Journal of Acute Medicine (JACME) is the official peer-reviewed and open access publication of the Taiwan Society of Emergency Medicine. The journal is published quarterly by Elsevier and is indexed in EMBase, Scopus, ScienceDirect, Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI), EBSCOhost. It aims to publish high quality scientific and clinical research in all fields of acute care medicine including emergency medicine, critical care, trauma and health policy with the goal of promoting and disseminating medical science knowledge to improve global health.
JACME accepts reviews, original articles, case reports, short communications and letters to the editor for publication.
The Editorial Board requires authors to be in compliance with the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals (URMs), which are compiled by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE); current URMs are available at http://www.icmje.org.These Instructions to Authors are revised periodically by the Editors as needed. Authors should consult a recent issue of the Journal or visit http://www.e-jacme.com for the latest version of these instructions. Any manuscript not prepared according to these instructions will be returned immediately to the author(s) without review.
The categories of articles that are published in the Journal are listed and described below. Please select the category that best describes your paper. If your paper does not fall into any of these categories, please contact the Editorial Office.
These should aim to provide the reader with a balanced overview of an important and topical subject in the field, emphasizing factors such as cause, diagnosis, prognosis, therapy or prevention. They should cover aspects of a topic in which scientific consensus exists as well as aspects that remain controversial and are the subject of ongoing scientific research. All articles and data sources reviewed should include information about the specific type of study or analysis, population, intervention, exposure, and tests or outcomes. All articles or data sources should be selected systematically for inclusion in the review and critically evaluated.
Review articles should be submitted by invitation only; the format for review articles will be jointly decided by the Editors and the contributing author.Format guide
• Word limit: 4500 words
• Abstract: structured, up to 300 words
• References: 100 or less
• Tables/Figures: 6 maximum
These articles typically include randomized trials, intervention studies, studies of screening and diagnostic tests, laboratory and animal studies, cohort studies, cost-effectiveness analyses, case-control studies, and surveys with high response rates, which represent new and significant contributions to the field.
The Introduction should provide a brief background to the subject of the paper, explain the importance of the study, and state a precise study question or purpose.The Methods section should describe the study design and methods (including the study setting and dates, patients/participants with inclusion and exclusion criteria, patient samples or animal specimens used, the essential features of any interventions, the main outcome measures, the laboratory methods followed, or data sources and how these were selected for the study), and state the statistical procedures employed in the research.
The Results section should comprise the study results presented in a logical sequence, supplemented by tables and/or figures. Take care that the text does not repeat data that are presented in tables and/or figures. Only emphasize and summarize the essential features of the main results.The Discussion section should be used to emphasize the new and important aspects of the study, placing the results in context with published literature, the implications of the findings, and the conclusions that follow from the study results.
• Word limit: 3500 words
• Abstract: structured, up to 300 words
• References: 40 or less
• Tables/Figures: 6 maximum
These are short discussions of a case or case series with unique features not previously described that make an important teaching point or scientific observation. They may describe novel techniques or use of equipment, or new information on diseases of importance. Section headings should be: Abstract, Introduction, Case Report, Discussion, Conflicts of Interest Statement (if any), Acknowledgments (if any), and References.
The Introduction should describe the purpose of the present report, the significance of the disease and its specificity, and briefly review the relevant literature.
The Case Report should include the general data of the case, medical history, family history, chief complaint, present illness, clinical manifestation, methods of diagnosis and treatment, and outcome.
• Word limit: 1500 words
• Abstract: structured, up to 300 words
• References: 40 or less
• Tables/Figures: 6 maximum
These reports should be concise presentations of preliminary experimental results or technical aspects of clinical or experimental practice that are not fully investigated, verified or perfected but which may be of widespread interest or application.
The Editors reserve the right to decide what constitutes a Short Communication.Format guide
• Word limit: 1200 words
• Abstract: structured, up to 300 words
• References: 10 or less
• Tables/Figures: 2 maximum
Letters to the Editor
Letters are welcome in response to previously published JACME articles, and may also include interesting cases that do not meet the requirement of being truly exceptional, as well as other brief technical or clinical notes of general interest.
• Word limit: 500 words
• References: 6 or less
• Tables/Figures: 1 maximum
These are characteristic or atypical presentations/images of interesting clinical conditions.
• Word limit: 500 words
• References: 4 or less
• Tables/Figures: 2 maximum
Journal of Acute Medicine
12F-35, No. 50, Zhong-Xiao West Road Section 1
Taipei 100, Taiwan
Tel: (+886) 2-2371-9817
Fax: (+886) 2-2370-4797
E-mail: email@example.com Ethics in publishing
Please see our information pages on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication.
Ethical Approval of Studies and Informed Consent
For human or animal experimental investigations, appropriate institutional review board or ethics committee approval is required, and such approval should be stated in the methods section of the manuscript. For those investigators who do not have formal ethics review committees, the principles outlined in the Declaration of Helsinki should be followed (World Medical Association. Declaration of Helsinki: ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects. Available at http://www.wma.net/en/30publications/10policies/b3/17c.pdf).
For work involving animals, the guidelines for their care and use that were followed should be stated in the methods section of the manuscript. For those investigators who do not have formal institutional guidelines relating to animal experiments, the European Commission Directive 86/609/EEC for animal experiments (available at http://ec.europa.eu/environment/chemicals/lab_animals/legislation_en.htm) should be followed and the same should be stated in the methods section of themanuscript.
Human and animal rights
If the work involves the use of human subjects, the author should ensure that the work described has been carried out in accordance with The Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association (Declaration of Helsinki) for experiments involving humans; Uniform Requirements for manuscripts submitted to Biomedical journals. Authors should include a statement in the manuscript that informed consent was obtained for experimentation with human subjects. The privacy rights of human subjects must always be observed.
Declaration of interest
All authors are requested to disclose any actual or potential conflict of interest including any financial, personal or other relationships with other people or organizations within three years of beginning the submitted work that could inappropriately influence, or be perceived to influence, their work. More information.
A conflict of interest occurs when an individual’s objectivity is potentially compromised by a desire for financial gain, prominence, professional advancement or a successful outcome. JACME Editors strive to ensure that what is published in the Journal is as balanced, objective and evidence-based as possible. Since it can be difficult to distinguish between an actual conflict of interest and a perceived conflict of interest, the Journal requires authors to disclose all and any potential conflicts of interest.
Conflicts of interest may be financial or non-financial. Financial conflicts include financial relationships such as honoraria; educational grants; participation in speakers’ bureaus; membership, employment, consultancies, stock ownership, or other equity interest; expert testimony or patent-licensing arrangements. Non-financial conflicts include personal or professional relationships, affiliations, academic competition, intellectual passion, knowledge or beliefs that might affect objectivity.Please ensure that the name of each author listed in your manuscript appears in either Section I or Section II on page 2 of the JACME Authorship & Conflicts of Interest Statement form (an author’s name cannot appear in both Section I and Section II of the form).
Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' section of our ethics policy for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere including electronically in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the copyright-holder.
This policy concerns the addition, deletion, or rearrangement of author names in the authorship of accepted manuscripts. Before the accepted manuscript is published online, requests to add or remove an author, or to rearrange the author names, must be sent to the Journal Manager from the corresponding author of the accepted manuscript and must include:
(i) the reason the name should be added or removed, or the author names rearranged; and
(ii) an updated Authorship & Conflicts of Interest Statement with signatures from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of author names, this must include confirmation from the author(s) being added or removed. Requests that are not sent by the corresponding author will be forwarded by the Journal Manager to the corresponding author, who must follow the procedures as described above.
Note that: (1) Journal Managers will inform the Journal Editors of any such requests and (2) online publication of the accepted manuscript is suspended until authorship has been agreed.After the accepted manuscript is published online, any requests to add, remove, or rearrange author names in an article will follow the same policies as detailed above and result in a corrigendum.
Reporting Clinical Trials
All randomized contro lled trials submitted for publication should include a completed Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) flow chart (please go to http://www.consort-statement.org for more information). JACME has adopted the ICMJE proposal that requires, as a condition of consideration for publication of clinical trials, registration in a public trials registry. Purely observational studies (those in which the assignment of the medical intervention is not at the discretion of the investigator) will not require registration. Further information can be found at http://www.icmje.org.
Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (see more information on this). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. More information.
JACME is the official peer-reviewed publication of the Taiwan Society of Emergency Medicine. Manuscripts published in JACME become the permanent property of the Taiwan Society of Emergency Medicine. All articles published in the Journal are protected by copyright, which covers the exclusive rights to reproduce and distribute the article, as well as translation rights. No JACME article, in part or whole, may be reproduced, stored in any retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, by photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior written permission from the Taiwan Society of Emergency Medicine.
This Journal is a peer reviewed, subsidized open access journal where the Taiwan Society of Emergency Medicine pays for the publishing costs incurred by the Journal. Authors do not have to pay any Article Processing Charge or Open Access Publication Fee.
All articles published open access will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read, download, copy and distribute. Permitted reuse is defined by the following user license: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND): for non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.
Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.
Conflicts of Interest Statement and/or Funding/support statement
Since it is difficult to distinguish between an actual conflict of interest and a perceived conflict of interest, JACME requires authors to disclose all and any potential conflicts of interest and let readers judge for themselves. Therefore, please ensure that you provide information about any potential financial and non-financial conflicts of interest (see Section 2 for more information) in a concise paragraph after the main text.
Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND)
For non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.
Authors can share their research in a variety of different ways and Elsevier has a number of green open access options available. We recommend authors see our green open access page for further information. Authors can also self-archive their manuscripts immediately and enable public access from their institution's repository after an embargo period. This is the version that has been accepted for publication and which typically includes author-incorporated changes suggested during submission, peer review and in editor-author communications. Embargo period: For subscription articles, an appropriate amount of time is needed for journals to deliver value to subscribing customers before an article becomes freely available to the public. This is the embargo period and it begins from the date the article is formally published online in its final and fully citable form. Find out more.
This journal has an embargo period of 0 months.
Elsevier Publishing Campus
The Elsevier Publishing Campus (www.publishingcampus.com) is an online platform offering free lectures, interactive training and professional advice to support you in publishing your research. The College of Skills training offers modules on how to prepare, write and structure your article and explains how editors will look at your paper when it is submitted for publication. Use these resources, and more, to ensure that your submission will be the best that you can make it.
Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop.
Manuscripts (meaning all submission items, including all text, tables, artwork, cover letter, conflicts of interest disclosures, and any other required documents/material) must be submitted online to JACME through the Elsevier Editorial System - EVISE. If assistance is required, please refer to the tutorials for authors and/or customer support that are available on the EVISE website; you may also contact the Editorial Office. Please do not post, fax or e-mail your manuscripts to the Editorial Office.
- Articles should be in Microsoft Word document format and prepared in the simplest form possible. We will add in the correct font, font size, margins and so on according to the Journal’s style.
- You may use automatic page numbering, but do NOT use other kinds of automatic formatting such as footnotes, headers and footers. References especially should NOT be formatted using the MS Word “endnotes” or “footnotes” function; instead, you may use the commercially available EndNote® or Reference Manager® software to manage your references.
- Put text, references, table headings and tables, and figure legends in one file.
- Figures must be submitted as separate picture files, at the correct resolution and named according to the figure number and format, e.g., “Fig1.tif”, “Fig2.jpg”. Please see Section 9.8 for more information.
The following documents must be included in your submission (refer also to the Checklist provided on the Journal’s website at www.e-jacme.com). Items (1), (2) and (3) are mandatory. Items (4), (5), (6) and (7) are required only if they are applicable to your manuscript.(1) Cover Letter. This must include the following information:
- Title of the manuscript
- Names (spelled out in full) of all the authors*, and the institutions with which they are affiliated; indicate all affiliations with a superscripted lowercase letter after the author’s name and in front of the matching affiliation (*the name of each author should be written with the family name last, e.g., Wan-Lin Chang)
- Corresponding author details (name, e-mail, mailing address, telephone and fax numbers)
- A statement that the material contained in the manuscript has not been previously published and is not being concurrently submitted elsewhere
- Persons who do not fulfill the requirements to be listed as authors but who nevertheless contributed to the manuscript (such as those who provided writing assistance, for example) should be disclosed
- List of manuscripts that have been published, submitted, or are in press that are similar to the submission to JACME (and include in your submission copies of those similar manuscripts so that JACME Editors can be assured there is no overlap)
- The signature of the corresponding author
- Optional: if you have a list of reviewers who you wish to review or not to review your manuscript, you may include this list in the cover letter
(2) Authorship & Conflicts of Interest Statement. Each author’s contribution to the manuscript should be listed. Any and all potential and actual conflicts of interest should also be listed (see Section 2 for more information). Please use the JACME Authorship & Conflicts of Interest Statement form that is provided on the Journal’s website at www.e-jacme.com. Your signature and those of ALL your coauthors must be included.(3) Copyright Transfer Agreement. In the event that your manuscript is accepted for publication in JACME, you are required to transfer all copyright ownership in and relating to the work to the Taiwan Society of Emergency Medicine. Please use the JACME Copyright Transfer Agreement form that is provided on the Journal’s website at www.e-jacme.com. Your signature and those of ALL your coauthors must be included.(4) Ethics Statement. Articles covering the use of human or animal samples in research, or human or animal experiments must be accompanied by a letter of approval from the relevant review committee or authorities. See Section 3 for more information.
(5) Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) flow chart for randomized controlled trials submitted for publication. See Section 4 for more information.(6) Signed Statement of Informed Consent. Articles where human subjects can be identified in descriptions, photographs or pedigrees must be accompanied by a signed statement of informed consent to publish (in print and online) the descriptions, photographs and pedigrees from each subject who can be identified. See Section 5 for more information.
(7) Copyright Permission. If you have reproduced or adapted material from other copyrighted sources, the letter(s) of permission from the copyright holder(s) to reproduce or adapt the copyrighted sources must be supplied. Otherwise, such material must be removed from your manuscript.Identification of Patients in Descriptions, Photographs and Pedigrees
A signed statement of informed consent to publish (in print and online) patient descriptions, photographs and pedigrees should be obtained from all persons (parents or legal guardians for minors) who can be identified (including by the patients themselves) in such written descriptions, photographs or pedigrees. Such persons should be shown the manuscript before its submission. Omitting data or making data less specific to de-identify patients is acceptable, but changing any such data is not acceptable. State explicitly in the methods section of the manuscript that informed consent was obtained from all participating adult subjects or from parents or legal guardians for minors or incapacitated adults, together with the manner in which informed consent was obtained (i.e., oral or written).
Previous Publication or Duplicate SubmissionSubmitted manuscripts are considered with the understanding that they have not been published previously in print or electronic format (except in abstract or poster form) and are not under consideration in totality or in part by another publication or electronic medium. These declarations should be included in the cover letter.
Basic CriteriaArticles should be written in English, using American English spelling, and meet the following basic criteria: the material is original, the information is important, the writing is clear and concise, the study methods are appropriate, the data are valid, and the conclusions are reasonable and supported by the data.
Text should be typed double-spaced on white A4 (297 × 210 mm) paper, with outer margins of 2.5 cm. The manuscript should include a title page, abstract, keywords, text, conflicts of interest statement (if any), acknowledgments (if any), references, and figures and tables as appropriate. Each section of the manuscript should begin on a new page. Pages should be numbered consecutively, beginning with the title page.
This journal operates a double blind review process. All contributions will be initially assessed by the editor for suitability for the journal. Papers deemed suitable are then sent to a minimum of two independent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor's decision is final. More information on types of peer review.
As a general rule, the receipt of a manuscript will be acknowledged within 2 weeks of submission, and authors will be provided with a manuscript reference number for future correspondence. If such an acknowledgment is not received in a reasonable period of time, the author should contact the Editorial Office.
Manuscripts are then forwarded to the Editor-in-Chief, who makes an initial assessment of it. If the manuscript does not appear to be of sufficient merit or is not appropriate for the Journal, then the manuscript will be rejected without review. Rejected manuscripts will not be returned to authors unless requested.Manuscripts that appear meritorious and appropriate for the Journal are reviewed by at least two Editorial Board members or expert consultants assigned by the Editor-in-Chief. JACME follows a double-blind peer review process. Authors may submit a list in their cover letter of reviewers who they wish to review or not to review their manuscript. However, the actual peer reviewers invited will remain anonymous and may or may not be the reviewers suggested by the authors as the selection of reviewers is at the sole discretion of JACME Editors. The editors and reviewers will not disclose any information about a manuscript or its review to anyone except the manuscript’s corresponding author.
The corresponding author will usually be notified within 10 weeks of whether the submitted article is accepted for publication, rejected, or subject to revision before acceptance (however, do note that delays are sometimes unavoidable). If revisions are required, authors are asked to return a revised manuscript to the Editorial Office via the EVISE within 60 days. Please notify the Editorial Office in advance if additional time is needed or if you choose not to submit a revised manuscript.Main Text
The text for Original Articles should be organized into the following sections: Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, Conflicts of Interest Statement (if any), Acknowledgments (if any), and References. Sections for Case Reports are: Introduction, Case Report, Discussion, Conflicts of Interest Statement (if any), Acknowledgments (if any), and References. Each section should begin on a new page.
Where a term/definition will be continually referred to, it must be written in full when it first appears in the text, followed by the subsequent abbreviation in parentheses. Thereafter, the abbreviation may be used. An abbreviation should not be first defined in any section heading; if an abbreviation has previously been defined in the text, then the
abbreviation may be used in a subsequent section heading. Restrict the number of abbreviations to those that are absolutely necessary.
Numbers that begin a sentence or those that are less than 10 should be spelled out using letters. Centuries and decades should be spelled out, e.g., the Eighties or nineteenth century. Laboratory parameters, time, temperature, length, area, mass, and volume should be expressed using digits.
Système International (SI) units must be used, with the exception of blood pressure values which are to be reported in mmHg. Use the metric system for the expression of length, area, mass, and volume. Temperatures are to be given in degrees Celsius.
Names of drugs, devices and other products
Use the Recommended International Non-proprietary Name (rINN) for medicinal substances, unless the specific trade name of a drug is directly relevant to the discussion. Generic drug names should appear in lowercase letters in the text. If a specific proprietary drug needs to be identified, the brand name may appear only once in the manuscript in parentheses following the generic name the first time the drug is mentioned in the text.
Current standard international nomenclature for genes should be adhered to. For human genes, use genetic notation and symbols approved by the HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee (http://www.genenames.org). You may also refer to the resources available on PubMed at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/guide/genes-expression. The Human Genome Variation Society has a useful site that provides guidance in naming mutations at http://www.hgvs.org/mutnomen/index.html. In your manuscript, genes should be typed in italic font and include the accession number.
Statistical analysis is essential for all research papers except Case Reports. Use correct nomenclature for statistical methods (e.g., two sample t test, not unpaired t test). Descriptive statistics should follow the scales used in data description. Inferential statistics are important for interpreting results and should be described in
All p values should be presented to the third decimal place for accuracy. The smallest p value that should be expressed is p < 0.001 since additional zeros do not convey useful information; the largest p value that should be expressed is p > 0.99.
Personal communications and unpublished data
These sources cannot be included in the references list but may be described in the text. The author(s) must give the full name and highest academic degree of the person, the date of the communication, and indicate whether it was in oral or written (letter, fax, e-mail) form. A signed statement of permission should be included from each person identified as a source of information in a personal communication or as a source for unpublished data.
The title page should contain the following information (in order, from the top to bottom of the page):
- article category
- article title
- IMPORTANT: please do NOT include any author names and affiliations or corresponding author information on the title page (this information should be listed in your cover letter instead) because JACME follows a double-blind peer review process
Abstract and Keywords
An abstract of no more than 300 words in length and 3–5 relevant keywords (in alphabetical order) are required for the following article categories: Review Articles, Original Articles, Case Reports, and Short Communications.
Keywords should be taken from the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) list of Index Medicus (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/meshhome.html).No abstract or keywords are required for Letters to the Editor and Make Your Diagnosis papers.
After the Conflicts of Interest Statement and/or Funding/Support Statement, general acknowledgments for consultations and statistical analyses should be listed concisely, including the names of the individuals who were directly involved. Consent should be obtained from those individuals before their names are listed in this section. Those acknowledged should not include secretarial, clerical or technical staff whose participation was limited to the performance of their normal duties.
The number of figures should be restricted to the minimum necessary to support the textual material. Figures should have an informative figure legend and be numbered in the order of their citation in the text. All symbols and abbreviations should be defined in the figure legend in alphabetical order. Items requiring explanatory footnotes should follow the same style as that for tables as described in Section 9.7.
Patient identification should be obscured. All lettering should be done professionally and should be in proportion to the drawing, graph or photograph. Photomicrographs must include an internal scale marker, and the legend should state the type of specimen, original magnification and stain.Figures must be submitted as separate picture files, at the correct resolution (see Section 9.8.2) and named according to the figure number and format, e.g., “Fig1.tif”, “Fig2.jpg”.
Regardless of the application used, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please “save as” or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
- EPS: vector drawings. Embed the font or save the text as “graphics”.
- TIFF: color or grayscale photographs (halftones)—use a minimum of 300 dpi.
- TIFF: bitmapped line drawings—use a minimum of 1000 dpi.
- TIFF: combination of bitmapped line/halftone (color or grayscale)—use a minimum of 600 dpi.
- DOC, XLS or PPT: if your electronic artwork is created in any of these Microsoft Office applications, please supply “as is”
Supply files that do not meet the resolution requirements detailed above;
Supply files that are optimized for screen use (such as GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG) as the resolution is too low;
Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.
A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available at http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions. Please note that the cost of color illustrations will be charged to the authorTables
Tables should supplement, not duplicate, the text. They should have a concise table heading, be self-explanatory, and numbered consecutively in the order of their citation in the text. Items requiring explanatory footnotes should be denoted using superscripted lowercase letters (a, b, c, etc.), with the footnotes arranged under the table in alphabetical order. Asterisks (*, **) are used only to indicate the probability level of tests of significance. Abbreviations used in the table must be defined and placed after the footnotes in alphabetical order. If you include a block of data or table from another source, whether published or unpublished, you must acknowledge the original source.
- References should be indicated by superscripted numbers placed after punctuation, and numbered consecutively in order of appearance. [The actual authors can be referred to, but the reference number(s) must always be given.]
- References cited in tables or figure legends should be included in sequence at the point where the table or figure is first mentioned in the main text.
- Do not cite abstracts unless they are the only available reference to an important concept.
- Do not cite uncompleted work or work that has not yet been accepted for publication (i.e., “unpublished observation”, “personal communication”) as references.
In the references list
- References should be compiled at the end of the manuscript according to the order of citation in the text.
- References should be limited to those cited in the text only.
- Journal references should include, in order, authors’ surnames and initials, article title, abbreviated journal name, year, volume and inclusive page numbers.
- The surnames and initials of all the authors up to 6 should be included, but when authors number 7 or more, list the first 3 authors only followed by “et al”.
- Abbreviations for journal names should conform to those used in MEDLINE.
- If citing a website, provide the author information, article title, website address and the date you accessed the information.
- Reference to an article that is in press must state the journal name and, if possible, the year and volume.
Standard journal article
Chang MW, Chang SS, Lee CC, Sheu BF, Young YR. Hypokalemia and hypothermia are associated with 30-day mortality in patients with acute paraquat poisoning. Am J Med Sci. 2008;335:451–456.
Kaplan NM. The endothelium as prognostic factor and therapeutic target: what criteria should we apply? J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1998;32(Suppl 3):S78–80.
Journal article not in English but with English abstract
Kawai H, Ishikawa T, Moroi J, et al. Elderly patient with cerebellar malignant astrocytoma. No Shinkei Geka. 2008;36:799–805. [In Japanese, English abstract]
Bradley EL. Medical and Surgical Management. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders; 1982.
Book with editors
Letheridge S, Cannon CR, eds. Bilingual Education: Teaching English as a Second Language. New York, NY: Praeger; 1980.
Levitt MD. Pancreatitis. In: Sleisenger MH, ed. Cecil Textbook of Medicine. 18th ed. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders; 1988:774–780.
Book series with editors
Wilson JG, Fraser FC, eds. Handbook of Teratology, Vols. 1–4. New York, NY: Plenum Press; 1977–1978.
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Emergency Department Trends from the Drug Abuse Warning Network, Final Estimates 1995–2002. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Statistics; 2003.
Duchin JS. Can preparedness for biological terrorism save us from pertussis? Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2004;158(2). Available at http://archpedi.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/158/2/106. Accessed June 12, 2004.
Smeeth L, Iliffe S. Community screening for visual impairment in the elderly. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002(2):CD001054. Doi:10.1002/14651858.CD1001054.Thesis
Griffiths P. Nursing Patients in Transition: An Ethnography of the Role of the Nurse on an Acute Medical Admissions Unit. PhD thesis. Wales, UK: University of Wales; 2007.
NICE—National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Acute Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding: Management (CG141). London, UK: NICE; 2012. Available at http://publications.nice.org.uk/acute-uppergastrointestinal-bleeding-management-cg141. Accessed April 15, 2013.
This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in your published article.
Reference management software
Most Elsevier journals have their reference template available in many of the most popular reference management software products. These include all products that support Citation Style Language styles, such as Mendeley and Zotero, as well as EndNote. Using the word processor plug-ins from these products, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article, after which citations and bibliographies will be automatically formatted in the journal's style. If no template is yet available for this journal, please follow the format of the sample references and citations as shown in this Guide.
Users of Mendeley Desktop can easily install the reference style for this journal by clicking the following link:
When preparing your manuscript, you will then be able to select this style using the Mendeley plug-ins for Microsoft Word or LibreOffice.
Preparation for Publication
Once a manuscript has been accepted for publication, authors should submit the final version of their manuscript in MS Word format, with all tables/figures as applicable, via the EVISE. Accepted manuscripts are then copyedited according to the Journal’s style and the galley proofs in the form of a PDF file are sent by the Publisher to the corresponding author for final approval. Authors are responsible for all statements made in their work, including changes made by the copy editor.
Proofreading is solely the authors’ responsibility. Note that the Editorial Board reserves the right to make revisions to the manuscript and the Publisher may proceed with the publication of your article if no response from the author(s) is received
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