Guide for Authors

All journal information and instructions compiled in one document (PDF) in just one mouse-click Download Guide for Authors in PDF

Types of Paper

Contributions falling into the following categories will be considered for publication: Original articles, Review articles, Short communications and Letter to the Editor. Please ensure that you select the appropriate article type from the list of options when making your submission. Authors contributing to special issues should ensure that they select the special issue article type from this list.

Submission checklist

You can use this list to carry out a final check of your submission before you send it to the journal for review. Please check the relevant section in this Guide for Authors for more details.

Ensure that the following items are present:

One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
• E-mail address
• Full postal address

All necessary files have been uploaded:
• Include keywords
• All figures (include relevant captions)
• All tables (including titles, description, footnotes)
• Ensure all figure and table citations in the text match the files provided
• Indicate clearly if color should be used for any figures in print
Graphical Abstracts / Highlights files (where applicable)
Supplemental files (where applicable)

Further considerations
• Manuscript has been 'spell checked' and 'grammar checked'
• All references mentioned in the Reference List are cited in the text, and vice versa
• Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Internet)
• A competing interests statement is provided, even if the authors have no competing interests to declare
• Journal policies detailed in this guide have been reviewed
• Referee suggestions and contact details provided, based on journal requirements

For further information, visit our Support Center.

Ethics in publishing

Please see our information pages on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication.

Declaration of competing interest

All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. Authors should complete the declaration of competing interest statement using this template and upload to the submission system at the Attach/Upload Files step. Note: Please do not convert the .docx template to another file type. Author signatures are not required. If there are no interests to declare, please choose the first option in the template. This statement will be published within the article if accepted. More information.

Conflict of Interest and Integrity statements should be included in a cover letter and all authors are requested to sign and date the letter.

Declaration of interest

All authors are requested to disclose any actual or potential conflict of interest including any financial, personal or other relationships with other people or organizations within three years of beginning the submitted work that could inappropriately influence, or be perceived to influence, their work. More information.

Nomenclature of new species

All authors are requested to submit the LSID(Life Science Identifiers) number with hyperlink for new species from the appropriate official register (eg. ZooBank, MycoBanketc.), when preparing their manuscript of taxonomic paper with description of new species.

Submission declaration and verification

Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract, a published lecture or academic thesis, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service Crossref Similarity Check.

Please note that preprints can be shared anywhere at any time, in line with Elsevier's sharing policy. Sharing your preprints e.g. on a preprint server will not count as prior publication (see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' for more information).

Use of inclusive language

Inclusive language acknowledges diversity, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and promotes equal opportunities. Content should make no assumptions about the beliefs or commitments of any reader; contain nothing which might imply that one individual is superior to another on the grounds of age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition; and use inclusive language throughout. Authors should ensure that writing is free from bias, stereotypes, slang, reference to dominant culture and/or cultural assumptions. We advise to seek gender neutrality by using plural nouns ("clinicians, patients/clients") as default/wherever possible to avoid using "he, she," or "he/she." We recommend avoiding the use of descriptors that refer to personal attributes such as age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition unless they are relevant and valid. These guidelines are meant as a point of reference to help identify appropriate language but are by no means exhaustive or definitive.

Changes to authorship

Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the journal Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed.
Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted. While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the Editor will result in a corrigendum.

Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement'. Acceptance of the agreement will ensure the widest possible dissemination of information. An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.

Permission of the editorial board is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations (please consult If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article.

Elsevier supports responsible sharing
Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.

Role of the funding source

You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.

Open access

Please visit our Open Access page for more information.

Elsevier Researcher Academy
Researcher Academy is a free e-learning platform designed to support early and mid-career researchers throughout their research journey. The "Learn" environment at Researcher Academy offers several interactive modules, webinars, downloadable guides and resources to guide you through the process of writing for research and going through peer review. Feel free to use these free resources to improve your submission and navigate the publication process with ease.

Language and Language Services

Please write your text in good English (only American usage is accepted). If a manuscript does not meet linguistic standards, it may be returned before review. Authors who require information about language editing and copyediting services pre- and post-submission, please visit or our customer support site at for more information.


Submission to this journal proceeds totally online. Use the following guidelines to prepare your article. Via the homepage of this journal ( you will be guided stepwise through the creation and uploading of the various files. The system automatically converts source files to a single Adobe Acrobat PDF version of the article, which is used in the peer-review process. Please note that even though manuscript source files are converted to PDF at submission for the review process, these source files are needed for further processing after acceptance. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, takes place by e-mail and via the author's homepage, removing the need for a hard-copy paper trail. If you are unable to provide an electronic version, please contact the editorial office prior to submission e-mail:; telephone: +82-42-601-8038; or fax: +82-42-601-7787.

Additional Information

Tables and figures may be presented with captions within the main body of the manuscript; if so, figures should additionally be uploaded as high resolution files.

Peer review

This journal operates a single blind review process. All contributions are typically sent to a minimum of two independent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor's decision is final. More information on types of peer review.

Use of word processing software
It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier). Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork.
To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.


If the LaTeX file is suitable, proofs will be produced without rekeying the text. The article should preferably be written using Elsevier's document class "elsarticle", or alternatively any of the other recognized classes and formats supported in Elsevier's electronic submissions system, for further information visit our Support Center.
The Elsevier "elsarticle" LaTeX style file package (including detailed instructions for LaTeX preparation) can be obtained from the Quickguide: It consists of the file: elsarticle.cls, complete user documentation for the class file, bibliographic style files in various styles, and template files for a quick start.

Essential title page information

Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
Author names and affiliations. Author names are spelled out in full (except middle names) and separated by commas and family names (surname) appear last. Where the family name may be ambiguous (e.g. a double name), please indicate this clearly. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names, including country name. Indicate all affiliations with a superscript number immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. If an author has more than one affiliation, the superscripted numbers are separated by a comma.
Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. There is an asterisk to indicate the corresponding author. Ensure that telephone (mandatory) and fax numbers (optional) (with country and area code) are provided in addition to the e-mail address. Contact details must be kept up to date by the corresponding author. If more than 1 corresponding author, use "(author's name)" to separate the corresponding authors' e-mail.
Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.
Running title. Running article title is no more than 50 characters in length and only first word is capitalized (unless word is a proper noun, species name).

Article structure


A concise and factual abstract is required. The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results and major conclusions. An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. For this reason, References should be avoided, but if essential, then cite the author(s) and year(s). Also, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself.


Authors are invited to submit up to 5 keywords associated with their paper, in alphabetical order and list after the Abstract.

State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results.

Material and methods
Provide sufficient details to allow the work to be reproduced by an independent researcher. Methods that are already published should be summarized, and indicated by a reference. If quoting directly from a previously published method, use quotation marks and also cite the source. Any modifications to existing methods should also be described.
It may be omitted in case of the category of "Letter to the editor". Also, the details of article structures for "Letter to the editor" can be discussed with the editor-in-chief.

Results should be clear and concise. It may be use the name of heading as "Systematic accounts" or "Taxonomic accounts" instead of "Results" in case of the taxonomic paper.

This should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. A combined Results and Discussion section is often appropriate. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature.

The main conclusions of the study may be presented in a short Conclusions section, which may stand alone or form a subsection of a Discussion or Results and Discussion section.

If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq. (A.1), Eq. (A.2), etc.; in a subsequent appendix, Eq. (B.1) and so on. Similarly for tables and figures: Table A.1; Fig. A.1, etc.


Where a term/definition is continually referred to (i.e. ≥ 3 times in the text), it is written in full when it first appears, followed by the subsequent abbreviation in parentheses (even if it was previously defined in the abstract); thereafter, the abbreviation is used. Ensure that an abbreviation so defined does actually appear later in the text (excluding in figures/tables), otherwise, it should be deleted. Such abbreviations that are unavoidable in the abstract must be defined at their first mention there. Ensure consistency of abbreviations throughout the article.


Collate acknowledgments in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g. providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.).

Formatting of funding sources
List funding sources in this standard way to facilitate compliance to funder's requirements:

Funding: This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health [grant numbers xxxx, yyyy]; the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, WA [grant number zzzz]; and the United States Institutes of Peace [grant number aaaa].

It is not necessary to include detailed descriptions on the program or type of grants and awards. When funding is from a block grant or other resources available to a university, college, or other research institution, submit the name of the institute or organization that provided the funding.

If no funding has been provided for the research, please include the following sentence:

This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Nomenclature and Units

Follow internationally accepted rules and conventions: use the international system of units (SI). If other quantities are mentioned, give their equivalent in SI. Authors wishing to present a table of nomenclature should do so on the second page of their manuscript. Temperatures are given in degrees Celsius, e.g. 33°C [note: no space between number and degree symbol].

Math formulae
Please submit math equations as editable text and not as images. Present simple formulae in line with normal text where possible and use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line for small fractional terms, e.g., X/Y. In principle, variables are to be presented in italics. Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp. Number consecutively any equations that have to be displayed separately from the text (if referred to explicitly in the text).

Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article. Many word processors can build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Otherwise, please indicate the position of footnotes in the text and list the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article. Do not include footnotes in the Reference list.

Gene nomenclature

Current standard international nomenclature for genes should be adhered to. Genes should be typed in italic font and include the accession number.

Specimens Deposition

Authors are strongly recommended to deposit type specimens or voucher specimens (in case of new or unrecorded species) in national or internationally registered public museums or collections with relevant registration numbers of deposited material.

Miscellaneous style points

  • When within parentheses, use "vs.", e.g. (male vs. female) [note: vs. is italicized with end period]
  • When NOT within parentheses, spell it out, e.g. male versus female [note: not italicized]
  • e.g. NOT e.g., [note: no comma]
  • i.e. NOT i.e., [note: no comma]
  • Order of parentheses should be used as: {efitinib [Iressa (ZD1839); AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals, Wilmington, DE, USA]}
  • Italicize all foreign-language terms, e.g. in vivo, in vitro, etc.
  • Italicize species names, e.g. Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli were found in…
  • "st", "nd", "rd", "th" are superscripted after numbers e.g. 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th
  • Use en dashes (-) for range in text
  • Use closed-up em dashes (—) for parenthetical dashes
  • Ensure use of hyphens is consistent throughout
  • Use repetitive/serial units, e.g. 60%, 74% and 25% NOT 60, 74 and 25%
  • Contractions do not have end period, e.g. Dr NOT Dr., Mr NOT Mr.
  • Quotes: double quotes are used; single quotes used for quotes within a quote
  • For equipment, software, chemical reagents, etc., complete details of the manufacturer should be provided, e.g. - SPSS version 11 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA)
  • OR if name of product appears within parentheses: (SPSS version 11; SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA)


Electronic artwork
General points
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.
• Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
• Provide captions to illustrations separately.
• Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the published version.
• Submit each illustration as a separate file.
• Ensure that color images are accessible to all, including those with impaired color vision.

A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available.
You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format.
Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.
Please do not:
• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
• Supply files that are too low in resolution;
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

Color Artwork

Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF, EPS or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color on the Web (e.g. ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version.

Figure captions

Ensure that each illustration has a caption and is numbered consecutively, in the order of its citation in the text. Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used. If figure has more than 1 part, then the different parts are labelled using capital letters: A, B, C, etc., and in the figure legend, the capital letter is placed at the beginning of the phrase that describes the corresponding part. e. g. Figure 1. Neoblastobasis carmelliae Chen & Wu: A, adult; B, head part; C, thorax, D, male genitalia; E, female genitalia.

If figure grouped with different objects under the similar category are labelled using Arabic numbers: 1, 2, 3, etc, e. g. Figures 1-4. Adult of Neoblastobasis spp.: 1, N. carmelliae Chen & Wu; 2, N. biceratala (Park, 1984); 3, N. songi Park; 4, N. decolor Meyrick

In text and figure legend, "Figure #." is used, NOT "Fig. #"

Abbreviations used in the Figure, even when already defined in the text, should be defined and placed after the footnotes and presented like in this example: CT = computed tomography; MRI = magnetic resonance imaging. [note the use of "=" with a space on either side, semi-colon to separate, and a period after the last]


Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text. Place footnotes to tables below the table body and indicate them with superscript lowercase letters. Avoid vertical rules. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in tables do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article. Citations such as Table 1A and 1B are not allowed; either they are combined into 1 table or split into 2 tables, with corresponding changes made in the text citation. Use en dashes(–) for null entries. Shortening of some words inside table (NOT in table title or footnotes): year(s) → y; month(s) → mo; day(s) → d; hour(s) → h; minute(s) → min; second(s) → s; and → &. If abbreviations are required, follow the same instructions as for figures.


Citation in Text

Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list. For an in press article with DOI, the journal name and, if possible, the year and volume, must be provided.

Web references
As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.

References in a special issue
Please ensure that the words 'this issue' are added to any references in the list (and any citations in the text) to other articles in the same Special Issue.

Reference Style

Text: All citations in the text should refer to:
1. Single author: the author's surname (without initials, unless there is ambiguity) and the year of publication;
2. Two authors: both surauthors' names and the year of publication;
3. Three or more authors: first author's name followed by "et al" and the year of publication.
Citations may be made directly (or parenthetically). Groups of references should be listed first alphabetically, then chronologically.
Example: "as demonstrated (Allan 1996a, 1996b, 1999; Allan and Jones 1995). Kramer et al (2000) have recently shown ...." or (Kramer et al 2000)" [note: "et al" has no end period and is not in italics]
List: References should be arranged first alphabetically and then further sorted chronologically if necessary. More than one reference from the same author(s) in the same year must be identified by the letters "a", "b", "c", etc., placed after the year of publication.
Examples: [note the use of italics, semi-colons, colons, en dashes, word capitalization, and full page range]

Reference to a journal publication:
Van der Geer J, Hanraads JAJ, Lupton RA. 2000. The art of writing a scientific article. Journal of Science Communication 163:51-59.

Reference to a book:
Mettam GR, Adams LB. 1994. How to prepare an electronic version of your article. In: Jones BS, Smith RZ, editors. Introduction to the electronic age. New York: E-Publishing Inc. pp 281-304.

HIV/AIDS Reports. 2007. Available at: [Date accessed: 31 December 2007]

Romanization (For Korean authors)

For translation of Korean proper nouns such as mountains, rivers, cities, towns and so on, it should be referred to the principles of Romanization issued by the National Institute of the Korean Language.

Examples: Namsan (Namsan Mountain would be allowed when it appears first, not use Mt. Nam, Mt. Namsan), Songnisan, Geumgang, Dokdo, Chungcheongbuk-do (or Chungbuk), Suwon (not Suwon City), Busan, Bongcheon 1(il)-dong, Samjik-myeon, Jeju-do (when it means a province), Jejudo (when it means an island)

Use of the Digital Object Identifier

The Digital Object Identifier (DOI) may be used to cite and link to electronic documents. The DOI consists of a unique alpha-numeric character string which is assigned to a document by the publisher upon the initial electronic publication. The assigned DOI never changes. Therefore, it is an ideal medium for citing a document, particularly 'Articles in press' because they have not yet received their full bibliographic information. The correct format for citing a DOI is shown as follows:
When you use the DOI to create URL hyperlinks to documents on the web, they are guaranteed never to change.

Online proof correction

To ensure a fast publication process of the article, we kindly ask authors to provide us with their proof corrections within two days. Corresponding authors will receive an e-mail with a link to our online proofing system, allowing annotation and correction of proofs online. The environment is similar to MS Word: in addition to editing text, you can also comment on figures/tables and answer questions from the Copy Editor. Web-based proofing provides a faster and less error-prone process by allowing you to directly type your corrections, eliminating the potential introduction of errors.
If preferred, you can still choose to annotate and upload your edits on the PDF version. All instructions for proofing will be given in the e-mail we send to authors, including alternative methods to the online version and PDF.
We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication. Please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.

Visit the Elsevier Support Center to find the answers you need. Here you will find everything from Frequently Asked Questions to ways to get in touch.
You can also check the status of your submitted article or find out when your accepted article will be published.

Sample for systematic accounts of a taxonomic paper

Systematic accounts

Genus Neoblastobasis Kuznetzov & Sinev, 1985

   Neoblastobasis Kuznetzov & Sinev, 1985: 529.

   Type species: Blastobasis biceratala Park, 1984.

Neoblastobasis camelliae Chen & Wu, 2013

(Figures 1-4)

Neoblastobasis camelliae Chen & Wu, 2013: 556-562. TL: Jiangxi, China.

   Diagnosis. Wingspan 14 mm (Figure 1). This species is superficially similar to other congeners. In the male genitalia, it is also similar to those of N. ianella Adamski, 2003 described from Thailand, but it can be distinguished by the fact that the ventral part of the valva in N. camelliae is as long as the dorsal part, whereas it is shorter than the dorsal part in Neoblastobasis ianella; moreover, in N. camelliae, a broadly curved spinelike sclerite is present in the aedeagus.

   Male genitalia (Figures 2-3). Uncus broad basally, slightly narrowed toward apex; apical part more or less rounded. Gnathos sclerotized, with two small dents medially. Tegumen wide, with series of long tergal setae on lateral surface.

   Material examined. 2♀, Hongleung, Seoul, 25 v 1999 (KS Oh &WY Jang), gen. slide no. CIS-6366/Park-coll. CIS.

   Distribution. Korea (Central), China (Jiangxi).

   Remarks. A slight difference in the shape of the uncus from that of the Chinese specimen (Figure 3, indicated by arrow) is observed, and it is considered an individual variation so far. However, further study involving more material is necessary. It is known that larvae bore into the seeds of C. oleifera Abel (Chen et al 2013).

Neoblastobasis songi Park, sp. nov.

(Figures 5-7).

   Type. Holotype: ♀, Sanghyo-dong, Seogwipo, Jeju, 25 viii 2012 (JH Song), gen. slide no. CIS-6347/Kim-coll. NSMK.

   Diagnosis. This species is similar to N. spiniharpella Kuznetzov & Sinev, 1985 in color and markings of the forewing, but it can be distinguished from the latter by the following characters in the male genitalia: uncus broadly elongate, with round apex; gnathos with stronger, larger triangular median dentates; dorsal process of valva narrow in basal 2/5, with broadly expanded spatulate distal part, densely setose with long setae; ventral part of valva with more heavily sclerotized, sickle-shaped process apically: sacculus broadened beyond middle, then narrowed.

Description. Wingspan, 13 mm (Figure 5). Head smooth with appressed scales, pale yellowish brown dorsally; frons pale yellowish brown, with dark fuscous scales in lower part. Antennal scape covered with large, yellowish brown scales; flagellum dark gray, with well-developed notch at base (Figure 6, indicated as arrow). Labial pulpus was not available for description because of severe damage.

    Male genitalia (Figure 7). Uncus broad, parallel sided; apex more or less rounded. Gnathos with stronger, larger, triangular dentates medially. Dorsal process of valva narrow in basal 2/5, with broadly expanded, large spatulate distal part, densely setose with long setae; ventral part with heavily sclerotized, sickle-shaped process apically, with long setae along outer margin below apical process; basal process of valva more or less semiglobular in basal 1/3, with extremely long, heavily sclerotized spine, longer than sacculus.

   Female. Unknown.

   Distribution. Korea (Jeju).

   Remarks. This species is described, based on a single male, which was collected in the citrus farm in Seogwipo, Jeju-do. However, no information is available for the larval habits of this species.

   Etymology. This new species is named after Dr JH Song, an entomologist, who collected the holotype specimen.