The Journal of Adolescent Health is a multidisciplinary scientific Journal, which seeks to publish new research findings in the field of Adolescent Medicine and Health ranging from the basic biological and behavioral sciences to public health and policy. We seek original manuscripts, review articles, letters to the editor, commentaries, and case reports from our colleagues in Anthropology, Dentistry and Oral Health, Education, Health Services Research, International Health, Law, Medicine, Mental Health, Nursing, Nutrition, Psychology, Public Health and Policy, Social Work, Sociology, Youth Development, and other disciplines that work with or are committed to improving the lives of adolescents and young adults.
The Journal is the official publication of the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine (SAHM), a multidisciplinary organization committed to improving the health and well-being of adolescents. One of the Society's primary goals is the development, synthesis, and dissemination of scientific and scholarly knowledge unique to the health needs of adolescents. To meet this goal, the Society established the Journal of Adolescent Health in 1980.
According to the Journal Citation Reports 2018, published by Clarivate Analytics, the Journal ranks:
• 5th of 124 journals in Pediatrics (Science edition)
• 26th of 186 journals in Public, Environmental and Occupational Health (Science edition)
• 9th of 76 journals in Psychology, Developmental (Social Sciences edition)
• 9th of 164 journals in Public, Environmental and Occupational Health (Social Sciences edition)
Types of articles
The Journal of Adolescent Health publishes the following types of articles. Word count limits apply only to the main body of the manuscript and do not include the title, references, or figure and table captions.
Original Articles are scientific reports on the results of original research. Text is limited to 3500 words with a 250-word structured abstract, 5 tables/figures, and 40 references. Original articles should include a 50-word Implications and Contribution summary statement.
Adolescent Health Briefs are scientific reports of original research that represent preliminary findings, small samples, and newly described associations in unique populations. Briefs are limited to 1000 words, with a structured abstract of 150 words or less. A combined total of 2 figures and/or tables and a maximum of 10 references will be accepted. Briefs should include a 50-word Implications and Contribution summary statement.Review articles generally are solicited by the editors. If you would like to submit a review article to the Journal, please submit a proposal letter, a detailed outline, and a preliminary reference list to the Managing Editor by e-mail (email@example.com). Systematic reviews and meta-analyses are preferred, though strong, evidence-based integrative and narrative proposals will be considered. One or more of the Associate Editors will review the proposal and will advise the authors on proceeding to a full manuscript. This internal review will take place within four weeks of receipt of the proposal. The final format of the article should include the introduction, review of the relevant literature, discussion, summary and implications section. Each review article must have a 200-word summary abstract. Review articles are limited to 4500 words, 5 tables/figures, and an unlimited number of references. Review articles should include a 50-word Implications and Contribution summary statement.
Clinical Observations: These case reports represent rare and new observations in the clinical arena. Papers in this format are limited to 1000 words and should include an introduction, concise discussion of the clinical observation, and discussion. Clinical observations should include a 200-word summary abstract. A combined total of 1 figure, table, or illustration and 10 references will be accepted.Editorial Correspondence: Letters regarding articles published in the Journal within the preceding 6 months are strongly preferred. Letters should not exceed 400 words. This correspondence is published at the discretion of the Editor-in-Chief and the Associate Editors. The author(s) of the article that is the subject of the correspondence will be invited to respond.
Commentaries: Commentaries are invited only and will be solicited solely by the editors. Commentaries serve as a forum for changes in adolescent healthcare training, economic issues, governmental health policies, international health, medical/scientific ethics, and meeting reports.The Editorial Process
Acceptance for Review
Manuscripts submitted to the Journal of Adolescent Health are reviewed internally for interest and relevance. Approximately half of all submitted manuscripts are returned to the authors without full peer review. That decision is made quickly, within 10 days of submission.
Manuscripts accepted for peer review are sent to three external reviewers. Reviewers are anonymous; authors' names are revealed. The Journal's goal is to complete peer review and reach a decision within six weeks of submission.
Manuscripts will either be declined based on reviewer comments or referred back to the authors for revision. This is an invitation to present the best possible paper for further review; it is not an acceptance.
Authors are asked to complete revisions within 30 days. If the authors do not respond within 30 days, the editors may decline to consider the revision. The editors reciprocate by providing a final decision quickly upon receipt of the revision.Acceptance for Publication
All manuscripts accepted for publication will require a written assignment of the copyright from the author(s) to the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Elsevier Inc. will maintain all records of the copyright for the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. No part of the published material may be reproduced elsewhere without written permission from the publisher.
Authors will receive typeset galley proofs via e-mail from the Journal Manager at Elsevier. Proofs should arrive approximately four to six weeks following acceptance.The article will be published in the print edition of the Journal approximately three to five months after acceptance.
Articles Online First
The Journal of Adolescent Health publishes articles online ahead of print publication in the Articles Online First section of our web site. Articles are published online approximately six to eight weeks following the galley proofs. The online article is identical to the version subsequently published in the print journal and is citable by the digital object identifier (DOI) assigned at the time of online publication.
The Journal of Adolescent Health has developed a fast-tracking system in order to facilitate and encourage the submission of high-quality manuscripts with documented findings that may change the content of clinical practice or assist with the national and/or international dialogue about critical issues affecting adolescents and young adults. Manuscripts accepted for a fast-track review will be forwarded to two reviewers from our Editorial Board, who are given two weeks to conduct an expedited review. The Journal will notify authors of the outcome of the review within three weeks of submission. If the review is favorable, fast-track authors will be asked to complete any necessary revisions within two weeks.
Upon acceptance, fast-track manuscripts are prioritized for publication and should appear in print within two months.Fast tracking is a rare event intended for high-priority findings and should not be viewed simply as a mechanism for an expedited review. The article should be prepared in the same manner as an Original Article.
Release to Media
Until the time of publication on the Journal of Adolescent Health's website, it is a violation of the copyright agreement to disclose the findings of an accepted manuscript to the media or the public. If you require an embargo date for your article, please contact the editorial office.
The Journal of Adolescent Health publishes funded supplements after approval and review by the editorial office. Initial inquiries and proposals for supplements should be directed to the editorial office and to Elsevier's Senior Supplements Editor:
Elsevier Supplements Department
230 Park Avenue
New York, NY 10169-0901
Tel: (212) 462-1933
Fax: (212) 462-1935
Contact details for submission
Carol A. Ford, M.D., Editor-in-Chief
Tor D. Berg, Managing Editor
Editorial Office, Journal of Adolescent Health
University of California, San Francisco
Research and Policy Center for Childhood & Adolescence
3333 California Street, Suite 245
San Francisco, CA 94118-6210
Luke Verrillo, Publisher
1600 John F. Kennedy Blvd, Suite 1600
Philadelphia, PA 19103
Human and animal rights
Studies of human subjects must document that approval was received from the appropriate institutional review board. When reporting experiments utilizing human subjects, it must be stated in writing, in the Methods section, that the Institution's Committee on Human Subjects or its equivalent has approved the protocol. The protocol for obtaining informed consent should be briefly stated in the manuscript. The Editor-in-Chief may require additional information to clarify the safeguards about the procedures used to obtain informed consent. Within the United States, the authors should verify compliance with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) prior to submission. When reporting experiments on animal subjects, it must be stated that the institution's animal care and use committee has approved the protocol.
Conflict of Interest
According to the World Association of Medical Editors (WAME):
Authors are required to disclose on the title page of the initial manuscript any potential, perceived, or real conflict of interest. Authors must describe the role of the study sponsor(s), if any, in (1) study design; (2) the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; (3) the writing of the report; and (4) the decision to submit the manuscript for publication. Authors should include statements even when the sponsor had no involvement in the above matters. Authors should also state who wrote the first draft of the manuscript and whether an honorarium, grant, or other form of payment was given to anyone to produce the manuscript. If the manuscript is accepted for publication, the disclosure statements may be published. See also https://www.elsevier.com/conflictsofinterest. Further information and an example of a Conflict of Interest form can be found at: http://service.elsevier.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/286/supporthub/publishing.
Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see https://www.elsevier.com/postingpolicy; poster and platform presentations and abstracts are not considered duplicate publications but should be noted in the manuscript's cover letter and Acknowledgements section of the manuscript); that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere; that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out; and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere including electronically in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the copyright-holder.
If the submitted manuscript contains data that have been previously published, is in press, or is currently under review by another publication in any format, the authors are required to submit a reprint of the published article or a copy of the other manuscript to the Editor-in-Chief with a clarification of the overlap and a justification for consideration of the current submitted manuscript.The editors encourage authors to report fully the complete findings of their studies. The editors recognize that large and longitudinal datasets often result in multiple publications both on different topics and on the same topics across the span of development. Therefore, it is the authors' strict responsibility both to notify the editors of the existence of multiple manuscripts arising from the same study and to cross-reference all those that are relevant.
Manuscripts accepted for peer review may be submitted to the iThenticate plagiarism checker. iThenticate compares a given manuscript to a broad range of published and in-press materials, returning a similarity report, which the editors will then examine for potential instances of plagiarism and self-plagiarism.Failure to disclose multiple or duplicate manuscripts may result in censure by the relevant journals and written notification of the appropriate officials at the authors' academic institutions.
Use of inclusive language
Inclusive language acknowledges diversity, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and promotes equal opportunities. Articles should make no assumptions about the beliefs or commitments of any reader, should contain nothing which might imply that one individual is superior to another on the grounds of race, sex, culture or any other characteristic, and should use inclusive language throughout. Authors should ensure that writing is free from bias, for instance by using 'he or she', 'his/her' instead of 'he' or 'his', and by making use of job titles that are free of stereotyping (e.g. 'chairperson' instead of 'chairman' and 'flight attendant' instead of 'stewardess').
Changes to authorship
Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the journal Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed.
Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted. While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the Editor will result in a corrigendum.
Clinical trials registration
In order to foster a comprehensive, publicly available database of clinical trials, journals are increasingly requiring the registration of clinical trials. At this time, registration is not required for submission or publication in the Journal of Adolescent Health. However, the editors strongly recommend registration of clinical trials in an appropriate registry. Please provide the site of registration and the registration number on the title page.
Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (see more information on this). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. More information.
Elsevier supports responsible sharing
Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.
Role of the funding source
You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.
Please visit our Open Access page from the Journal Homepage for more information.
Language (usage and editing services)
Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's Author Services.
Submission to this journal proceeds totally online, and you will be guided stepwise through the creation and uploading of your files. The system automatically converts source files to a single PDF file of the article, which is used in the peer-review process. Please note that even though manuscript source files are converted to PDF files at submission for the review process, these source files are needed for further processing after acceptance. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, takes place by e-mail, removing the need for a paper trail.
Manuscripts must be submitted online via the Elsevier Editorial System (EES). To access EES, go to http://ees.elsevier.com/jah/ and register as a new user. You will be guided stepwise through the creation and uploading of the various files and data. Once the uploading is done, the system automatically generates an electronic (PDF) proof, which is then used for reviewing. All correspondence regarding submitted manuscripts will be handled via e-mail through EES.
In addition, Tables and Figures should be included as separate and individual files.If electronic submission is not possible, please contact Tor Berg, the Managing Editor, at firstname.lastname@example.org, or by phone at 415-502-1373 or by mail at: Editorial Office, Journal of Adolescent Health, University of California, San Francisco, Research and Policy Center for Childhood and Adolescence, 3333 California Street, Suite 245, San Francisco, CA 94118.
A Cover Letter must accompany all submissions. The Cover Letter should describe the manuscript's unique contribution and provide the following information in accordance with the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals: Writing and Editing for Biomedical Publication available at http://www.icmje.org:
• Disclosure of any prior publications or submissions with any overlapping information, including Methods, or a statement that there are no prior publications or submissions with any overlapping information;
• A statement that the work is not and will not be submitted to any other journal while under consideration by the Journal of Adolescent Health;
• A statement of any potential conflict of interest, real or perceived, the role of the study sponsor, and additional disclosures, if any; potential conflicts must also appear on the Title Page
Submit your article
To assist with a prompt, fair review process, authors are asked to provide the names, institutional affiliations, and e-mail addresses of 5 potential reviewers who have the appropriate expertise to evaluate the manuscript. Failure to provide at least 3 potential reviewers may result in delays in the processing of your manuscript. Do not refer potential reviewers with whom you have a current or past personal or professional relationship. Do not recommend members of the Journal's editorial board. Authors may also provide the names of persons who should not be asked to review the manuscript. Ultimately, the editors reserve the right to choose reviewers.
Authors should use nonproprietary names of drugs or devices unless mention of a manufacturer is pertinent to the discussion. If a proprietary product is cited, the name and location of the manufacturer must also be included.
Use of word processing software
It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier). Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork.
To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.
Divide your article into clearly defined sections. Each subsection is given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line. Subsections should be used as much as possible when cross-referencing text: refer to the subsection by heading as opposed to simply 'the text.'
The text of Original Articles and Briefs should usually, but not necessarily, be divided into the following sections: Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion. Additionally, the Journal requests an Implications and Contribution summary statement.Implications and Contribution: In addition to the abstract, please include a summary statement at the beginning of your manuscript. This summary should be no more than 50 words in length and should describe the significance of your study's findings and its contribution to the literature in plain language. These summaries appear on the published articles and in various digests and newsletters.
Introduction: The introduction should clearly state the purpose(s) of the article and summarize the rationale for the study of observation. Please do not include an “Introduction” heading, just text. Only pertinent references should be used.Methods: The selection of observational or experimental subjects (patients or experimental animals, including controls) should be clearly described in the Methods section. The methods, apparatus, and procedures used should be described in enough detail to allow other workers to reproduce the results. References should be provided for established methods, including statistical methods. Methods that are not well known should be concisely described with appropriate references. Any new or substantially modified method(s) should be carefully described, reasons given for its use, and an evaluation made of its known or potential limitations. All drugs and chemicals used should be identified by generic name(s), dosage(s), and route(s) of administration. The numbers of observations and the statistical significance of findings should be included when appropriate. Patients' names, initials, or hospital numbers should not be used.
*Note that when reporting experiments utilizing human subjects, approval of the protocol by the sponsoring Institution's Committee on Human Subjects or its equivalent must be stated explicitly within the Methods section of the manuscript. In addition, the protocol for obtaining informed consent should be briefly described.Results: Results should be presented in a logical sequence in the text, table(s), and illustration(s). Only critical data from the table(s) and/or illustration(s) should be repeated in the text.
Discussion: Emphasis in the Discussion section should be placed on the new and important aspects of the study and the conclusions that can be drawn. Detailed data from the results section should not be repeated in the discussion. The discussion should include the implications and limitations of the findings and should relate the observations to other relevant studies. The link between the conclusion(s) and the goal(s) of the study should be carefully stated, avoiding unqualified statements and conclusions not completely supported by the data. The author(s) should avoid claiming priority and alluding to work that has not yet been completed. New hypotheses, when stated, should be clearly identified as such. Recommendations, when appropriate, may be included.Grammar, punctuation, and scientific writing style should follow the AMA Manual of Style, 10th edition.
If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as Appendix A, Appendix B, etc. Tables and figures in appendices should be given separate numbering: Table A1, Fig. A1, etc.
Essential Title Page Information
• Title. Concise and informative (titles are limited to 140 characters). Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
• Author names and affiliations. Where the family name may be ambiguous (e.g., a double name), please indicate this clearly. Include the full names of all authors, as well as the highest academic degrees (excluding bachelor-level degrees) and the departmental and institutional affiliation of each. Please note that the Journal does not list fellowships of professional or certifying organizations as credentials. Relevant sources of financial support and potential conflicts of interest should be reported for all authors. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
• Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that phone and fax numbers (with country and area code) are provided in addition to the e-mail address and the complete postal address. Contact details must be kept up to date by the corresponding author.
• Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.
• Acknowledgments. The title page should also include an Acknowledgments section, listing any sources of support such as grants, equipment, or drugs; and any acknowledgments of persons who have made a substantive contribution to the study. Authors should obtain written permission from anyone that they wish to list in the Acknowledgments section. The corresponding author must also affirm that he or she has listed everyone who contributed significantly to the work in the Acknowledgments. Previous oral or poster presentations at local, regional, national or international meetings should be reported here.
As a condition of authorship, all named authors must have seen the final draft of the manuscript, approve of its submission to the Journal, and be willing to take responsibility for it in its entirety.
If there are concerns about how all persons listed as authors meet the criteria for authorship according to the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals: Writing and Editing for Biomedical Publication available at http://www.icmje.org, we will request further information from the corresponding author and, if necessary, request written documentation of each person's work on the report.
The Journal does not list corporate authors, such as research networks, professional societies, or think tanks. Only individuals meet the Journal's criteria for authorship.The names, along with any conflicts of interest, funding sources, and industry-relation, of persons who have contributed substantially to a study but who do not fulfill the criteria for authorship are to be listed in the Acknowledgments section. This section should include individuals who provided any writing, editorial, statistical assistance, etc.
A concise and factual abstract is required. The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results and major conclusions. An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. For this reason, References should be avoided, but if essential, then cite the author(s) and year(s).
Although a graphical abstract is optional, its use is encouraged as it draws more attention to the online article. The graphical abstract should summarize the contents of the article in a concise, pictorial form designed to capture the attention of a wide readership. Graphical abstracts should be submitted as a separate file in the online submission system. Image size: Please provide an image with a minimum of 531 × 1328 pixels (h × w) or proportionally more. The image should be readable at a size of 5 × 13 cm using a regular screen resolution of 96 dpi. Preferred file types: TIFF, EPS, PDF or MS Office files. You can view Example Graphical Abstracts on our information site.
Authors can make use of Elsevier's Illustration Services to ensure the best presentation of their images and in accordance with all technical requirements.
Authors should provide a list of abbreviations on the title page. All acronyms in the text should be expanded at first mention, followed by the abbreviation in parentheses. The acronym may appear in the text thereafter. Do not use abbreviations in the title. Acronyms may be used in the abstract if they occur 3 or more times therein. Generally, abbreviations should be limited to those defined in the AMA Manual of Style, 10th edition.
Formatting of funding sources
List funding sources in this standard way to facilitate compliance to funder's requirements:
It is not necessary to include detailed descriptions on the program or type of grants and awards. When funding is from a block grant or other resources available to a university, college, or other research institution, submit the name of the institute or organization that provided the funding.If no funding has been provided for the research, please include the following sentence:
This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
Follow internationally accepted rules and conventions: use the international system of units (SI). If other units are mentioned, please give their equivalent in SI.
Please submit math equations as editable text and not as images. Present simple formulae in line with normal text where possible and use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line for small fractional terms, e.g., X/Y. In principle, variables are to be presented in italics. Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp. Number consecutively any equations that have to be displayed separately from the text (if referred to explicitly in the text).
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.
• Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
• Provide captions to illustrations separately.
• Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the printed version.
• Submit each illustration as a separate file.
A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available on our website:
You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format.
Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.
Please do not:
• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
• Supply files that are too low in resolution;
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.
If photomicrographs are to be submitted, the requirements for their presentation should be obtained from the Editor-in-Chief prior to submission.If photographs of persons are used, either the subjects must not be identifiable or their pictures must be accompanied by written permission to publish the photograph.
If an illustration has been published, the original source must be acknowledged and accompanied by written permission from the copyright holder to reproduce the material. Permission is required regardless of authorship or publisher except for documents in the public domain.
Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF), or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color online (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. For color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article. Please indicate your preference for color: in print or online only. Further information on the preparation of electronic artwork.
Elsevier's Author Services offers Illustration Services to authors preparing to submit a manuscript but concerned about the quality of the images accompanying their article. Elsevier's expert illustrators can produce scientific, technical and medical-style images, as well as a full range of charts, tables and graphs. Image 'polishing' is also available, where our illustrators take your image(s) and improve them to a professional standard. Please visit the website to find out more.
Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.
Tables should be submitted as separate and individual files. Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text. Each table should be given a brief title; explanatory matter should be placed in a table footnote. Place footnotes to tables below the table body and indicate them with superscript lowercase letters. Any nonstandard abbreviation should be explained in a table footnote. Avoid vertical rules. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in tables do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article. Statistical measures should be identified as measures of variation such as SD or SEM. If data from another published or unpublished source are used, permission must be obtained and the source fully acknowledged. EES will accept files from a wide variety of table-creation software.
Citation in Text
Authors are responsible for the accuracy of references. References should be numbered consecutively in the order in which they are first mentioned in the text. References cited only in tables or figure captions should be numbered in accordance with the sequence established by the first identification in the text of the particular table or figure. Identify references in text, tables, and captions by Arabic numerals in brackets. Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. An effort should be made to avoid using abstracts as references. Unpublished observations and personal communications are not acceptable as references, although references to written, not verbal, communications may be inserted into the text in parentheses. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication. References to manuscripts accepted but not yet published should designate the journal followed by (in press) or use the DOI if assigned. All references must be verified by the authors against the original documents.
Increased discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, CrossRef and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the DOI is highly encouraged.
A DOI is guaranteed never to change, so you can use it as a permanent link to any electronic article. An example of a citation using DOI for an article not yet in an issue is: VanDecar J.C., Russo R.M., James D.E., Ambeh W.B., Franke M. (2003). Aseismic continuation of the Lesser Antilles slab beneath northeastern Venezuela. Journal of Geophysical Research, https://doi.org/10.1029/2001JB000884. Please note the format of such citations should be in the same style as all other references in the paper.
This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in your published article.
Reference management software
Most Elsevier journals have their reference template available in many of the most popular reference management software products. These include all products that support Citation Style Language styles, such as Mendeley. Using citation plug-ins from these products, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article, after which citations and bibliographies will be automatically formatted in the journal's style. If no template is yet available for this journal, please follow the format of the sample references and citations as shown in this Guide. If you use reference management software, please ensure that you remove all field codes before submitting the electronic manuscript. More information on how to remove field codes from different reference management software.
Users of Mendeley Desktop can easily install the reference style for this journal by clicking the following link:
When preparing your manuscript, you will then be able to select this style using the Mendeley plug-ins for Microsoft Word or LibreOffice.
The titles of journals should be abbreviated according to the style used in the list of Journals Indexed for MEDLINE, posted by the NLM on the Library's web site, http://www.nlm.nih.gov/tsd/serials/lji.html. Reference style should follow that of the AMA Manual of Style, 10th edition, as shown in the following examples:
1. Standard journal article:
References should list all authors when four or fewer; when more than four, only the first three should be listed, followed by ‘et al.’
Aalsma MA, Tong Y, Wiehe SE, et al. The impact of delinquency on young adult sexual risk behaviors and sexually transmitted infections. J Adolesc Health 2010;46:17-24. DOI: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2009.05.018.
Center for Health Promotion and Education. Guidelines for effective school health education to prevent the spread of AIDS. J Sch Health 1988;58:142-8.
Books and Monographs
1. Personal Author(s) :
Romer D. Reducing Adolescent Risk: Toward an Integrated Approach. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2003.
Rosen DS, Rich M, eds. The adolescent male. In: Adolescent Medicine: State of the Art Reviews. vol 14. Philadelphia, PA: Hanley & Belfus, 2003.
3. Chapter in a Book:
Marcell AV, Irwin CE Jr. Adolescent substance use and abuse. In: Finberg L, Kleinman RE, eds. Saunders Manual of Pediatric Practice. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders, 2002:127-139.
America's Children: Key National Indicators of Well-Being 2009. Washington, DC: Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics, 2009.
World Health Organization. Good information practice essential criteria for vaccine safety web sites. Available at: http://www.who.int/vaccine_safety/good_vs_sites/en. Accessed January 13, 2010.
Text: Indicate references by number(s) in square brackets in line with the text. The actual authors can be referred to, but the reference number(s) must always be given.
List: Number the references (numbers in square brackets) in the list in the order in which they appear in the text.
Reference to a journal publication:
 Van der Geer J, Hanraads JAJ, Lupton RA. The art of writing a scientific article. J Sci Commun 2010;163:51–9.
Reference to a book:
 Strunk Jr W, White EB. The elements of style. 4th ed. New York: Longman; 2000.
Reference to a chapter in an edited book:
 Mettam GR, Adams LB. How to prepare an electronic version of your article. In: Jones BS, Smith RZ, editors. Introduction to the electronic age, New York: E-Publishing Inc; 2009, p. 281–304.
Reference to a website:
 Cancer Research UK. Cancer statistics reports for the UK, http://www.cancerresearchuk.org/aboutcancer/statistics/cancerstatsreport/; 2003 [accessed 13.03.03].
Reference to a dataset:
[dataset] Oguro M, Imahiro S, Saito S, Nakashizuka T. Mortality data for Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions, Mendeley Data, v1; 2015. http://dx.doi.org/10.17632/xwj98nb39r.1.
Note shortened form for last page number. e.g., 51–9, and that for more than 6 authors the first 6 should be listed followed by 'et al.' For further details you are referred to 'Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts submitted to Biomedical Journals' (J Am Med Assoc 1997;277:927–34) (see also Samples of Formatted References).
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