- JBC no longer requires that computational papers include new 'wet lab' data, as long as authors relate their findings to previous experimental work or propose experimentally testable models.
- JBC welcomes "Methods and Resources" submissions. These manuscripts report new assays, screens, probes, databases, omics data sets, software, and other tools for the community; importantly, it is not required to include an immediate application of this method/data to gain new mechanistic insights about a biological system as long as the need for or potential applications of the reported advance is obvious. Read more here.
- "Supplementary Data" is now called "Supporting Information."
- JBC welcomes the inclusion of additional information that supports but is not critical to a manuscript's central conclusions, or other material that cannot be contained within a normal manuscript format, as Supporting Information. Read more here.
- Author contributions need not be specified in the manuscript file, as this information is collected during the online submission process.
- When an experimental procedure described in a manuscript would benefit from a step-by-step protocol, JBC encourages authors to submit detailed protocols for peer review and publication in Bio-protocol or to deposit them at protocols.io. Read more here.
Overview of the JBC publication process
For initial submission, authors should provide their manuscript as a Word/LaTeX file used to prepare the text and tables as well as publication quality figures and the Supporting Information. Our online submission tool will combine these files into a single PDF. At this stage, the primary goal is for the manuscript to contain the necessary information to enable a full scientific assessment, so while all sections of the manuscript need to be present, references need to be complete, and figures and tables need to be clearly numbered, adherence to the remaining formatting guidelines described below is not critical. Revised manuscripts, however, must adopt JBC style to avoid delays in review or publication. Authors must always follow JBC's data reporting requirements to avoid complications in submission and review.
At any point during the review process, authors may be asked to provide high-resolution images of their original data (such as gels or immunoblots), quantification details, antibody validation data, or other information needed to robustly assess technical quality.
Submitted manuscripts must describe original research not previously published and not under consideration for publication elsewhere. If related research is in press or under review elsewhere, the abstracts or electronic reprints of these manuscripts should accompany the submission to JBC. Posting draft versions of articles on preprint servers does not count as prior publication; in fact, manuscripts posted at bioRxiv can be directly submitted to JBC from that site. Papers imported from bioRxiv must contain all of the basic sections described in the Instructions for Authors (i.e., abstract, introduction, results, etc.) but other journal-specific formatting is not required for initial submission. Adherence to JBC's formatting guidelines is required for revisions.
Manuscripts must be written in English. For assistance with grammar, vocabulary, organization, or style, authors are welcome to engage professional revising, editing, and proofreading services. Several companies provide these services for scientific and medical research documents. These companies include:
Authors considering submission to JBC who are unsure about the fit of their work to the scope of the journal can feel free to contact the editorial team. Messages should include a few sentences describing the overall scientific question, the approach(es) taken, and the general conclusions drawn. If an abstract is available, please include it within the message text. Please note, however, that the editors cannot provide detailed feedback about a manuscript or make any commitments regarding its publication at this stage; any decisions on acceptance requires full review
Peer review process
The identity of all reviewers remains unknown to the authors. Every manuscript is treated by the Editors and reviewers as privileged information, and they are instructed to exclude themselves from the review of any manuscript that might involve a conflict of interest or the appearance thereof. During initial submission, prospective authors are encouraged to recommend one or more Associate Editors who would be particularly appropriate to handle their manuscript. Authors cannot exclude Associate Editors. Authors are also required to suggest three potential referees with the expertise needed to evaluate the manuscript. Authors will also have an option to exclude potential referees.
Authors may submit companion papers, which, if both are accepted, will be published together in the same issue in the final redacted version. Authors should state in their cover letter the order in which the companion papers should appear in the issue or they will appear in the order in which they were published as a Paper in Press. Please note that manuscripts will be published in Papers in Press as they are accepted and will not be delayed for same-day publication.
JBC publishes the following article types: Research Articles, Accelerated Communications, JBC Reviews, Meeting Reports, Letters to the Editor, and Corrections, as well as article types that publish by invitation only. Please find all the descriptions below.
Most authors will submit their manuscripts as Research Articles. This format is intended for studies that describe new advances of interest to the scientific community. Referees of Research Articles are given 14 days to complete their assessment of the study. There is no length restriction for regular papers.
Authors may also submit their manuscripts as Accelerated Communications (formerly known as Reports). This format is meant for concise but complete papers that present information of high novelty and significance and of broad interest to readers of JBC.
Accelerated Communications undergo expedited review, in which referees are asked to return their comments in only 7 days. To limit the burden on referees, articles that do not meet the criteria for an Accelerated Communication may be returned to authors without a full review or, with the author's permission, reviewed as a Research Article. If the paper is reviewed as an Accelerated Communication, and viewed by the referees as interesting but not sufficiently novel or broadly interesting for publication in this format, authors may be asked to resubmit their revision as a Research Article.Accelerated Communications must be no longer than 24,000 characters (including spaces but excluding the title page and references) and 5 display items (i.e., figures or tables). Figure legends are included in the character count. Any additional text should be counterbalanced by reducing the allowed figure/table count, in increments of 2,000 characters per figure/table (e.g., a 4-figure manuscript would be allowed 26,000 characters). Additional figures/tables may not be included even if the character count is less than 24,000. Papers beyond the character/figure/table limit will be considered as a Research Article or returned for revision, according to the authors' preference. References should include titles. Supporting information is allowed but should be uploaded as a separate file(s).
JBC Reviews describe new insights and paradigm shifts in our understanding of the molecular and cellular basis of life processes. These articles are typically commissioned, but we also consider proposals that meet our guidelines. Interested authors should submit an outline of their proposed review using this form.
Meeting Reports provide a synopsis of a recently held conference of relevance to the biological chemistry community. These articles should neither simply describe the conference program, nor provide a fully referenced review of the topic, but instead communicate central themes, advances and insights explored at the meeting, and describe how the reports presented influence our current understanding of a field. Images are encouraged. Meeting Reports may be commissioned or proposed by meeting organizers/attendees.
Letters to the Editor
Authors may submit Letters to the Editor concerning JBC papers published at any time. For papers published more than six months earlier, authors are encouraged to describe in their cover letter what efforts they have made to contact the corresponding author and resolve any concerns directly. Letters to the Editor are limited to 250 words and no more than five references and must address issues of science; for example, those intended to address grievances—i.e., lack of citation of the letter writer's work, misconduct, etc.—will be rejected.
Letters to the Editor are subject to editorial approval and will be considered by the associate editor who handled the review of the corresponding JBC paper whenever possible. If the associate editor determines that the Letter to the Editor is appropriate, a copy of the letter will be sent to the authors for a response. The letter and the author's response, if any, will be published together. JBC will not consider subsequent exchanges.
Correspondence regarding corrections to JBC papers should be sent to firstname.lastname@example.org, and will be handled by journal staff in consultation with editors as appropriate.
Editors' Picks Highlights, Reflections, and other formats are commissioned by the associate editors by invitation only.
All authors who submit to the journal on/after November 1, 2020, and whose articles are accepted for publication, will pay a flat article publishing charge (APC). These APCs are reasonably priced at $2,000 for ASBMB members or $2,500 for nonmembers, excluding taxes. These papers will be published under a CC-BY license.
Co-author consent and copyright
All listed authors must concur in the submission and the final version must be seen and approved by all authors. All authors are responsible for the content of the manuscript. Learn more about authorship requirements here. All authors must grant the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, exclusive license to publish their work (this policy replaces JBC's former policy, for manuscripts initially submitted prior to January 1, 2018, in which authors were asked to transfer copyright to ASBMB). Read more here.
Preparing the manuscript text
Initial submission: Our goal is to simplify this process for authors as much as possible, just making sure that the manuscript contains the necessary information to enable a full scientific assessment. All sections of the manuscript need to be present, references need to be complete, and figures and tables need to be clearly numbered, but adherence to the remaining formatting guidelines described below is not critical.
Revised manuscripts: Authors must follow all of the guidelines below to avoid delays in review or publication.Authors must always follow JBC's data reporting requirements to avoid complications in submission and review.
Authors should prepare their manuscript in Microsoft Word 6.0 (Word 2001 for Mac) or a later version, or LaTeX. For authors who prefer LaTeX, please note that JBC requires all LaTeX files to be uploaded at revision stage.Instructions about specific parts of the paper are presented in the order they should appear in the text:
- Should be intelligible to JBC readers who are not specialists in the field and should convey your essential points clearly.
- Should be short (no more than 150 characters including spaces) and informative.
- Should use sentence case (i.e., "Here is my scientific study" rather than "Here is My Scientific Study").
- Acronyms or abbreviations may be used without definition in the title, but authors should strive to limit abbreviations for clarity. Any abbreviations that do not appear on this list of common terms should be defined at first usage in the abstract or main text.
- Should include the complete names of all authors and affiliations where the work was performed (for those authors who have since moved, please indicate their present address as a separate note).
- Should include all affiliations for authors in the manuscript PDF.
- Should identify which author will receive correspondence regarding the manuscript and include this author's current e-mail address.
- Can include non-Latin characters for author names, as long as the characters can be encoded in Unicode (e.g., Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Arabic). These characters can only be used for author names, not author affiliations or titles. Non-Latin characters should be enclosed in parentheses after the transliterated version, e.g. "Zhe Li (李 喆), Xueyan Li (李 雪燕), Shanshan Nai (能 姗姗), Qizhi Geng (耿 奇志), Ji Liao (廖 蓟), Xingzhi Xu (许 兴智) and Jing Li (李 静)."
- Should appear on the first page.
- May not exceed 60 characters including spaces.
- Should include at least five keywords from this list. May also include keywords that are not on the list, up to ten keywords in total.
- Should describe the background, methods used, central findings, and conclusions drawn in the manuscript.
- Should avoid specialized terms and abbreviations as much as possible. Abbreviations not on the abbreviations page should be spelled out upon first usage.
- Should be no more than 250 words.
- References (as reference numbers or full citations) are not allowed.
- Should present the purpose of the study and its relationship to earlier work in the field; it is not meant to be an extensive review of the literature.
- Should describe the data collected.
- Any chemical equations, structural formulas or mathematical equations should be placed between successive lines of text.
- Should focus on the interpretation of the results rather than repeating information from the Results section.
- Should describe the overall experimental design briefly but with sufficient information to permit a qualified reader to repeat the experiments; truly new procedures should be described in detail.
- Previously published procedures should be referenced, and modifications given in detail where necessary to repeat the work.
- If the study characterizes the activity of new compounds, compound structures and the protocol for obtaining the compound must be provided.
- Must include all relevant information regarding data collection and analysis (sample sizes, quantification methods, etc.). Learn more about the types of information that are needed here.
- If the manuscript includes human or animal studies, authors must include a statement in the Experimental Procedures that the studies were approved and by which review board. For human subjects, authors must further state that the studies abide by the Declaration of Helsinki principles. Authors who are providing any identifying information about a human subject must complete this consent form and upload it as additional Supporting Information for review only. Learn more about what counts as identifying information and who can consent here.
- When an experimental procedure described in a manuscript would benefit from a step-by-step protocol, JBC encourages authors to submit detailed protocols for peer review and publication in Bio-protocol or to deposit them at protocols.io.
- Must indicate where the data described in the manuscript are located. If all data are contained within the manuscript, then the statement should indicate so. If data are to be shared upon request, then the individual along with their contact information must be indicated.
- For datasets that were deposited into a publicly accessible repository, the location and identifying information (i.e., accession numbers or DOIs) must be provided.
- Software code should be archived in a repository that can assign it a DOI and the DOI should be provided. If DOIs cannot be provided, include placeholder language to indicate that DOIs will be made available after acceptance.
- Any exceptions or limitations to the sharing of data, materials, and software must be described in this section.
- If your article contains supporting information please include a sentence stating "This article contains supporting information." Any references cited in the Supporting Information should be cited in this sentence.
- Can include any brief note(s) of thanks to people who helped with the study.
- An explicit statement describing each author's contributions to the manuscript is no longer required in the manuscript document; this information is collected during the submission process following CRediT taxonomy. JBC's policies related to authorship criteria can be found here.
Funding and additional information
- Should indicate the sources of funding, including grant numbers and recipients' initials.
- Corresponding authors of NIH-supported papers must include this disclaimer: "The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health."
Conflict of interest
- Must include a statement disclosing whether there are any actual or perceived conflicts of interest on the part of any author, as described in ASBMB's editorial policies.
- If there are no conflicts of interest for any author, the following statement should be inserted: "The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest with the contents of this article."
- The example formats provided below should be followed.
- References should be cited by number only and in order of appearance.
- DOIs should be added for any articles that do not have designated volume and page numbers (such as JBC's Papers in Press; see example 3).
- Previously deposited/published datasets should be provided as a reference along with the article describing the dataset. The data citation should be formatted using the general format (see example 5): [dataset] Creator(s)/Author(s). (Publication Year) Title. Repository. Version (if applicable), Global Persistent Identifier.
- Preprints may be cited in the reference list of the article (see example 6).
- All references should be included in this section. If any references are cited in the Supporting Information, they should be included in the References of the main text and cited in the Supporting Information section at the end of the article. The numbering of the citations in the Supporting Information should start after the last reference in the main text.
- Mukherjee, A. K., Sharma, S., Bagri, S., Kutum, R., Kumar, P., Hussain, A., Singh, P., Saha, D., Kar, A., Dash, D., and Chowdhury, S. (2019) Telomere repeat-binding factor 2 binds extensively to extra-telomeric G-quadruplexes and regulates the epigenetic status of several gene promoters. J. Biol. Chem. 294, 17709-17722
- Sambrook, J., Fritsch, E. F., and Maniatis, T. (1989) Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual, 2nd Ed., Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, NY
- Ramachandran, A., Summerville, L., Learn, B. A., DeBell, L., and Bailey, S. (December 30, 2019) Processing and integration of functionally oriented prespacers in the E. coli CRISPR system depends on bacterial host exonucleases. J. Biol. Chem. 10.1074/jbc.RA119.012196
- Farrell, C. (1992) The Role of SecB During Protein Export in Escherichia coli. Ph.D. thesis, The Johns Hopkins University
- [dataset] Archer, C. R., Enslow, B. T., Taylor, A. B., De la Rosa, V., Bhattacharya, A., Shapiro, M. S. (2019) Crystal structure of the Ca2+/CaM complex with independent peptides of Kv7.4 (KCNQ4) A & B domains. Protein Data Bank. 6N5W.
- [preprint] Chen, J. J., Nathaniel, D. L., Raghavan, P., Nelson, M., Tian, R., Tse, E., Hong, J. Y., See, S. K., Mok, S. A., Southworth, D. R., Grinberg, L. T., Gestwicki, J. E., Leonetti, M. D., Kampmann, M. (2019) Compromised function of an ESCRT complex promotes endolysosomal escape of tau seeds and propagation of tau aggregation. bioRxiv. 10.1101/637785
Abbreviations and nomenclature
- Abbreviations should be defined in the one-column paragraph Footnotes section, after References.
- Abbreviations in the title do not need to be defined within the title; define them if necessary (see next) at their first appearance in the abstract or main text.
- Some terms and units need not be spelled out; please review the abbreviations and units page to learn more.
- Numerical data should be reported with the number of significant digits that corresponds to the magnitude of experimental uncertainty.
- Compounds: The rules and recommendations of IUPAC should be used for abbreviation of chemical names, nomenclature of chemical compounds, isotopic compounds, optically active isomers, and spectroscopic data; more information can be found here.
- Enzymes: The trivial and systematic names of enzymes should be those recommended by the Nomenclature Committee of the IUBMB and not abbreviated except in terms of the substrates for which there are accepted abbreviations - e.g., ATPase and RNase.
- Organisms: Nomenclature should follow the guidelines developed by the American Society for Microbiology.
- Lipids: The use of the classification, nomenclature and structural representation of lipids used by the LIPID MAPS Initiative should be used whenever possible (see Fahy et al. (2005) J. Lipid Res. 46, 839-862 and Fahy et al. (2009) J. Lipid Res. 50, S9-S14). Lipid structures can be downloaded directly from the "Lipid Classification" section of the LIPID MAPS Web site or structures drawn de novo from the "Tools" section of the website, and then inserted into the manuscript.
- Glycans: All figures that depict glycans using symbols for monosaccharides should follow the shapes and colors presented in the current version of the Symbol Nomenclature for Glycans (SNFG). The original citation is Varki et al. (2015) Glycobiology 25, 1323-1324.
- Additional links to nomenclature recommendations can be found here.
Unpublished observations and personal communications
- Must be cited using footnotes.
- Written approval for all personal communications, exactly as written in the text, should be available upon request.
- Should have an overall title and each column within the table must have a heading.
- Should contain sufficient experimental detail to be understood without reference to the text.
- Abbreviations, when necessary, should be defined in the legend.
- Tables must be submitted in an editable format in Microsoft Word 6.0 (Word 2001 for Mac) or a later version. Complex tables, such as sequence alignments, should be submitted as figures. Very large tables that cannot fit on a single page should be submitted as Supporting Information in an appropriate format such as Excel.
Figures and figure legends
- Legends should contain sufficient detail to make the figure easily understood.
- Legends should appear underneath the figures to which they refer.
- Should be numbered in the order in which they are mentioned in the text.
- All symbols should be defined and all equations used to plot lines and curves should be provided.
- See below for more instructions on preparing figures.
- Should contain all appropriate permissions statements for reuse of content from previous publications. If you are not sure whether you need permissions for any figures, please click here for a simple guide.
For publication at JBC, authors must include at least one molecular weight marker in electrophoretic gels (though markers above and below the band(s) of interest are preferred). Authors must also include appropriate rulers or scale bars in any microscopy images and in any photographic images of tissues or animals. Detailed information about these and other best practices related to data analysis/presentation can be found on our Author resources page; best practices related to image resolution, cropping, labeling, etc. can be found here. Please review this information carefully to avoid publication delays stemming from the use of poor quality images or inappropriately spliced gels, etc.
Numbered figures should be included in the combined manuscript file. If a revision is requested, figures will also need to be submitted as high-resolution TIFF, EPS, or PDF files. Tips on how to prepare these files can be found here. Figures supplied in EPS format should have all fonts converted to outlines/paths to avoid problems with character substitutions (in Adobe Illustrator, choose Edit » Select All then Type » Create Outlines).
It is the authors' responsibility to verify the quality of the graphics and confirm that compression of the files during the submission process does not distort the images.We cannot accept figure files formatted for certain applications, such as Microsoft Office (PowerPoint, Word, Excel, Access), Corel Perfect Office (WordPerfect, Quattro Pro, Presentations), and Lotus SmartSuite (Freelance Graphics, 1-2-3, Approach, and WordPro).
Color figures must be prepared in RGB color mode, not CMYK. The use of color figures is encouraged where they will enhance the presentation of the data. Any figure submitted in color will be reviewed and processed with the understanding that the figure will be published in color. Because color blindness affects 5-10% of the population it is recommended that you create figures that are accessible to all, including those with impaired color vision. Please follow these five guidelines: 1) use a color-blind safe palette; 2) use sufficiently high contrast; 3) in fluorescent red-green images, replace red with magenta; 4) simulate how your design would look to the color-blind eye using one of the many free tools or the "Proof setup" function in Adobe Photoshop; 5) consider if you really need to use color to represent your data or if monochromatic figures, or different shapes, positions and line types could be used instead.
Figure dimensions and labeling
Figure files should be properly sized and cropped so that no unnecessary white space is left bordering the figure. Figures will be placed in 1 (3.5 in/8.9 cm), 1.5 (5 in/12.7 cm) or 2 (7.2 in/18.2 cm) column widths. The maximum height is 6 inches (15 cm). Panels should be assembled into a single composite figure that fits on one page and this image saved as a single file.
Text labels should be adjusted so that the smallest type on the figure will be at least 2 mm high at the intended width. The sizes of numbers, letters and symbols used in multi-paneled figures should be consistent between panels and units of measurement must be given. Helvetica or European PI fonts should be used for best results.
Figures must be prepared with the proper resolution for publication to avoid inaccurate presentation of the data. The minimum acceptable resolution for all figures is 300 dpi. Excessive file compression can distort images, so files should be carefully checked after compression. Note that figures that contain both line art (such as graphs) and RGB/grayscale areas (such as photographs) are best prepared as EPS (vector) files with embedded TIFF images for the RGB/grayscale portions. The resolution of those embedded TIFF images should be at least 300 dpi. For more information, click here.
Before a manuscript is formally accepted, the figures will be reviewed for quality and adherence to editorial policies. Authors may be asked to revise figures such that they are of sufficient resolution and quality for publication. These revisions may include adjusting brightness/contrast, indicating splice sites, including molecular weight markers (where appropriate for electrophoretic gels), and improving figure quality. It may be necessary for authors to rebuild figure files and/or rescan images. Authors may also be asked to provide original data for review. Any changes made to a figure or text file beyond what was requested will result in publication delays and will be sent back to the authors unless justification is provided. Manuscripts may be sent back to authors for another round of editorial peer review if authors are unable to fully comply with any request.
Requirements for data reporting
Authors must follow ASBMB's policies for reporting and depositing information related to new sequences, 'omics datasets, and structural data described here to avoid delays in review or publication. More information about best practices for data collection and reporting related to other techniques can be found here.
Preparing manuscript for submission
Any additional files that are meant to facilitate the manuscript's review (such as a second PDF file that contains line numbers) should be uploaded as "Supporting Information (NOT FOR PUBLICATION)," so that they will not appear online if this version of the manuscript is accepted.
All the data necessary to support the conclusions of a paper should be included with the main body of the paper. Any additional data supporting the research reported in a manuscript but not essential for the interpretations presented in the text may be included in Supporting Information. Also, data in formats that cannot be accommodated in the text may be included in Supporting Information. Therefore, Supporting Information may include: experimental results under additional conditions, non-essential controls, videos, 3-D structures/images, extended chemical syntheses, extensive NMR data, kinetic modeling data, and other large data sets. Supporting Information will be reviewed as a part of the normal manuscript review process and will be judged by the same rigorous criteria as the main body of the paper. Most Supporting Information can be submitted as a single pdf file; this pdf should begin with the title of the article, the names of the authors, and a list of the material included. Pages should be numbered S-1, S-2... Tables and figures in Supporting Information should be labeled Table S1, Table S2... Each figure legend should be placed directly by the figure. If references are cited in this section, they should be included in the main manuscript file, beginning after the references cited in the main text, and cited in the Supporting Information section at the end of the article. All supporting tables and figures must be of high quality. Supporting Information in file types other than pdf, such as large data files, movies, etc., should be submitted in their native formats as separate files, and the content listed/described in the main Supporting Information pdf. Supporting Information cannot be added after acceptance. Deposition of original data into widely accepted data deposition sites, such as Zenodo, Dryad or Figshare is also allowed; in this case, the corresponding accession code or doi should be included in the manuscript.
The following Supporting Information file formats are accepted: doc, docx, gif, html, jpg, pdf, ppt, pptx, txt, xls, xlsx, and zip. File formats avi, mov, mpg, pdb, and wmv can be uploaded in a zip file.In cases where authors have made data available in an interactive way on a website that cannot be translated to a static file or where authors need to refer to websites where they obtained or analyzed data, authors should provide these resources as Research Resource Identifiers (RRIDs), although a link to the relevant website may be provided. Authors are asked to carefully consider the long-term availability of the website in question and to use official or community-supported sites whenever possible; JBC is not responsible for the long-term archiving and maintenance of any third party hosted site.
Preparing the cover letter
Authors are invited but not required to provide a cover letter for their manuscript. Most of the information that typically is included in cover letters is now collected as part of the online submission process (i.e., whether any version of the manuscript has been submitted to JBC previously, whether any previous communications with a JBC editor or staff member have taken place regarding the manuscript, or recommendations of scientists with expertise appropriate to handle or evaluate the manuscript or exclusion of those who might have a conflict of interest from reviewing the work). However, if desired, authors may choose to reiterate any of this information or to include a brief description of the novelty and significance of the work in a separate cover letter.
Submission declaration and verification
Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract, a published lecture, academic thesis, or preprint, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service Crossref Similarity Check.
Revised manuscripts must be accompanied by a detailed point-by-point listing as to how each of the reviewers' comments has been addressed and describes any other changes made to the manuscript. Authors are invited to upload a copy of the original manuscript marked using Word with Track Changes, highlighting, or colored text to indicate changes and facilitate evaluation of the revisions. Such a file should be uploaded as "Revised Manuscript (with tracked changes)," so that it does not appear online if this version of the paper is accepted. The main file should not include tracked changes/color, etc., as it will be published directly as a Paper in Press if accepted.