manuscript or revising it critically for important intellectual content, but who does not meet the criteria for authorship.
Authors should obtain permission to acknowledge from all those mentioned in the Acknowledgements section.
Conflict of interest: All authors are requested to disclose any actual or potential conflict of interest including any financial, personal or other relationships with other people or organizations which could inappropriately influence, or be perceived to influence their work. The 'Conflict of interest' section should appear before 'References' sections.
If no declaration is made then should be stated : 'The Author(s) declare(s) that there is no conflict of interest'.
A (author name) serves as a consultant to Z (entity name);
B's spouse is chairperson of Y;
C received a research grant from X;
D received lecture fees from V;
E holds a patent on U;
F has been reimbursed by T for attending several conferences;
G received honoraria for writing promotional material for S;
H has no conflict of interest.
References: All publications cited in the text should be presented in a list of references following the text of the manuscript. References should be numbered consecutively in the order in which they are first mentioned. In the text they should be cited with Arabic numerals between square brackets. For listing references, follow the Vancouver Style, abbreviating names of journals according to the list in PubMed. List all authors/editors but if there are more than fifteen, list first fifteen plus et al.Examples:
 Matsumura K, Kubota S, Serizawa T, Nakase E. Coronary hemodynamics in vasospastic angina: Quantitative analysis by digital subtraction angiography. J Cardiol 1991;21:507–16 (in Japanese).
 Braunwald E. Pathology of pulmonary embolism. In: Braunwald E, editor. Heart disease: A textbook of cardiovascular medicine. 5th ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1997. p. 1582–5.
Figure Legends: Figure legends should be typed double-spaced, in numerical order, on a new page after References. Each figure legend should include a short title for the entire figure and descriptors for each panel. There should be sufficient experimental details in the legend to make the figure intelligible without reference to the text.
Written permission must be obtained and supplied from the original author(s) and the original publisher (copyright holder) for the use of any figures, charts, graphs, and tables previously published in other journals or books either by reproduction or with any modification. Credit must be given in legends and/or text for borrowed materials.
- The number of figures used to present data essential to illustrate or prove a point should be kept to a minimum.
- Reference should be made in the text to each illustration. Figures will be reduced to fit to the size of one column (8.5 cm) or two columns (17.5 cm), and any lettering should be large enough to allow this reduction without becoming illegible.
- Photographs should be as high in contrast as possible.
- Indicate the magnification of photomicrographs in bar scales on the illustration itself instead of numerical magnification factors.
- Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
- Save text in illustrations as "graphics" or enclose the font.
- Only use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Helvetica, Times, Symbol.
- Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
- Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
- Provide all illustrations as separate files.
- Provide captions to illustrations separately.
- Produce images near to the desired size of the printed version.
A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available on our website: http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions. You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.File formats:
Regardless of the application used, when your electronic artwork is finalised, please "save as" or convert the images to one of the following formats. Note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below.
- EPS: Vector drawings. Embed the font or save the text as "graphics".
- TIFF: Colour or greyscale photographs (halftones): always use a minimum of 300 dpi.
- TIFF: Bitmapped line drawings: use a minimum of 1000 dpi.
- TIFF: Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (colour or greyscale): a minimum of 500 dpi is required.
- DOC, XLS or PPT: If your electronic artwork is created in any of these Microsoft Office applications please, supply "as is" (in native format).
Please do not:
- Supply embedded graphics in your wordprocessor (spreadsheet, presentation) document.
- Supply files that are optimised for screen use (like GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); the resolution is too low.
- Supply files that are too low in resolution.
- Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.
If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable colour figures, Elsevier will ensure that these figures will appear in colour completely free-of-charge in the electronic version of your paper.Supplementary data: JC Cases accepts electronic supplementary material such as high-resolution images, background datasets, sound clips, video material, animation sequences and more to support and enhance your scientific research and to evade the limit of manuscript length. Supplementary files supplied will be published online alongside the electronic version of your article. For more detailed instructions please visit our artwork instruction pages at http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions. Authors should submit the material as an e-component in electronic format together with the article and supply a concise and descriptive caption for each file.
Video, animation and audio - Preferred specifications:To ensure that the majority of potential users are able to access, view and playback the data, Elsevier recommends the submission of material in the specified 'preferred' formats.
|MP3||.mp3||• MPEG-1 or MPEG-2 format required |
• Highest possible quality required
• Audio Bit rate: at least 128 kbpsVideo
|MPG||.mpg||• MPEG-1 or MPEG-2 format required |
• Highest possible quality required
|MP4||.mp4||• Acceptable video format |
• Highest possible quality required
|Apple QuickTime||.mov||• Acceptable video format |
• Highest possible quality required
|Microsoft Audio/Video Interlaced format||.avi||• Acceptable video format |
• Highest possible quality required
|Compuserve GIF||.gif||• Expected to be non photographic animation based data |
• Frame rate: 15 frames per second minimum
• NTSC (4:3) size and frame rate, de-interlaced
• Video Codec: MPEG2 or MPEG4 (MPEG4 preferred)
• Video Bit rate: at least 260 kbps (750 kbps preferred)
• Resolution: 492x276 recommended
• Time: no more than 5 minutes
If the software used for the creation of your video(s)/animation(s) cannot deliver one of the above formats, then please save them in one of the accepted formats. Any alternative format supplied may be subject to conversion (if technically possible) prior to online publicationData references
This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in your published article. Online proof correction
Corresponding authors will receive an e-mail with a link to our online proofing system, allowing annotation and correction of proofs online. The environment is similar to MS Word: in addition to editing text, you can also comment on figures/tables and answer questions from the Copy Editor. Web-based proofing provides a faster and less error-prone process by allowing you to directly type your corrections, eliminating the potential introduction of errors.
If preferred, you can still choose to annotate and upload your edits on the PDF version. All instructions for proofing will be given in the e-mail we send to authors, including alternative methods to the online version and PDF.
We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication. Please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.
The corresponding author will, at no cost, receive a customized Share Link providing 50 days free access to the final published version of the article on ScienceDirect. The Share Link can be used for sharing the article via any communication channel, including email and social media. For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's Webshop. Corresponding authors who have published their article gold open access do not receive a Share Link as their final published version of the article is available open access on ScienceDirect and can be shared through the article DOI link.
Journal of Cardiology Cases does not have page charges.
For inquiries relating to the submission of articles (including electronic submission) please visit this journal's homepage (http://www.elsevier.com/locate/jccase). For detailed instructions on the preparation of electronic artwork, please visit http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions. Contact details for questions arising after acceptance of an article, especially those relating to proofs, will be provided by the publisher. You can track your submitted article at http://www.elsevier.com/track-submission. You can track your accepted article at http://www.elsevier.com/trackarticle. You can also check our Author FAQs at http://www.elsevier.com/authorFAQ and/or visit our Support Center.
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