Guide for Authors

All journal information and instructions compiled in one document (PDF) in just one mouse-click Download Guide for Authors in PDF


Types of manuscripts

Three types of manuscript are solicited:

Empirical articles should report significant experimental findings. For single-study reports, the combined number of words in the introduction and discussion sections should normally not exceed 2,200 words (3000 words for multiple studies).(The limit is not set for the entire manuscript because we want to encourage detailed description of method and a results section that reports outcomes from all tasks.) The Editor may consider exceptions to these limits if special circumstances are justified in the cover letter, but these exceptions will be rare.

Review articles should critically review a topic or topics of importance to the readership of JARMAC, and have no restrictions on length

Target articles and related peer commentaries are typically invited by the Editor. Authors may suggest topics by writing a précis and sending it to the Editorial Office for consideration. Target articles should not exceed 10,000 words. Authors considering a target article should contact the Editor prior to submission.

In Memoriam Section An annual In Memoriam section of the journal will celebrate the life and contributions of SARMAC members who have contributed significantly to research in any area of applied cognition and memory. Submissions should be authored by individuals who personally knew or collaborated with the honoree; collaborative contributions are encouraged. Contributions should not exceed 1,000 words and include three to five ?recommended readings? that are selected from the honoree?s contributions. A black-and-white photograph of the honoree may be included. Submissions will be peer-reviewed by scholars familiar with the honoree?s work prior to publication.

Double-blind review and the option to bypass

To prepare for (double) blind review (where the names of the authors are withheld from the reviewers and vice versa), authors should make every effort to remove any identifying information from the manuscript and references. All information pertaining to identification, title, institutional affiliation, etc. should be included on the title page, which is submitted separately; only the title of the manuscript should appear on the first page of the manuscript. Alternatively, authors who choose not to have their identities concealed may simply keep the title page as part of the manuscript, submit a blank page as a separate title page, and eschew the other means of removing identifying content. Authors should indicate which option they are choosing in their cover letter

Article structure, style and format

In all matters related to the structure, style, and format of the manuscript (except the title page), please use the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Sixth Edition, ISBN 978-1-4338-0561-5, copies of which may be ordered from or APA Order Dept., P.O.B. 2710, Hyattsville, MD 20784, USA or APA, 3 Henrietta Street, London, WC3E 8LU, UK.

Essential title page Information

Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
Author names and affiliations Please clearly indicate the given name(s) and family name(s) of each author and check that all names are accurately spelled. Present the authors' affiliations (where the actual work was done, including the country name) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower- case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address.
Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing publication, and post-publication. Provide the email and full postal address of the corresponding author. Ensure that that contact details are kept up to date by the corresponding author.
Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.
Word count. For all articles, please declare the word count of your manuscript (upon first submission as well as resubmission). For empirical articles, please also declare the word count of sections identifiable as introduction and discussion.


A concise and factual abstract is required and must contain 150 words or fewer. The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, method, principal results, and major conclusions. An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. For this reason, References should be avoided, but if essential, then cite the author(s) and year(s). Also, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself.

Graphical Abstract

Although a graphical abstract is optional, its use is encouraged because it draws more attention to the online article. The graphical abstract should summarize the contents of the article in a concise, pictorial form designed to capture the attention of a wide readership. Graphical abstracts should be submitted as a separate file in the online submission system. Image size: Please provide an image with a minimum of 531 × 1328 pixels (h × w) or proportionally more. The image should be readable at a size of 5 × 13 cm using a regular screen resolution of 96 dpi. Preferred file types: TIFF, EPS, PDF or MS Office files. See for examples.

Authors can make use of Elsevier's Illustration and Enhancement service to ensure the best presentation of their images and in accordance with all technical requirements: Illustration Service.


Highlights are optional for this journal. If desired, they should be submitted at the revision stage, not for initial submission. They consist of a short collection of bullet points that convey the core findings of the article and should be submitted in a separate file in the online submission system. Please use 'Highlights' in the file name and include 3 to 5 bullet points (maximum 85 characters, including spaces, per bullet point). See for examples.


Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 6 keywords, using US spelling and avoiding general terms, plural terms, and multiple concepts (e.g., ones connected by conjunctions and prepositions). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.

General Audience Summary

On a separate page, between the abstract and the introduction, type a summary of the research that can be understood by generally educated adults with no particular experience with experimental design and statistical analyses. The paragraph should capture the issue under investigation, the method, the most important outcome, and its implication for or application to real-world settings. This summary, limited to 300 words, should be suitable for circulation to popular media. Like the Abstract, the General Audience Summary will ALSO be uploaded as a separate document during submission, but please do not forget to include both in the document or pdf of your submitted manuscript.


Describe the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, but avoid a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results. Begin the first page with the title of the article, not the word Introduction. Remember that the page count applies to all introductory and discussion sections.


Provide sufficient detail to allow the work to be reproduced. Methods already published can be reported by citing the original report and describing modifications. Regardless, authors must include enough detail to make the report comprehensible. Authors must also state their method for determining sample size and report all tasks and procedures conducted prior to the last measure to be analyzed. Procedures not directly relevant to the research question can be described briefly, but they should not be omitted.


Results should be clear and concise. Describe the outcome both in terms of the statistical analyses and in the language of the research. Include exact p values for statistical tests, measures of effect size, and confidence intervals when appropriate. For experimental reports, effects should be accompanied by their corresponding means and standard deviations, either within the text or in a table. Correlational reports should also include these descriptive statistics. Please consult the APA manual for the style of reporting all statistical outcomes. Take care to report all experimental conditions and dependent variables associated with the research design, although less central outcomes can be described briefly in summary form or footnotes. Report all data exclusions and the method of determining sample size. Sections that are entitled "Results and Discussion" should minimize discussion.

Discussion (or general discussion)

This section should begin with a brief summary of the results in the context of the research issue and continue with a more detailed discussion of their meaning. Be sure to describe the implications of your research for both theoretical concerns and real-world situations and applications. Address important limitations in each domain, as well.

Author Contributions

Write a paragraph to describe the contributions that each author made to the research and the preparation of the manuscript. Place it at the end of the Discussion or General Discussion section. It will also be requested as a separate upload during submission.


A paragraph of acknowledgments may follow the paragraph on author contributions. Do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., access to participants, data collection, language or other writing assistance, proofreading).

Math Formulae

Please submit math equations as editable text and not as images. Present simple formulae in line with normal text where possible and use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line for small fractional terms, e.g., X/Y. In principle, variables are to be presented in italics. Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp. Number consecutively any equations that have to be displayed separately from the text (if referred to explicitly in the text).

Footnotes should be used sparingly; if something is important it should be included in the main text, although footnotes are sometimes useful if inclusion in the main text distracts from the flow of the prose. Number footnotes consecutively throughout the article. Many word processors can build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Otherwise, please indicate the position of footnotes in the text and list the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article.

Electronic artwork and figures

General points

  • Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
  • Save text in illustrations as "graphics" or enclose the font.
  • Use only the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Times, Symbol.
  • Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
  • Provide captions to illustrations separately.
  • Produce images near to the desired size of the printed version.
  • Use a correct format: EPS, PDF, TIFF or JPEG, or Microsoft Office files (PowerPoint, Excel).
  • Submit each figure as a separate file; also embed them at the relevant point in the article.
  • Do not place them at the end of the manuscript, and avoid using the convention of "insert Figure X about here."

A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available on our website:

If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply "as is".
Please do not:

  • Supply files that are optimized for screen use (like GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); the resolution is too low;
  • Supply files that are too low in resolution;
  • Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

Color artwork
Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF), or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color online (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. For color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article. Please indicate your preference for color: in print or online only. For further information on the preparation of electronic artwork, please see
Please note: Because of technical complications that can arise by converting color figures to 'gray scale' (for the printed version should you not opt for color in print) please submit in addition usable black and white versions of all the color illustrations.

Figure captions
Ensure that each illustration has a caption. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum. In the caption, explain all symbols and abbreviations.


Please submit tables as editable text and not as images. Tables can be placed either next to the relevant text in the article, or on separate page(s) at the end. Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text. Between the table number and the table body, provide a title that refers the measure or set of measures; place any table notes below the table body. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in them do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article. Do not use vertical rules. If you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. For formatting style, please use the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.


Citation in text
Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications should not be included in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication. Note that all authors are included the first time the source is cited in a paper, unless there are six or more authors. In the latter case and on all subsequent citations of all sources with three or more authors, the Latin abbreviation "et al." is used following the first author's name. Avoid long lists of multiple citations for the same point, and alphabetize their order within each list. Try to cite the main sources instead of later replications (unless replication is the point) or tangential demonstrations.

Web references
As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given.

References in a special issue
Please ensure that the words 'this issue' are added to any references in the list (and any citations in the text) to other articles in the same Special Issue.

Reference style
References should be arranged first alphabetically and then further sorted chronologically if necessary. More than one reference from the same author(s) in the same year must be identified by the letters 'a', 'b', 'c', etc., placed after the year of publication.
Reference to a journal publication

Van der Geer, J., Hanraads, J. A. J., & Lupton, R. A. (2010). The art of writing a scientific article. Journal of Scientific Communications, 163, 51-59.
Reference to a book
Strunk, W., Jr., & White, E. B. (2000). The elements of style. (4th ed.). New York: Longman, (Chapter 4).
Reference to a chapter in an edited book
Mettam, G. R., & Adams, L. B. (2009). How to prepare an electronic version of your article. In B. S. Jones, & R. Z. Smith (Eds.), Introduction to the electronic age (pp. 281-304). New York: E-Publishing Inc.

[dataset] Oguro, M., Imahiro, S., Saito, S., Nakashizuka, T. (2015). Mortality data for Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions. Mendeley Data, v1.

Language(usage and editing services)

Please write your text in good English (US or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop ( or visit our customer support site ( for more information.

Use of word-processing software
It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. Note that source files of figures will be required whether or not you embed them in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork. To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.

Authors who prefer to prepare manuscripts by using LaTeX should consult for detailed submission instructions, templates, and other information.


Contact details for submissions, queries

Thiyagarajan Sivakumar - Journal Manager,
Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition

Ethics in publishing

Please see our information pages on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication.


Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.

Elements of the submission are described below. When you are ready, please submit your article via


We invite you to submit, with the manuscript, the names and e-mail addresses of two potential referees. Also indicate whether you believe any potential referees should be excluded. Note that the action editor retains the sole right to decide whether or not the suggested reviewers are used or excluded.

Confirmations and Declaration

Funding Sources
You will be asked to confirm that you have acknowledged all organizations that funded your research and provided grant numbers where appropriate.
Role of the funding source

You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.

Submission declaration and verification
Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously, except in the form of an abstract (see, and that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere.

Authorship approval
You will be asked to confirm that all authors have approved the submitted version of the manuscript.

Authorship contributions to empirical reports
You will be asked to state which authors: (1) conceived and designed the studies, (2) collected the data, (3) analyzed and interpreted the data, (4) wrote the manuscript, and (5) contributed in other ways, if applicable.

Declaration of competing interests
You will be asked to disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) your work. If no such conflict of interest exist; please state "The authors declare no conflict of interest."

Human and animal rights
If the research reported in the manuscript involves human or animal subjects, the author(s) warrant that they have obtained approval from an institutional review board or equivalent committee(s). If approval was not obtained, the authors must provide a detailed statement explaining why it was not needed.

Changes to authorship

This policy concerns the addition, deletion, or rearrangement of author names in the authorship of accepted manuscripts: Before the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Requests to add or remove an author, or to rearrange the author names, must be sent to the Journal Manager from the corresponding author of the accepted manuscript and must include: (a) the reason the name should be added or removed, or the author names rearranged and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, fax, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed. Requests that are not sent by the corresponding author will be forwarded by the Journal Manager to the corresponding author, who must follow the procedure as described above. Note that: (1) Journal Managers will inform the Journal Editors of any such requests and (2) publication of the accepted manuscript in an online issue is suspended until authorship has been agreed. After the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Any requests to add, delete, or rearrange author names in an article published in an online issue will follow the same policies as noted above and result in a corrigendum.


Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (for more information on this and copyright, see An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.

Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations (please consult If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases: please consult

For open access articles: Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an 'Exclusive License Agreement' (for more information see Permitted third party reuse of open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license (see

Open access

  • Articles are freely available to both subscribers and the wider public with permitted reuse
  • An open access publication fee is payable by authors or on their behalf e.g. by their research funder or institution


  • Articles are made available to subscribers as well as developing countries and patient groups through our universal access programs.
  • No open access publication fee payable by authors.

Regardless of how you choose to publish your article, the journal will apply the same peer review criteria and acceptance standards.

For open access articles, permitted third party (re)use is defined by the following Creative Commons user licenses:

Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY)
This license allows others to distribute and copy the article, create extracts, abstracts, and other revised versions, adaptations or derivative works of or from an article (such as a translation), include in a collective work (such as an anthology), text or data mine the article, even for commercial purposes, as long as they credit the author(s), do not represent the author as endorsing their adaptation of the article, and do not modify the article in such a way as to damage the author's honor or reputation.

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND)
For non-commercial purposes, this license allows others to distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.

The open access publication fee for this journal is USD 2150, excluding taxes. Learn more about Elsevier's pricing policy:

Informed consent and patient details

Studies on patients or volunteers require ethics committee approval and informed consent, which should be documented in the paper. Appropriate consents, permissions and releases must be obtained where an author wishes to include case details or other personal information or images of patients and any other individuals in an Elsevier publication. Written consents must be retained by the author and copies of the consents or evidence that such consents have been obtained must be provided to Elsevier on request. For more information, please review the Elsevier Policy on the Use of Images or Personal Information of Patients or other Individuals, Unless you have written permission from the patient (or, where applicable, the next of kin), the personal details of any patient included in any part of the article and in any supplementary materials (including all illustrations and videos) must be removed before submission.

Data, Analytic Methods (Code), and Research Materials Transparency

The policy of the Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition is to publish papers where authors indicate whether the data, methods used in the analysis, and materials used to conduct the research will be made available to any researcher for purposes of reproducing the results or replicating the procedure.

  1. Authors must, in acknowledgments or the first footnote, indicate if they will or will not make their data, analytic methods, and study materials available to other researchers.
  2. If an author agrees to make materials available, the author must specify where that material will be available.
Type of Disclosure Example Language
Data created for the study are available in a persistent repository All data and materials have been made publicly available at the [repository name] and can be accessed at [persistent URL or DOI]
Anonymized data created for the study are available in a persistent repository. Anonymized data and materials have been made publicly available at the [repository name] and can be accessed at [persistent URL or DOI]
Some data available In order to minimize the possibility of unintentionally sharing information that can be used to re-identify private information, a subset of the data generated for this study are available at [repository name] and can be accessed at [persistent URL or DOI]
Data available upon request from a third party Because of the sensitive nature of the data collected for this study, requests to access the dataset from qualified researchers trained in human subject confidentiality protocols may be sent to [name of organization] at [contact information].

Data references

This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in your published article

Video data

Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the files in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 150 MB. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages at Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.

Supplementary material

Elsevier accepts electronic supplementary material to support and enhance your scientific research. Supplementary files offer the author additional possibilities to publish supporting applications, high- resolution images, background datasets, sound clips and more. Supplementary files supplied will be published online alongside the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: In order to ensure that your submitted material is directly usable, please provide the data in one of our recommended file formats. Authors should submit the material in electronic format together with the article and supply a concise and descriptive caption for each file. For more detailed instructions please visit our artwork instruction pages at

Submission checklist

The following list will be useful during the final checking of an article prior to sending it to the journal for review. Please consult this Guide for Authors for further details of any item.
Ensure that the following items are present:
One Author designated as corresponding Author:
• E-mail address
• Full postal address
• Telephone and fax numbers
All necessary files have been uploaded
• Cover letter
• Title page WITH author identifiers (if concealing author identity)
• Manuscript WITHOUT author identifiers (including keywords, and tables/figures embedded) if concealing author identity, otherwise WITH author identifiers.
• All tables (including title, desciption, footnotes) and figure captions included in the manuscript.
• Figure source files
Further considerations
• Manuscript has been "spellchecked," "grammar-checked," and checked for use of APA guidelines for statistical style, numerical style, and citation style.
• References are in the correct format for this journal
• All references mentioned in the Reference list are cited in the text, and vice versa
• Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Web)
• Color figures are clearly marked as being intended for color reproduction on the Web (free of charge) and in print or to be reproduced in color on the Web (free of charge) and in black-and-white in print
• If only color on the Web is required, black and white versions of the figures are also supplied for printing purposes
For any further information please visit our customer support site at


Use of the Digital Object Identifier
The Digital Object Identifier (DOI) may be used to cite and link to electronic documents. The DOI consists of a unique alpha-numeric character string which is assigned to a document by the publisher upon the initial electronic publication. The assigned DOI never changes. Therefore, it is an ideal medium for citing a document, particularly 'Articles in press' because they have not yet received their full bibliographic information. Example of a correctly given DOI (in URL format; here an article in the journal Physics Letters B): When you use a DOI to create links to documents on the web, the DOIs are guaranteed never to change.

Online proof correction

Corresponding authors will receive an e-mail with a link to our online proofing system, allowing annotation and correction of proofs online. The environment is similar to MS Word: in addition to editing text, you can also comment on figures/tables and answer questions from the Copy Editor. Web-based proofing provides a faster and less error-prone process by allowing you to directly type your corrections, eliminating the potential introduction of errors.

If preferred, you can still choose to annotate and upload your edits on the PDF version. All instructions for proofing will be given in the e-mail we send to authors, including alternative methods to the online version and PDF.

We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication. Please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.

The corresponding author, at no cost, will be provided with a personalized link providing 50 days free access to the final published version of the article on ScienceDirect. This link can also be used for sharing via email and social networks. For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's WebShop ( Authors requiring printed copies of multiple articles may use Elsevier WebShop's 'Create Your Own Book' service to collate multiple articles within a single cover. (

You can track your submitted article at You can track your accepted article at You are also welcome to contact Customer Support via

Use of inclusive language

Inclusive language acknowledges diversity, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and promotes equal opportunities. Content should make no assumptions about the beliefs or commitments of any reader; contain nothing which might imply that one individual is superior to another on the grounds of age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition; and use inclusive language throughout. Authors should ensure that writing is free from bias, stereotypes, slang, reference to dominant culture and/or cultural assumptions. We advise to seek gender neutrality by using plural nouns ("clinicians, patients/clients") as default/wherever possible to avoid using "he, she," or "he/she." We recommend avoiding the use of descriptors that refer to personal attributes such as age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition unless they are relevant and valid. These guidelines are meant as a point of reference to help identify appropriate language but are by no means exhaustive or definitive.

Elsevier supports responsible sharing
Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.

Open access

Please visit our Open Access page for more information.

Data visualization

Include interactive data visualizations in your publication and let your readers interact and engage more closely with your research. Follow the instructions here to find out about available data visualization options and how to include them with your article.

Research data

This journal encourages and enables you to share data that supports your research publication where appropriate, and enables you to interlink the data with your published articles. Research data refers to the results of observations or experimentation that validate research findings. To facilitate reproducibility and data reuse, this journal also encourages you to share your software, code, models, algorithms, protocols, methods and other useful materials related to the project.

Below are a number of ways in which you can associate data with your article or make a statement about the availability of your data when submitting your manuscript. If you are sharing data in one of these ways, you are encouraged to cite the data in your manuscript and reference list. Please refer to the "References" section for more information about data citation. For more information on depositing, sharing and using research data and other relevant research materials, visit the research data page.

Data linking
If you have made your research data available in a data repository, you can link your article directly to the dataset. Elsevier collaborates with a number of repositories to link articles on ScienceDirect with relevant repositories, giving readers access to underlying data that gives them a better understanding of the research described.

There are different ways to link your datasets to your article. When available, you can directly link your dataset to your article by providing the relevant information in the submission system. For more information, visit the database linking page.

For supported data repositories a repository banner will automatically appear next to your published article on ScienceDirect.

In addition, you can link to relevant data or entities through identifiers within the text of your manuscript, using the following format: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN).

Mendeley Data
This journal supports Mendeley Data, enabling you to deposit any research data (including raw and processed data, video, code, software, algorithms, protocols, and methods) associated with your manuscript in a free-to-use, open access repository. During the submission process, after uploading your manuscript, you will have the opportunity to upload your relevant datasets directly to Mendeley Data. The datasets will be listed and directly accessible to readers next to your published article online.

For more information, visit the Mendeley Data for journals page.

Data statement
To foster transparency, we encourage you to state the availability of your data in your submission. This may be a requirement of your funding body or institution. If your data is unavailable to access or unsuitable to post, you will have the opportunity to indicate why during the submission process, for example by stating that the research data is confidential. The statement will appear with your published article on ScienceDirect. For more information, visit the Data Statement page.