Guide for Authors

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The Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis (JAAP) is devoted to the publication of papers dealing with innovative applications of pyrolysis processes, the characterization of products related to pyrolysis reactions, and investigations of reaction mechanism. To be considered by JAAP, a manuscript should present significant progress in these topics. The novelty must be satisfactorily argued in the cover letter. A manuscript with a cover letter to the editor not addressing the novelty is likely to be rejected without review.

More specifically, the Scope of the Journal includes:

Fundamental pyrolysis research on chemical substances and materials comprising:
- experimental studies of pyrolysis reactions such as chemical mechanism and kinetic investigations; this includes preparative pyrolysis methods for the synthesis of novel compounds and mechanisms of high temperature reactions;
- computational and theoretical studies of reaction mechanism, kinetics, and thermodynamics are acceptable, provided they are directly related to experimental data, either new or previously published, but they must be described adequately in the paper;
- computational processing of pyrolysis data, such as advanced pattern recognition and principal component analysis and other multivariate analyses.

Analytical pyrolysis, i.e. the characterization of a material in inert atmosphere by thermally induced degradation reactions;
- exploring chemical composition and structure of materials by revealing thermal and chemical decomposition reactions leading to products fully identified by chemical and spectroscopic methods;
- applications of analytical pyrolysis in environmental, biological, medical, forensic, cultural heritage, food, geochemical, polymer, and materials science;
- new instrumentation and new analytical methods using pyrolysis reactions or to unravel the chemical composition of pyrolysis products.

Applied pyrolysis dealing with the development of pyrolysis processes for producing valuable chemicals and/or energy carriers (gas, liquid, solid or electricity) and/or materials from fossil or renewable feedstock or waste, the recycling of materials, and the disposal of toxic substances. The manuscript must discuss the relationships between pyrolysis conditions and product characteristics. This topic includes:
- various feedstock (fossil fuels, biomass, wastes, polymers, etc.) and the co-processing of different feedstock;
- various thermal processes (slow and fast pyrolysis, torrefaction, carbonization, high pressure pyrolysis, catalytic pyrolysis, deoxygenation, hydropyrolysis, solvent liquefaction).

The combination of a pyrolysis process with other types of treatment (mechanical, biological, or chemical) or materials characterization is within the scope of the journal only if the main focus of the manuscript is the pyrolysis process. Integrated processes combining pyrolysis reactors and products purification are welcome, if different pyrolysis conditions are studied. The computational modeling of pyrolysis reactors or processes should be related to experimental data, either new or previously published, but they must be described adequately in the paper.

The pyrolysis conditions should be described thoroughly (residence times of solid and vapors, temperature distributions, etc.). The pyrolysis products must be chemically characterized. Catalysts should be physically and chemically characterized before reaction, and, when feasible analysis of catalysts after reaction is also desirable. While this may not always be possible, at least qualitative assessments should be made.

The investigation of pyrolysis of a new feedstock or material with conventional methods, but without new development of the pyrolysis process is not sufficiently novel to be considered by JAAP.

Review articles are invited by the Editors but may also be proposed in writing to the Review Editor. The subject of review articles should be broad enough to appeal to a wide range of readers. Discussion should be concise, but adequate. More detailed discussion may be appropriate in some cases. It is expected that reviews should be critical rather than just catalogs of published data. They should include the most important, recent advances in the topic, whereas papers of low scientific significance should be given very limited coverage.

Out of the scope of JAAP
The Journal does not consider studies based on:
- the activation of carbons and characterization of activated carbons;
- thermal analysis, mass yields without characterization of the pyrolysis products by chemical and spectroscopic methods;
- characterization and application of pyrolysis products, unless clearly related to/aimed at understanding the influence/details of pyrolysis processes and conditions;
- theoretical studies, kinetic modelling etc. which are not complemented with or validated by experimental data
- combustion, gasification or incineration unless specifically related to the interplay between pyrolysis and oxidation reactions.

Ethics in publishing

Please see our information pages on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication.

Declaration of competing interest

All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. Authors should complete the declaration of competing interest statement using this template and upload to the submission system at the Attach/Upload Files step. Note: Please do not convert the .docx template to another file type. Author signatures are not required. If there are no interests to declare, please choose the first option in the template. This statement will be published within the article if accepted. More information.

Submission declaration and verification

Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract, a published lecture or academic thesis, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service Crossref Similarity Check.

Please note that preprints can be shared anywhere at any time, in line with Elsevier's sharing policy. Sharing your preprints e.g. on a preprint server will not count as prior publication (see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' for more information).

Use of inclusive language

Inclusive language acknowledges diversity, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and promotes equal opportunities. Content should make no assumptions about the beliefs or commitments of any reader; contain nothing which might imply that one individual is superior to another on the grounds of age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition; and use inclusive language throughout. Authors should ensure that writing is free from bias, stereotypes, slang, reference to dominant culture and/or cultural assumptions. We advise to seek gender neutrality by using plural nouns ("clinicians, patients/clients") as default/wherever possible to avoid using "he, she," or "he/she." We recommend avoiding the use of descriptors that refer to personal attributes such as age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition unless they are relevant and valid. These guidelines are meant as a point of reference to help identify appropriate language but are by no means exhaustive or definitive.

Author contributions

For transparency, we encourage authors to submit an author statement file outlining their individual contributions to the paper using the relevant CRediT roles: Conceptualization; Data curation; Formal analysis; Funding acquisition; Investigation; Methodology; Project administration; Resources; Software; Supervision; Validation; Visualization; Roles/Writing - original draft; Writing - review & editing. Authorship statements should be formatted with the names of authors first and CRediT role(s) following. More details and an example

Changes to authorship

Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the journal Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed.
Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted. While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the Editor will result in a corrigendum.


Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (see more information on this). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.

Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations. If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases.

For gold open access articles: Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an 'Exclusive License Agreement' (more information). Permitted third party reuse of gold open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license.

Author rights
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. More information.

Elsevier supports responsible sharing
Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.

Role of the funding source

You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.

Open access

Please visit our Open Access page for more information.

Elsevier Researcher Academy
Researcher Academy is a free e-learning platform designed to support early and mid-career researchers throughout their research journey. The "Learn" environment at Researcher Academy offers several interactive modules, webinars, downloadable guides and resources to guide you through the process of writing for research and going through peer review. Feel free to use these free resources to improve your submission and navigate the publication process with ease.

Language (usage and editing services)
Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's Author Services.


Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files (e.g., Word, LaTeX) are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.

Please submit your article via

Highlights are mandatory for the journal. It should consist of a short collection of bullet points that convey the core findings of the article. Specifications: 3 to 5 bullet points (max. 85 characters per bullet point including spaces); only the core results of the paper should be covered

Please submit the names and institutional e-mail addresses of several potential referees. For more details, visit our Support site. Note that the editor retains the sole right to decide whether or not the suggested reviewers are used.

Peer review

This journal operates a single anonymized review process. All contributions will be initially assessed by the editor for suitability for the journal. Papers deemed suitable are then typically sent to a minimum of two independent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor's decision is final. Editors are not involved in decisions about papers which they have written themselves or have been written by family members or colleagues or which relate to products or services in which the editor has an interest. Any such submission is subject to all of the journal's usual procedures, with peer review handled independently of the relevant editor and their research groups. More information on types of peer review.


The length of the manuscript should be concise but sufficient. As a guideline, the typical length of a research manuscript should not be more than 25-30 pages, double line spaced, including figures and tables. Authors should make use of the Supplementary material for information not required in the paper proper

Use of word processing software
It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier). Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork.
To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.

Article structure

Subdivision - numbered sections
Divide your article into clearly defined and numbered sections. Subsections should be numbered 1.1 (then 1.1.1, 1.1.2, ...), 1.2, etc. (the abstract is not included in section numbering). Use this numbering also for internal cross-referencing: do not just refer to 'the text'. Any subsection may be given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line.

State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results.

Material and methods
Provide sufficient details to allow the work to be reproduced by an independent researcher. Methods that are already published should be summarized, and indicated by a reference. If quoting directly from a previously published method, use quotation marks and also cite the source. Any modifications to existing methods should also be described.

Results should be clear and concise.

This should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. A combined Results and Discussion section is often appropriate. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature.

The main conclusions of the study may be presented in a short Conclusions section, which may stand alone or form a subsection of a Discussion or Results and Discussion section.

If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq. (A.1), Eq. (A.2), etc.; in a subsequent appendix, Eq. (B.1) and so on. Similarly for tables and figures: Table A.1; Fig. A.1, etc.

Essential title page information

Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
Author names and affiliations. Please clearly indicate the given name(s) and family name(s) of each author and check that all names are accurately spelled. You can add your name between parentheses in your own script behind the English transliteration. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. This responsibility includes answering any future queries about Methodology and Materials. Ensure that the e-mail address is given and that contact details are kept up to date by the corresponding author.
Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.


Highlights are optional yet highly encouraged for this journal, as they increase the discoverability of your article via search engines. They consist of a short collection of bullet points that capture the novel results of your research as well as new methods that were used during the study (if any). Please have a look at the examples here: example Highlights.

Highlights should be submitted in a separate editable file in the online submission system. Please use 'Highlights' in the file name and include 3 to 5 bullet points (maximum 85 characters, including spaces, per bullet point).


A concise and factual abstract is required. The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results and major conclusions. An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. For this reason, References should be avoided, but if essential, then cite the author(s) and year(s). Also, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself.


Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 6 keywords, using American spelling and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, 'and', 'of'). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.

Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.).

Formatting of funding sources
List funding sources in this standard way to facilitate compliance to funder's requirements:

Funding: This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health [grant numbers xxxx, yyyy]; the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, WA [grant number zzzz]; and the United States Institutes of Peace [grant number aaaa].

It is not necessary to include detailed descriptions on the program or type of grants and awards. When funding is from a block grant or other resources available to a university, college, or other research institution, submit the name of the institute or organization that provided the funding.

If no funding has been provided for the research, please include the following sentence:

This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Nomenclature and units
As default the international system of units (SI) should be used (see the IUPAC Green Book). If other units are used, give their equivalent value in the SI unit at the first mention (e.g. 1 kcal = 4.184 kJ). Basic SI units and other accepted metric nomenclature are given in the section "Quantities and units".

Authors are urged to consult the IUPAC 'color books' of chemical nomenclature: Chemical Terminology (Gold Book), Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry (Blue Book), Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry (Red Book), Analytical Nomenclature (Orange Book) and Compendium of Polymer Terminology and Nomenclature (Purple Book).

Contributions which report mass spectrometric results should follow the IUPAC recommendations for analytical pyrolysis: Pure Appl. Chem. 65 (1993) 2405; for GC-MS: K. K. Murray et al. Pure Appl. Chem. 85 (2013) 1515, and py-GC-MS: IUPAC Orange Book.

Symbols, formulae and equations should be written with care, capitals and lower case letters being distinguished where necessary. Particular care should be taken in typing mathematical expressions containing superscripts and subscripts, and in proof-reading such equations. Unusual symbols employed for the first time should be defined by name in the left-hand margin. Acronyms and abbreviations require definition when first used, and they should not be used in the title, abstract, or highlights, except if widely known such as GC-MS, NMR, FTIR etc. Abbreviations for long chemical names (e.g. DMSO, EDTA, TBAH) are useful, especially in equations, tables or figures, but uncommon abbreviations and acronyms should not be used in the title, abstract, conclusion, or highlights.

Significant figures: avoid numbers with too many digits. The number of significant figures should be consistent with the precision of the data.

Mathematical Formulae
Please submit math equations as editable text and not as images. Present simple formulae in line with normal text where possible and use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line for small fractional terms, e.g., X/Y. In principle, variables are to be presented in italics. Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp. Equations that have to be displayed separately from the text should be numbered consecutively and referred to explicitly in the text.

Chemical Formulae
Should be drawn in ChemDraw format with standard bond lengths and angles. The standard settings are:

Chain angle: 120 degrees
Bond spacing: 18% of length
Bond length: 0.508 cm (14.4 pt)
Bold width: 0.071 cm (2 pt)
Line width: 0.021 cm (0.6 pt)
Margin width: 0.056 cm (1.6 pt)
Hash spacing: 0.088 cm (2.5 pt)
Captions: Arial 10 pt
Atom labels: Arial 10 pt or Helvetica 12 pt.
Bond angles and length: "fixed" is recommended.

Other drawing programs such as Isis/Draw, ChemSketch and MarvinSketch may be used as long as the same or similar settings are used and the overall visual impression remains the same. Computer-generated calculated structures should not replace ChemDraw structures in reaction schemes, equations and figures but may be used in separate figures, when details of the calculated structures are discussed in the text. In such cases annotation with essential bond lengths and angles will be helpful. Calculated structures which are not discussed in the text may be presented in the Supplementary material.

Pyrolysis Experiments
Drawings or illustrations of pyrolysis apparatus are welcome, except if they are commonly known and commercially available. However, even if there is little novelty, details of the apparatus may be of interest, and in such cases the information should be placed in the Supplementary material. In all cases apparatus should be described in sufficient detail to allow others to repeat the experiments.

Pyrolysis temperatures should be recorded with reasonable accuracy, e.g. 535 oC, not 534.63 oC, unless extreme accuracy is documented (see 'Significant figures' above). The method used for determining heating rates should be defined, and the rates should be realistic; for example, a heating rate of 100 oC/s is unrealistic for many compounds. For reactors, comments should be made on the distribution of temperatures.

The methods of pressure measurement should be presented (sensors type, calibration range, etc.), as applicable.

The residence times of solids and vapors and the temperature gradients for gas-phase sections should be given or estimated even for micro-pyrolysis experiments. The methods of gas/vapor sampling (length and temperature of heated lines, volume of sampling loop for GC, direct injection through molecular beam or capillary lines, adsorption followed by desorption conditions, etc.), vapour condensation system (temperatures, volumes, etc.), and liquid sampling (e.g. from the condenser to the vial) should be presented in detail.

Compound Characterization
Stable, new organic compounds synthesized or isolated from pyrolysis reactions should be characterized in the usual way, i.e. by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy, IR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and elemental analysis (tolerance 0.4%), and evidence for homogeneity should be given. If elemental analysis is not reported, copies of the 1H and 13C NMR should be provided in the Supplementary material. If high resolution mass spectral measurements are reported, the full low resolution mass spectra, with relative abundances, should be reported too. Melting points for solids should be given.

When known compounds are identified by py-GC-MS methods, the experimental procedure should be described fully, and adequate references to libraries of GC and/or MS data used in the characterization should be given. Methods used to measure yields should be described, clear distinctions between relative and absolute yields must be made, and information of experimental errors in percentages of products must be given. For example, relative yields should not simply be read off the instrument and reported as e.g. 21.89%, 47.31%, etc for single-run experiments with no information on precision. Representative gas chromatograms and mass spectra should be published as Supplementary material with sufficient detail to enable other researchers to duplicate the results.

Concerning analysis of liquids, details of sample preparation (filtration, dilution, type of solvent(s), etc.) and storage (vial type, temperature and time) should be given.

The method for liquid chromatography should be presented: injection volume, column type and reference, solvent(s) gradient and flow-rate(s), temperature of the column, conditions for the detectors (notably ionization conditions for MS).

Calibration methods used for all analytical methods must be specified: the authors should indicate the standards used (concentration, etc.), response factors (in Supplementary material), and volumes of internal standards, if used. Internal calibration is preferred to external calibration for the quantification of liquid products from pyrolysis reactions.

Information on transient compounds or reactive intermediates that cannot be isolated in pure form may be given, but it is important to explicitly distinguish between stable and unstable compounds.

Organometallic and Inorganic Compounds: for new compounds sufficient experimental details must be included to allow another researcher to reproduce the synthesis and characterization. X-ray diffraction may often be the most unambiguous method of structure determination, but because of potential misidentification of atoms, the X-ray diffraction structure alone may not suffice as the only means of characterization. Evidence for elemental constitution must be provided by elemental analysis (e.g. combustion analysis, microprobe analysis), or mass spectrometry. NMR data should be reported for soluble compounds (and where relevant for solids, e.g. char, by solid-state NMR and 2D 1H-13C solid state NMR). IR spectroscopy may be used to support the presence of functional groups, but in most cases IR spectroscopy alone is not sufficient to characterize structures.

Solid state materials which do not exist in solution may be best characterized by X-ray crystal structure or X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) (see also solid-state NMR above). Elemental analysis (combustion, microprobe) and evidence for homogeneity should also be reported. XRD data should be accompanied by details of the experimental technique, i.e. the source of X-rays, radiation, wavelength, filters or monochromators, camera diameter, the type of X-ray recording, and the technique used for measuring intensities. In cases of unindexed listing of the data, the d spacings of all observed lines should be listed in sequence, together with their relative intensities. If filtered radiation is used, efforts should be made to identify residual β lines. Where resolution into α1-α2 doublets occurs, the identification of the d spacing for each line as dα1, dα2 gives a measure of the quality of the diffraction pattern. When an indexing of the data is electron offered, the observed and calculated 1/d2 values should be listed along with the observed relative intensities (a listing of d spacings is then superfluous), the calculated 1/d2 values to the limit of the data quoted. Where possible and justified by the data, crystal systems should be specified, and possible space groups may be listed. IR spectroscopy may be used to support the presence of functional groups, but in most cases IR spectroscopy alone is not sufficient to characterize materials.

Note that thermal analysis data (TGA etc) without supporting spectroscopic and analytical product characterization are not acceptable.

Biomass, bio-oil, biochar, wastes, coal, etc.: Elemental analysis (C, H, O, N, S as appropriate) and details of organic and mineral content should be provided with full details of the analytical procedure (e.g. combustion analysis, electron microprobe analysis), methods of digestion/mineralisation, inductively coupled plasma (ICP) parameters, XRD, ICP-MS, atomic emission spectroscopy (AES), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and/or energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) as appropriate.

Carbohydrates, lignin. In biomass: composition in total carbohydrates (e.g. after hydrolysis) and in lignin (e.g. Klason lignin analysis, etc.) For fossil fuels (coal, crude oil, asphaltenes, pitch, etc.): origin of the resource and method(s) of analysis.

Catalysts: as for other inorganic and organometallic substances; at least XRD and elemental analysis (metal content, composition of the support, etc.) before and after pyrolytic reactions should be provided and when appropriate, coke content after reaction, etc.

Carbons (char, coke, soot, pyrolytic carbon, etc.): NMR, Raman, XPS, and all other spectroscopic methods of analysis are welcome. Full and details of analysis are mandatory.

Crystallographic data should be reported in accordance with the recommendations of the International Union of Crystallography. Prior to manuscript submission, the author should deposit structure data with the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre and quote the assigned CCDC numbers in the experimental part of the manuscript. The cif and check-cif files (see must be submitted as Supplementary material for assessment by the reviewers but should be deleted from the final submission, as they will not be published. Tables of relevant bond lengths and angles not needed in the general discussion may be published in the Supplementary material, but the full crystallographic data such as atomic coordinates and anisotropic displacements will not be published, as it will be available from the CCDC. A standard description of the crystal data and structure refinement should be given in the Experimental section

Computational Studies
Full computational details must be provided in the Supplementary material (i.e., Cartesian coordinates or Z-matrices, absolute energies, zero-point vibrational energies and thermal corrections, the final temperature used for the calculations, imaginary frequencies for transition states, internal reaction coordinate calculations where applicable, etc), and full literature references must be given to the computational programs used. If no new experimental results are reported in the paper, sufficient information about the experimental results published previously and pertaining to the calculations should be reported in the paper and in the Supplementary material, so that the reader can fully appreciate the relationship between experimental and computational results.

Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article. Many word processors can build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Otherwise, please indicate the position of footnotes in the text and list the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article. Do not include footnotes in the Reference list.


Electronic artwork
General points
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.
• Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
• Provide captions to illustrations separately.
• Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the published version.
• Submit each illustration as a separate file.
• Ensure that color images are accessible to all, including those with impaired color vision.

A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available.
You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format.
Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.
Please do not:
• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
• Supply files that are too low in resolution;
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

General points
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.
• Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
• Provide captions to illustrations separately.
• Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the published version.
• Include each illustration and caption at the appropriate place in your manuscript text and submit each illustration as a separate file in addition.
A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available.
You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format.
Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.
Please do not:
• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
• Supply files that are too low in resolution;
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

Color artwork
Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF) or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color online (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) in addition to color reproduction in print. Further information on the preparation of electronic artwork.

Figure captions
Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.


Please submit tables as editable text and not as images. Tables can be placed either next to the relevant text in the article, or on separate page(s) at the end. Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text and place any table notes below the table body. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in them do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article. Please avoid using vertical rules and shading in table cells.


Citation in text
Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.

Reference links
Increased discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, CrossRef and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the DOI is highly encouraged.

A DOI is guaranteed never to change, so you can use it as a permanent link to any electronic article. An example of a citation using DOI for an article not yet in an issue is: VanDecar J.C., Russo R.M., James D.E., Ambeh W.B., Franke M. (2003). Aseismic continuation of the Lesser Antilles slab beneath northeastern Venezuela. Journal of Geophysical Research, Please note the format of such citations should be in the same style as all other references in the paper.

Web references
As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.

Data references
This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in your published article.

References in a special issue
Please ensure that the words 'this issue' are added to any references in the list (and any citations in the text) to other articles in the same Special Issue.

Reference management software
Most Elsevier journals have their reference template available in many of the most popular reference management software products. These include all products that support Citation Style Language styles, such as Mendeley. Using citation plug-ins from these products, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article, after which citations and bibliographies will be automatically formatted in the journal's style. If no template is yet available for this journal, please follow the format of the sample references and citations as shown in this Guide. If you use reference management software, please ensure that you remove all field codes before submitting the electronic manuscript. More information on how to remove field codes from different reference management software.

Users of Mendeley Desktop can easily install the reference style for this journal by clicking the following link:
When preparing your manuscript, you will then be able to select this style using the Mendeley plug-ins for Microsoft Word or LibreOffice.

Reference formatting
There are no strict requirements on reference formatting at submission. References can be in any style or format as long as the style is consistent. Where applicable, author(s) name(s), journal title/book title, chapter title/article title, year of publication, volume number/book chapter and the article number or pagination must be present. Use of DOI is highly encouraged. The reference style used by the journal will be applied to the accepted article by Elsevier at the proof stage. Note that missing data will be highlighted at proof stage for the author to correct. If you do wish to format the references yourself they should be arranged according to the following examples:

Reference style
Text: Indicate references by number(s) in square brackets in line with the text. The actual authors can be referred to, but the reference number(s) must always be given.
Example: '..... as demonstrated [3,6]. Barnaby and Jones [8] obtained a different result ....'
List: Number the references (numbers in square brackets) in the list in the order in which they appear in the text.
Reference to a journal publication:
[1] J. van der Geer, J.A.J. Hanraads, R.A. Lupton, The art of writing a scientific article, J. Sci. Commun. 163 (2010) 51–59.
Reference to a journal publication with an article number:
[2] J. van der Geer, J.A.J. Hanraads, R.A. Lupton, 2018. The art of writing a scientific article. Heliyon. 19, e00205.
Reference to a book:
[3] W. Strunk Jr., E.B. White, The Elements of Style, fourth ed., Longman, New York, 2000.
Reference to a chapter in an edited book:
[4] G.R. Mettam, L.B. Adams, How to prepare an electronic version of your article, in: B.S. Jones, R.Z. Smith (Eds.), Introduction to the Electronic Age, E-Publishing Inc., New York, 2009, pp. 281–304.
Reference to a website:
[5] Cancer Research UK, Cancer statistics reports for the UK., 2003 (accessed 13 March 2003).
Reference to a dataset:
[dataset] [6] M. Oguro, S. Imahiro, S. Saito, T. Nakashizuka, Mortality data for Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions, Mendeley Data, v1, 2015.


Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the file in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 150 MB per file, 1 GB in total. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect. Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages. Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.

Data visualization

Include interactive data visualizations in your publication and let your readers interact and engage more closely with your research. Follow the instructions here to find out about available data visualization options and how to include them with your article.

Supplementary material

Supplementary material such as applications, images and sound clips, can be published with your article to enhance it. Submitted supplementary items are published exactly as they are received (Excel or PowerPoint files will appear as such online). Please submit your material together with the article and supply a concise, descriptive caption for each supplementary file. If you wish to make changes to supplementary material during any stage of the process, please make sure to provide an updated file. Do not annotate any corrections on a previous version. Please switch off the 'Track Changes' option in Microsoft Office files as these will appear in the published version.

Research data

This journal encourages and enables you to share data that supports your research publication where appropriate, and enables you to interlink the data with your published articles. Research data refers to the results of observations or experimentation that validate research findings. To facilitate reproducibility and data reuse, this journal also encourages you to share your software, code, models, algorithms, protocols, methods and other useful materials related to the project.

Below are a number of ways in which you can associate data with your article or make a statement about the availability of your data when submitting your manuscript. If you are sharing data in one of these ways, you are encouraged to cite the data in your manuscript and reference list. Please refer to the "References" section for more information about data citation. For more information on depositing, sharing and using research data and other relevant research materials, visit the research data page.

Data linking
If you have made your research data available in a data repository, you can link your article directly to the dataset. Elsevier collaborates with a number of repositories to link articles on ScienceDirect with relevant repositories, giving readers access to underlying data that gives them a better understanding of the research described.

There are different ways to link your datasets to your article. When available, you can directly link your dataset to your article by providing the relevant information in the submission system. For more information, visit the database linking page.

For supported data repositories a repository banner will automatically appear next to your published article on ScienceDirect.

In addition, you can link to relevant data or entities through identifiers within the text of your manuscript, using the following format: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN).

Mendeley Data
This journal supports Mendeley Data, enabling you to deposit any research data (including raw and processed data, video, code, software, algorithms, protocols, and methods) associated with your manuscript in a free-to-use, open access repository. During the submission process, after uploading your manuscript, you will have the opportunity to upload your relevant datasets directly to Mendeley Data. The datasets will be listed and directly accessible to readers next to your published article online.

For more information, visit the Mendeley Data for journals page.

You have the option of converting relevant protocols and methods into one or multiple MethodsX articles, a new kind of article that describes the details of customized research methods. Many researchers spend a significant amount of time on developing methods to fit their specific needs or setting, but often without getting credit for this part of their work. MethodsX, an open access journal, now publishes this information in order to make it searchable, peer reviewed, citable and reproducible. Authors are encouraged to submit their MethodsX article as an additional item directly alongside the revised version of their manuscript. If your research article is accepted, your methods article will automatically be transferred over to MethodsX where it will be editorially reviewed. Please note an open access fee is payable for publication in MethodsX. Full details can be found on the MethodsX website. Please use this template to prepare your MethodsX article.

Data statement
To foster transparency, we encourage you to state the availability of your data in your submission. This may be a requirement of your funding body or institution. If your data is unavailable to access or unsuitable to post, you will have the opportunity to indicate why during the submission process, for example by stating that the research data is confidential. The statement will appear with your published article on ScienceDirect. For more information, visit the Data Statement page.

Submission checklist
The following list will be useful during the final checking of an article prior to sending it to the journal for review. Please consult this Guide for Authors for further details of any item.
Ensure that the following items are present:
One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
• E-mail address
• Full postal address
• Telephone and fax numbers
All necessary files have been uploaded, and contain:
• Keywords
• All figure captions
• All tables (including title, description, footnotes)
Further considerations
• Manuscript has been 'spell-checked' and 'grammar-checked'
• References are in the correct format for this journal
• All references mentioned in the Reference list are cited in the text, and vice versa
• Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Web)
• Color figures are clearly marked as being intended for color reproduction on the Web (free of charge) and in print, or to be reproduced in color on the Web (free of charge) and in black-and-white in print
• If only color on the Web is required, black-and-white versions of the figures are also supplied for printing purposes
For any further information please visit our customer support site at
• Please note that EVISE generates the line numbers for your manuscript when it builds the PDF. Hence, kindly remove the line numbers that you have entered in your manuscript, so as to avoid confusion for the reviewers while submitting the review comments. Manuscripts not respecting the style are automatically sent back to the authors by the publisher prior to editor's assignments.
Revision In a revised version of a paper the changes made in the document should be highlighted in color; alternatively, two versions may be uploaded, with and without the Track Changes feature in MS WORD engaged."

Quantities and units

length l; metre: m
mass m kilogram kg; gram g
timet; second s; minute min; hour h
thermodynamic temperature T; kelvin K
Celcius temperature t,⊖ degree Celcius °C
amount of substance n; mole mol
molar mass M; kg mol-1
concentration (amount) c; mol dm-3, mol l-1
molality m; mol kg-1
pressure p; pascal Pa
energyE; joule J
heat q, Q; joule J
power, heat flow rate P,ø; watt W
volume V; m3; litre l, L
chemical potential (partial molar Gibbs energy) &mgr;J mol-1
viscosity: dynamic &eegr; Pa s ; kinematic &mgr; m s-1


10-1 d; 10-2 c (centi); 10-3 m (milli); 10-6&mgr; (micro); 10-9 n (nano); 10-12 p (pico); 10-15 f (femto); 10-18 a (atta)

10 da (deca); 102 h (hecto); 103 k (kilo); 106 M (mega); 109 G (giga); 1012 T (tera); 1015P (peta); 1018 E (exa)

Online proof correction

To ensure a fast publication process of the article, we kindly ask authors to provide us with their proof corrections within two days. Corresponding authors will receive an e-mail with a link to our online proofing system, allowing annotation and correction of proofs online. The environment is similar to MS Word: in addition to editing text, you can also comment on figures/tables and answer questions from the Copy Editor. Web-based proofing provides a faster and less error-prone process by allowing you to directly type your corrections, eliminating the potential introduction of errors.
If preferred, you can still choose to annotate and upload your edits on the PDF version. All instructions for proofing will be given in the e-mail we send to authors, including alternative methods to the online version and PDF.
We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication. Please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.


The corresponding author will, at no cost, receive a customized Share Link providing 50 days free access to the final published version of the article on ScienceDirect. The Share Link can be used for sharing the article via any communication channel, including email and social media. For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's Author Services. Corresponding authors who have published their article gold open access do not receive a Share Link as their final published version of the article is available open access on ScienceDirect and can be shared through the article DOI link.

Visit the Elsevier Support Center to find the answers you need. Here you will find everything from Frequently Asked Questions to ways to get in touch.
You can also check the status of your submitted article or find out when your accepted article will be published.

For a full and complete Guide for Authors, please go to: