Guide for Authors

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Introduction
The Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies (JAMS) is a bimonthly, peer-reviewed and open access journal. JAMS aims to disseminate evidence-based scientific findings on the acupuncture and meridian to researchers and clinicians in the field of complementary and alternative medicine, and in the other health-related fields. The journal will publish high-quality studies on the anatomy and physiology of acupoints and meridians, and mechanism of action of acupuncture treatment, and clinical application of acupuncture. The journal welcomes the original articles on the acupuncture and related approaches (acupressure, electroacupuncture, laser acupuncture, moxibustion and cupping, etc.), pharmacopuncture and veterinary acupuncture.

The journal is indexed in MedLine/PubMed/Index Medicus, Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI), SCOPUS, ScienceDirect, EMBASE, CINAHL Plus, Google Scholar, DOAJ, Korea Citation Index (KCI), SHERPA/RoMEO, EZB, and Research Bible. Its abbreviated title is J Acupunct Meridian Stud. This journal was supported by the Korean Federation of Science and Technology Societies Grant funded by the Korean Government (Ministry of Education).

JAMS is an open access journal: JAMS is supported by Medical Association of Pharmacopuncture Institute for Article Publishing Charge (APC). There is no charge to publish in this journal. Therefore, all articles will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download. All articles published by Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies are made freely and permanently accessible online immediately upon publication, without registration barriers.

The Editorial Board requires authors to be in compliance with the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals (URMs); current URMs are available at http://www.icmje.org.

It also adheres completely to the Principles of Transparency and Best Practice in Scholarly Publishing (joint statement by COPE, DOAJ, WAME, and OASPA; http://doaj.org/bestpractice) if otherwise not described below.

1. MANUSCRIPT SUBMISSION

Authors are requested to submit their manuscript through the Elsevier Editorial System, available at https://www.editorialmanager.com/JAAMS. Any further inquiry relating to manuscript submission, please contact the Editorial Office (journalams@gmail.com).

Important information

· Articles submitted by e-mail should be in Microsoft Word document format (*.doc) and prepared in the simplest form possible. We will add in the correct font, font size, margins and so on according to the journal's style.
· You may use automatic page numbering, but do NOT use other kinds of automatic formatting such as footnotes, endnotes, headers and footers.
· Put text, references, tables, figures, and legends in one file, with each table and figure on a new page.
· Figures that are line drawing or photographs must be submitted separately in highresolution

2. BEFORE YOU BEGIN

2.1. Ethics in publishing

All of the manuscripts should be prepared based on strict observation of research and publication ethics guidelines recommended by the Council of Science Editors (http://www.councilscienceeditors.org). For information on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication see https://www.elsevier.com/publishingethics and https://www.elsevier.com/journal-authors/ethics

2.2. Ethical Approval of Studies

All studies involving human subjects or human data must be reviewed and approved by a responsible Institutional Review Board (IRB). Animal experiments also should be reviewed by an appropriate committee (IACUC) for the care and use of animals. Also studies with pathogens requiring a high degree of biosafety should pass review of a relevant committee (IBC). The approval should be described in the Methods section. For those investigators who do not have formal ethics review committees, the principles outlined in the Declaration of Helsinki should be followed (World Medical Association. Declaration of Helsinki: ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects. Available at: https://www.wma.net/policies-post/wma-declaration-of-helsinki-ethical-principles-for-medical-research-involving-human-subjects/). The editor of JAMS may request submission of copies of informed consents from human subjects in clinical studies or IRB approval documents. The JAMS will follow the guidelines by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE, http://publicationethics.org/) for settlement of any misconduct.

2.3. Identification of Patients in Descriptions, Photographs and Pedigrees

A signed statement of informed consent to publish (in print and online) patient descriptions, photographs and pedigrees should be obtained from all subjects (parents or legal guardians for minors) who can be identified (including by the subjects themselves) in such written descriptions, photographs or pedigrees. Such persons should be shown the manuscript before its submission. Omitting data or making data less specific to de-identify patients is acceptable, but changing any such data is not acceptable.

2.4. Conflict of interest

The corresponding author of an article is asked to inform the Editor of the authors' potential conflicts of interest that may possibly influence the research or interpretation of data. A potential conflict of interest should be disclosed in a `Disclosure? statement, and in the cover letter even when the authors are confident that their judgments have not been influenced during the study or in preparing the manuscript. Such conflicts may include financial support or private connections to pharmaceutical companies, political pressure from interest groups, or academic problems.

The submitted Disclosure format shall follow that of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) Uniform Disclosure Form for Potential Conflicts of Interest (http://www.icmje.org/about-icmje/faqs/conflict-of-interest-disclosure-forms/). The Editor will decide whether the information on the conflict should be included in the published paper. In particular, all sources of funding for a study should be explicitly stated. The JAMS asks referees to let the Editor know of any conflict of interest before undertaking a review of a given manuscript.

All authors are requested to disclose any actual or potential conflict of interest including any financial, personal or other relationships with other people or organizations within three years of beginning the submitted work that could inappropriately influence, or be perceived to influence, their work. See also https://www.elsevier.com/conflictsofinterest. Further information and an example of a Conflict of Interest form can be found at: https://service.elsevier.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/286/supporthub/publishing.

2.5. Submission declaration

Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see https://www.elsevier.com/sharingpolicy), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere including electronically in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the copyright-holder.

2.6. Authorship

The Corresponding Author must submit a completed Author Consent Form to the JAMS editorial office with manuscripts. All authors must sign the Author Consent Form. The JAMS follows the recommendations for authorship of the ICMJE (http://www.icmje.org/icmje-recommendations.pdf) and the Good Publication Practice Guidelines of the Korean Association of Medical Journal Editors (KAMJE, http://kamje.or.kr).

The `Uniform Requirements? of the ICMJE presents authorship recommendations as follows. ?Authorship credit should be based on 1) substantial contributions to conception and design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; and 2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and 3) final approval of the version to be published; and 4) agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that the questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.? The authors should meet these 4 conditions. All individuals who meet the first criterion should have the opportunity to participate in the review, drafting, and final approval of the manuscript.

The contribution of each author must be stated according to the CRediT Taxonomy of author roles (https://casrai.org/credit/) and presented on the title page. If a person does not meet the above four criteria, they may be mentioned as a contributor to the manuscript?s acknowledgments section.

Examples of author contributions
Conceptualization: name; Data curation: name; Formal analysis: name; Funding acquisition: name; Investigation: name; Methodology: name; Project administration: name; Resources: name; Software: name; Supervision: name; Validation: name; Visualization: name; Writing - original draft: name; Writing - review and editing: name.

The Editor assumes that all author(s) listed in a manuscript have agreed with the following JAMS policies on manuscript submission: 1) The manuscript submitted to the JAMS must be previously unpublished and not be under consideration for publication elsewhere; 2) the identities of referees will not be revealed under any circumstances; and 3) if an author(s) should be added or deleted after submission of manuscript, it is the responsibility of the corresponding author to ensure that all the authors involved are aware of and agree to the change in authorship. The JAMS has no responsibility for such changes.

2.7. Changes to authorship

Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the journal Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed. Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted. While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the Editor will result in a corrigendum.

2.8. Copyright

All published papers become the permanent property of the Medical Association of Pharmacopuncture Institute. Copyrights of all published materials are owned by the Medical Association of Pharmacopuncture Institute. Permission must be obtained from the Medical Association of Pharmacopuncture Institute for any commercial use of materials. Every author should sign the copyright transfer agreement forms.

Please find the Copyright Transfer Agreement Form in the following link: https://www.elsevier.com/__data/promis_misc/JAMS_Copyright_Form.doc

2.9. Open access

Every peer-reviewed research article appearing in this journal will be published open access. This means that the article is universally and freely accessible via the internet in perpetuity, in an easily readable format immediately after publication. The author does not have any publication charges for open access. The Medical Association of Pharmacopuncture Institute will pay to make the article open access. A CC user license manages the reuse of the article (see https://www.elsevier.com/openaccesslicenses). All articles will be published under the following license: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND): For non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.

2.10. Role of the funding source

You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.

2.11. Submission

Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files (Microsoft Word file; *.doc or *.docx) are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.

3. Categories of Articles

3.1. Review Articles

Review articles describe new developments of the significance in the field of acupuncture and meridian studies and highlight unresolved questions and future directions. Most reviews are solicited by the editors, but unsolicited submissions may also be considered for publication. Review articles must not include unpublished material (unpublished/original data, submitted manuscripts, or personal communications). Review articles should have an Abstract and keywords, Introduction, brief main headings (subsections relevant for the subject), Discussion, and Conclusions.

Maximum length: One paragraph with maximum of 250 words for the abstract; maximum of 6,500 words from Introduction to Conclusion; maximum of 100 references, 10 tables and figures.

3.2. Research Articles

Research articles are expected to present major advances and important new research results related to acupuncture and meridian studies.

Section headings should be written in the following format: Abstract and keywords; Introduction; Materials and Methods; Results; Discussion; Conclusions (if any); Acknowledgements; References; and Tables and Figures.

The abstract should be structured with maximum of 250 words as follows: Background, Objectives, Methods, Results, and Conclusions.

Introduction should provide concise yet sufficient background information about the study to provide the readers with a better understanding of the study, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results.

Materials and Methods should contain detailed procedures of the experiment including investigation period, methods of subject selection, and information on subjects such as age, gender, and other significant features, in order to enable the experiment to be repeated. The procedure which has been already published or standardized shall be described only briefly using literature citations. Clinical trials or experiments involving laboratory animals or pathogens must elaborate animal care and use and experimental protocols, in addition to mentioning the approval from the relevant committees. The sources of special equipment and chemicals must be stated with the name and location of the manufacturer (city and country). All statistical procedures used in the study and criteria for determining significance levels must be described. The Theory / Calculation should extend, not repeat, the background to the article already dealt with in the Introduction and provide the foundation for further work. In contrast, a Calculation section represents a practical development from a theoretical basis.

Results should be presented in a logical sequence. Only the most important observation should be emphasized or summarized, where the main or the most important findings should be mentioned first. Table and figures must be numbered in the order they are cited in the text, kept to a minimum, and should not be repeated. Supplementary materials and other details can be separately sited in an appendix. State the statistical method used to analyze the results (statistical significance of differences) with the probability values given in parentheses.

Discussion should contain interpretation and explanation of the results and important aspects of the study, followed by the conclusion drawn from them. The information already mentioned in Introduction or Results sections should not be repeated and the main conclusions of the study may be presented in the discussion.

Conclusions must be linked with the purpose of the study stated in the abstract, clearly supported by the data produced in the study. New hypotheses may be stated when warranted but must be clearly labeled.

Maximum length: Up to 4,000 words excluding Abstract, References, and Figure/Table Legends. Structured abstract with maximum of 250 words; Up to 4,000 words excluding Abstract, References, and Figure/Table Legends; maximum of 50 references, 10 tables and figures.

3.3. Perspective Articles

These articles present novel views and insights on topics of current interest in basic and clinical acupuncture and meridian research. Examples of potential manuscripts for publication as a perspective are a discussion of controversial issues, a summary update of a series of presentations at a scientific meeting, clinical perspectives on the diagnosis or treatment of a particular disease, or other similar topics in acupuncture and meridian research.

Maximum length: Up to 1,500 words excluding Abstract, References, and Figure/Table Legends. One paragraph with maximum of 100 words for the abstract; maximum of 10 references, 2 tables and figures.

3.4. Brief Reports
These are short peer-reviewed papers presenting novel results in basic acupuncture and meridian studies. Section headings should be: Abstract and keywords, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, and References.

Maximum length: Up to 2,000 words excluding Abstract, References, and Figure/Table Legends. One paragraph with maximum of 250 words for the abstract; maximum of 20 references, 4 tables and figures.

3.5. Case Reports

These are short peer-reviewed papers presenting novel findings in clinical studies. Case Reports deal with unreported or unusual cases in drug therapy or in the presentation of a disease. The authors should state the findings, clinical courses, the prognoses of the case, and present a review of other related and previously reported cases. The CARE guidelines checklist (https://www.care-statement.org/checklist) should be submitted with the manuscript. Case Reports should make a contribution to acupuncture and meridian knowledge and must have educational value or highlight the need for a change in clinical practice or diagnostic/prognostic approaches. Section headings should be: Abstract and keywords, Introduction, Case presentation, Discussion, Acknowledgments, References, Figures or Tables. You may find out the sample for a regular case report at www.jams-kpi.com.

Maximum length: Up to 2,000 words excluding Abstract, References, and Figure/Table Legends. One paragraph with maximum of 250 words for the abstract; maximum of 20 references, 6 tables and figures.

3.6. Protocol and Technical Note

These are short peer-reviewed papers presenting novel protocols in basic acupuncture and meridian studies. They also present new techniques for instruments and acupuncture. Receipt of technical notes will not be acknowledged nor are authors generally consulted before publication. Section headings should be: Abstract and keywords, Introduction, Materials, Procedure, Timing, Troubleshooting, and Anticipated Result.

Maximum length: Up to 2,000 words excluding Abstract, References, and Figure/Table Legends. One paragraph with maximum of 250 words for the abstract; maximum of 20 references, 6 tables and figures.

3.7. Impact Shot

The purpose of ImpactShot is to provide researchers and potential authors the opportunity to present the essence of their research in a 'One-Figure' (with several panels) format to have a 'Deep Impact' on the research community and general public. The figure must be clear and concise in message. The motto of the ImpactShot is "A figure speaks louder than words".

PREPARING YOUR SUBMISSION TO ImpactShot
• Please include a title for your submission. The title should contain no more than eight words.
• The legend should contain no more than 150 words.
• The figure should be a completed one that does not need to be revised in the editorial procedure. For figures, it is permissible to send low-resolution images for peer review, although we may ask for high-resolution files at a later stage. Please submit a high-resolution still image.

The legend to the image should succinctly present relevant research information. All labeled structures in the image should be described and explained in the legend. Please, refer to the example of the ImpactShot at http://www. jams-kpi.com/article/S2005-2901(14)00060-0/pdf. An abstract is not required.

Maximum length: Up to 150 words. No abstract; maximum of 5 references, 1 figure.

3.8. Guidelines and Recommendations

These articles are to introduce consensual or official statements of various organizations of basic and clinical acupuncture and meridian research. The article should be presented in accordance with a structured and transparent process, such as that for the GRADE guidelines (https://www.gradeworkinggroup.org). The numbers of words, references, figures, and tables in the main body are not limited. The abstract should be an unstructured single paragraph of fewer than 150 words. These articles are normally solicited by the editors, but an unsolicited submission will be considered. The manuscript will undergo the same peer-review process as that for research articles.

Maximum length: One paragraph with maximum of 150 words for the abstract.

3.9. Book Reviews
These evaluate books on acupuncture and meridian studies and related subjects. Receipt of book reviews will not be acknowledged nor are authors generally consulted before publication.

Maximum length: Up to 400 words. No abstract.

3.10. Letters to the Editor
These are letters about readers' opinions or issues of concern on previously published articles in the journal. Receipt of letters will not be acknowledged nor are authors generally consulted before publication. The text should be limited to 500 words (including spaces) and accepted letters are subject to editing for clarity and space. An abstract is not required.

Maximum length: Up to 500 words. No abstract; maximum of 10 references, 2 tables and figures.

3.11. Editorials
Editorials are invited articles or comments and should be commentaries on articles published recently in the journal. Editorial topics could include active areas of research, fresh insights, and debates in all fields of journal publication. Editorials should not exceed 1,000 words, excluding references, tables, and figures. References should not exceed 10. A maximum of 3 figures including tables is allowed. An abstract is not required.

Maximum length: Up to 1000 words. No abstract; maximum of 10 references, 3 tables and figures.

3.12. Corrections
Corrections including erratum and corrigendum provide a means of correcting errors in a published article. Erratum and corrigendum should be sent directly to the Editor-in-Chief and are treated in the same manner as a formally published paper. An erratum is to notify the errors accused during the production of the journal article, including errors of omission such as failure to make factual proof corrections requested by authors within the deadline provided by the journal and within journal policy. A corrigendum is a notification of a significant error made by the authors of the article. All corrigenda are normally approved by the editors of the journal.

Table 1 shows the recommended maximums of manuscripts according to publication type: However, these requirements are negotiable with the editor.

JAMS_table-1.jpg Table 1: Recommended maximums for articles submitted to the Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies
* Maximum number of words is exclusive of the tables, figures, and references.

4. Reporting Guidelines

The JAMS recommends that authors make use of reporting guidelines that are appropriate to the type of the manuscript in preparation, and to indicate the reporting guideline(s) used in the Methods section of the submitted manuscript. Reporting guidelines are available through the EQUATOR (Enhancing the Quality and Transparency of Health Research) Network (http://www.equator-network.org) or other websites. Compliance with the appropriate reporting guidelines will be enforced through editorial and peer review. Representative reporting guidelines include:
• CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials)-for clinical trials (http://www.consort-statement.org/)
• STRICTA (STandards for Reporting Interventions in Clinical Trials of Acupuncture)-for clinical acupuncture trials (https://www.stricta.info/)
• STARD (Standards for the Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies)-for diagnostic test evaluation
• STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology)-for cross-sectional, case-control, and cohort studies
• PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses)-for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (http://www.prisma-statement.org/)
• ARRIVE (Animal Research: Reporting of In Vivo Experiments)-for all studies involving laboratory animals (https://www.nc3rs.org.uk/arrive-guidelines)
• SPQR (Standards for Reporting Qualitative Research)-for all studies involving qualitative research
• CARE (Case Report Guidelines)-for clinical case reports (http://www.care-statement.org)
• GRADE(Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation)-for using to assess evidence or develop recommendations (https://www.gradeworkinggroup.org)

5.1. Use of word processing software

It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use boldface, italics, subscripts, superscripts, etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier: https://www.elsevier.com/guidepublication). Note that source files of figures, tables, and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork. To avoid unnecessary errors, you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.

5.2. Manuscript Preparation

Manuscripts should be typed double-spaced throughout. Each section of the manuscript should begin on a new page. Pages should be numbered consecutively and organized as follows.

5.2.1. Cover Letter
The corresponding author should highlight the key points and originality of the article in few sentences and provide written assurance that neither the submitted materials nor portions thereof have been published previously or are under consideration for publication elsewhere. When more than one related manuscript has been published or is under consideration for publication by this or other journals, authors are required to declare this in their letter and to enclose copies of those publications for editorial perusal.

Authors may recommend experts in the field of the manuscript?s content as potential reviewers. The suggested reviewers may not be working at the same institution and, preferably, not in the same country as the corresponding author(s).

5.2.2. Title Page
The title page should contain the following information:
• category of paper
• article title*
• names (spelled out in full) of all authors** with their ORCID IDs, and the institutions with which they are affiliated
•short running title not exceeding 50 characters
• corresponding author details: name, academic degree, e-mail address, mailing address (institutional affiliation, city, postal code, and country), telephone and fax numbers
• Contribution of each author and funding sources should be included as footnotes on the title page
• declaration of any source of financial support

* The article title should not exceed two lines in print. This equates to 100 characters (including spaces) for articles. The article title does not normally include numbers, acronyms, abbreviations or punctuation. It should include sufficient detail for indexing purposes but be general enough for readers outside the field to appreciate what the paper is about.

** The name of each author should be written with the family name last, e.g. Charles Darwin. Authorship is restricted only to direct participants who have contributed significantly to the work.

5.2.3. Abstracts and keywords
The abstract should effectively present the contents of the manuscript in less than 250 words. In principle, acronyms and informal abbreviations should be avoided, but, if needed, they should be kept to an absolute minimum with proper identifications. 4-6 relevant keywords should be listed at the end of the abstract page. For the selection of keywords, refer to Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) service of PubMed (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/mesh) or that of the US National Library of Medicine (https://meshb.nlm.nih.gov/search).

5.2.4. Main Text
The text for Research Articles should include the following sections: Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, and Conclusions (if any).
• The Introduction should be as concise as possible, without subheadings. A brief background, pertinent references, and previous findings in the field of interest should be presented. Authors are recommended to differentiate the topic-specific background from the general background, to point out issues of debate, and state the specific question(s) to be addressed in the study.
• The Materials and Methods section should be sufficiently detailed. Descriptions of the experimental methods should be concise but sufficient to allow repetition by other qualified investigators. Procedures that have been published previously should not be described in detail, but merely cited with appropriate references. However, new or significant modifications of previously published procedures need full descriptions. The sources of a special chemical(s), equipment(s), or preparation(s) should be given along with the company name and country. All chemicals and reagents should use a generic name, not a brand name.
• For research on humans, the study protocol must be reviewed and approved by the appropriate Institutional Review Board (IRB). The IRB approval number should be provided (e.g. Approval No. 2019013). In addition, informed consent must be obtained from all subjects at the time they are enrolled. For animal experimentation, the procedures used and the care of animals should be approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) of one of the authors? institution(s), and the approval number should be provided (e.g. Approval No. 2019011).
• We recommend authors ensure the correct use of the term sex when reporting biological factors, and, unless inappropriate, report the sex of experimental animals or cells, and describe the methods used to determine sex. If the study involved a sex-excluded population (i.e. only one sex), authors should justify the reason for that choice, except in obvious cases (e.g., prostate cancer). Authors should indicate how they determined animal breed and justify the relevance of the breed choice. It is recommended that authors make use of the appropriate reporting guideline services listed above in the Article Category and Reporting Guidelines section.

Subheadings may be used to organize the Results and Discussion.

Sections for Brief Reports are: Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, and Discussion.

Sections for Case Reports are: Introduction, Case Presentation, and Discussion.

Each section should begin on a new page.

5.2.4.1. Abbreviations
Where a term/definition will be continually referred to, it must be written in full when it first appears in the text, followed by the subsequent abbreviation in brackets. Thereafter, the abbreviation may be used. The use of abbreviations should be kept to a minimum.

5.2.4.2. Ethical Approval

5.2.4.2.1. Research ethics
All manuscripts should be prepared according to the research and publication ethics guidelines recommended by the Council of Science Editors (http://www.councilscienceeditors.org/), the ICMJE (http://www.icmje.org/), the World Association of Medical Editors (WAME, http://www.wame.org/), or the Korean Association of Medical Journal Editors (KAMJE, http://www.kamje.or.kr/intro.php?body=eng_index).

All studies involving human subjects or human data must be reviewed and approved by a responsible Institutional Review Board (IRB). Authors should follow the principles embodied in the Declaration of Helsinki (https://www.wma.net/policies-post/wma-declaration-of-helsinki-ethical-principles-for-medical-research-involving-human-subjects/) for all investigations involving human materials.

Animal experiments should be reviewed by an appropriate committee for the care and use of animals (i.e., an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee; IACUC). Studies with pathogens requiring a high degree of biosafety should pass the review of a relevant committee (i.e., an Institutional Biosafety Committee; IBC). We encourage authors to adhere to animal research reporting standards, for example, the ARRIVE reporting guidelines (https://www.nc3rs.org.uk/arrive-guidelines) for reporting study design and statistical analysis; experimental procedures; experimental animals, and housing and husbandry practices. For studies using client-owned animals, authors should demonstrate a high standard (best practice) of veterinary care that includes obtaining informed client consent. The Editor retains the right to reject manuscripts on the basis of ethical or animal welfare concerns.

The approvals obtained for the above should be described in the manuscript?s Methods section. For studies of humans, including case reports, also state whether informed consent was obtained from the study participants. The Editor may request submission of copies of IRB, IACUC, or IBC approval documents and copies of informed consent from human subjects in clinical studies.

5.2.4.2.2. Ethics in research involving animals
A statement explicitly describing the ethical background to this study and any institutional or national ethical committee approvals must be included within the manuscript.

5.2.4.2.3. Animal Studies
A statement indicating that the protocol and procedures employed were ethically reviewed and approved, and the name of the body giving approval must be included in the Methods section of the manuscript. We encourage authors to adhere to animal research reporting standards, for example, the ARRIVE reporting guidelines (https://www.nc3rs.org.uk/arrive-guidelines) for describing study design, statistical analysis, experimental procedures, experimental animals, and housing and husbandry practices. The authors should also state whether experiments were performed in accordance with relevant institutional and national guidelines and regulations for the care and use of laboratory animals.

5.2.4.3. Informed Consent
For investigations of human subjects, state explicitly in the methods section that informed consent was obtained from all participating adult subjects and from parents or legal guardians for minors or incapacitated adults, together with the manner in which informed consent was obtained (i.e. oral or written).

5.2.4.4. Identification of Patients in Descriptions, Photographs, and Pedigrees
Omitting data or making data less specific to de-identify patients is acceptable but changing any such data is not acceptable.

5.2.4.5. Units
International System of Units (SI) must be used, with the exception of blood pressure values which are to be reported in mmHg. Please use the metric system for the expression of length, area, mass, and volume. Temperatures are to be given in degrees Celsius.

5.2.4.6 Drug Names
Use the Recommended International Non-proprietary Name for medicinal substances, unless the specific trade name of a drug is directly relevant to the discussion.

5.2.4.7. Acupuncture Nomenclature and Traditional Medicine Terminologies
Refer to the Standard Acupuncture Nomenclature (https://apps.who.int/medicinedocs/documents/s7143e/s7143e.pdf) and WHO International Standard Terminologies on Traditional Medicine in the Western Pacific Region (http://www.wpro.who.int/publications/who_istrm_file.pdf) published by the World Health Organization Regional Office for the Western Pacific.

5.2.4.8. Controlled Trials of Acupuncture in Clinical Studies
Use the preferred reporting criteria based on the Guidelines for Clinical Research in Acupuncture (https://apps.who.int/medicinedocs/en/d/Jh2948e/).

5.2.4.9. Statistical Analysis
For manuscripts that report statistics, the JAMS recommends authors to refer the following guidelines on the statistical analysis and its presentation. In case there was consultation with statisticians, authors may provide evidence of statistical consultation (or at least expertise) by either the inclusion of a statistician/epidemiologist among the authors or in the acknowledgments.

5.2.4.9.1. Methods section
• Identify the statistical tests used to analyze the data.
• Provide published references for complex or unusual statistical methods (i.e., beyond t-tests, correlation, chi-square, stratified analysis, analysis of variance, regression and survival analysis).
• Indicate the prospectively determined p-value that was taken to indicate a significant difference.
• Identify any statistics software used. (List software name, version, and company in parentheses in the text, not in the reference list.)

5.2.4.9.2. Results and Discussion sections
• Report actual p-values rather than thresholds: not just whether the p-value was above or below the significant-difference threshold. Example: write "p = 0.18", not "p > 0.05" or "p = NS."
• p-value should be expressed to 2 significant digits for p ≥ 0.01 because expressing p to more than 3 digits does not add useful information.

5.2.5. Tables
Tables should supplement, not duplicate, the text. They should be numbered consecutively using Arabic numerals in the order of their citation in the text. Tables should be typed double-spaced on separate pages in as simple a form as possible, with a short descriptive title typed directly above and with essential footnotes below. Information requiring explanatory footnotes should be denoted using these symbols (in order of appearance): *, †, ‡, §, ?, ¶, #, **, ††, ‡‡. Abbreviations used in the table must be defined in the footnotes. If you include data from another source, whether published or unpublished, you must acknowledge the original source.

5.2.6. Figures
The number of figures should be restricted to the minimum necessary to support the textual material. Figures should be labeled in Arabic numerals in the order of their citation in the text. All symbols and abbreviations should be defined in the legend. Figure legends should indicate the anatomic area and/or pathologic condition shown. Patient identification should be obscured. All lettering should be done professionally and should be in proportion to the drawing, graph or photograph. For photomicrographs, include the type of specimen, original magnification, and stain.
Each figure should be submitted separately in high-resolution EPS or TIFF format (or alternatively in high-resolution JPEG format). Please ensure that files are supplied at the correct resolution of a minimum of 300 dpi. The files are to be named according to the figure number and format, e.g. Fig1.tif.

5.2.7. Video data
Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the files in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 150 MB. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: http://www.sciencedirect.com. Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages at https://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions. Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.

5.2.8. Supplementary material
Supplementary material can support and enhance your scientific research. Supplementary files offer the author additional possibilities to publish supporting applications, high-resolution images, background datasets, sound clips and more. Please note that such items are published online exactly as they are submitted; there is no typesetting involved (supplementary data supplied as an Excel file or as a PowerPoint slide will appear as such online). Please submit the material together with the article and supply a concise and descriptive caption for each file. If you wish to make any changes to supplementary data during any stage of the process, then please make sure to provide an updated file, and do not annotate any corrections on a previous version. Please also make sure to switch off the 'Track Changes' option in any Microsoft Office files as these will appear in the published supplementary file(s). For more detailed instructions please visit our artwork instruction pages at https://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions.

5.3. Editorial and Peer Review Process

As a general rule, the receipt of a manuscript will be acknowledged by e-mail within 2 weeks of submission, and authors will be provided with a manuscript number for future correspondence. If such an acknowledgment is not received in a reasonable period of time, the author should contact the Editorial Office.
Manuscripts are reviewed by the Editorial Office to ensure that the submission contains all parts.
The Editorial Office will not accept a submission if the author has not supplied all parts of the manuscript as outlined in this document.
Manuscripts are then forwarded to the Editor-in-Chief, who makes an initial assessment of the manuscript. If the manuscript does not appear to be of sufficient merit or is not appropriate for the journal, then the manuscript will be rejected.
Manuscripts that appear meritorious and appropriate for the journal are reviewed by at least two Editorial Board members or consultants assigned by the Editor-in-Chief. Authors should, at the time of manuscript submission, also submit a list of up to five suggested reviewers whom they wish to review their manuscript. Authors will usually be notified within 10 weeks by e-mail of whether the submitted article is accepted for publication, rejected, or subject to revision before acceptance. However, do note that delays are sometimes unavoidable.
The publisher of Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies, Elsevier, is a member of the CrossCheck plagiarism detection initiative. In cases of suspected plagiarism CrossCheck is available to the editors of Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies to detect instances of overlapping and similar text in submitted manuscripts. CrossCheck is a multi-publisher initiative allowing screening of published and submitted content for originality.

Peer review
This journal operates a double blind review process. All contributions will be initially assessed by the editor for suitability for the journal. Papers deemed suitable are then sent to a minimum of two independent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor's decision is final. For more information on the types of peer review, please visit: https://www.elsevier.com/reviewers/peer-review.

6. AFTER ACCEPTANCE

6.1. Use of the Digital Object Identifier

The Digital Object Identifier (DOI) may be used to cite and link to electronic documents. The DOI consists of a unique alpha-numeric character string which is assigned to a document by the publisher upon the initial electronic publication. The assigned DOI never changes. Therefore, it is an ideal medium for citing a document, particularly 'Articles in press' because they have not yet received their full bibliographic information. Example of a correctly given DOI (in URL format; here an article in the journal Physics Letters B): http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physletb.2010.09.059 When you use a DOI to create links to documents on the web, the DOIs are guaranteed never to change.

6.2. Proofs

One set of page proofs (as PDF files) will be sent by e-mail to the corresponding author (if we do not have an e-mail address then paper proofs will be sent by post) or, a link will be provided in the e-mail so that authors can download the files themselves. Elsevier now provides authors with PDF proofs which can be annotated; for this you will need to download Adobe Reader version 9 (or higher) available free from http://get.adobe.com/reader. Instructions on how to annotate PDF files will accompany the proofs (also given online). The exact system requirements are given at the Adobe site: http://www.adobe.com/products/reader/tech-specs.html. If you do not wish to use the PDF annotations function, you may list the corrections (including replies to the Query Form) and return them to Elsevier in an e-mail. Please list your corrections quoting line number. If, for any reason, this is not possible, then mark the corrections and any other comments (including replies to the Query Form) on a printout of your proof and scan the pages and return via e-mail. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication: please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.

6.3. Offprints

The corresponding author, at no cost, will be provided with 10 stapled printed offprints via post and a PDF file of the article via e-mail (the PDF file is a watermarked version of the published article and includes a cover sheet with the journal cover image and a disclaimer outlining the terms and conditions of use). For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's WebShop (http://webshop.elsevier.com/myarticleservices/offprints). Authors requiring printed copies of multiple articles may use Elsevier WebShop's 'Create Your Own Book' service to collate multiple articles within a single cover (http://webshop.elsevier.com/myarticleservices/booklets).

Elsevier supports responsible sharing
Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.

Use of word processing software
It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor’s options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if

Use of inclusive language

Inclusive language acknowledges diversity, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and promotes equal opportunities. Content should make no assumptions about the beliefs or commitments of any reader; contain nothing which might imply that one individual is superior to another on the grounds of age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition; and use inclusive language throughout. Authors should ensure that writing is free from bias, stereotypes, slang, reference to dominant culture and/or cultural assumptions. We advise to seek gender neutrality by using plural nouns ("clinicians, patients/clients") as default/wherever possible to avoid using "he, she," or "he/she." We recommend avoiding the use of descriptors that refer to personal attributes such as age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition unless they are relevant and valid. These guidelines are meant as a point of reference to help identify appropriate language but are by no means exhaustive or definitive.

Elsevier supports responsible sharing
Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.

Open access

Please visit our Open Access page for more information.

Peer review

This journal operates a single blind review process. All contributions will be initially assessed by the editor for suitability for the journal. Papers deemed suitable are then typically sent to a minimum of one independent expert reviewer to assess the scientific quality of the paper. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor's decision is final. More information on types of peer review.

Use of word processing software
It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier). Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork.
To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.

Data references
This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in your published article.

Research data

This journal encourages and enables you to share data that supports your research publication where appropriate, and enables you to interlink the data with your published articles. Research data refers to the results of observations or experimentation that validate research findings. To facilitate reproducibility and data reuse, this journal also encourages you to share your software, code, models, algorithms, protocols, methods and other useful materials related to the project.

Below are a number of ways in which you can associate data with your article or make a statement about the availability of your data when submitting your manuscript. If you are sharing data in one of these ways, you are encouraged to cite the data in your manuscript and reference list. Please refer to the "References" section for more information about data citation. For more information on depositing, sharing and using research data and other relevant research materials, visit the research data page.

Data linking
If you have made your research data available in a data repository, you can link your article directly to the dataset. Elsevier collaborates with a number of repositories to link articles on ScienceDirect with relevant repositories, giving readers access to underlying data that gives them a better understanding of the research described.

There are different ways to link your datasets to your article. When available, you can directly link your dataset to your article by providing the relevant information in the submission system. For more information, visit the database linking page.

For supported data repositories a repository banner will automatically appear next to your published article on ScienceDirect.

In addition, you can link to relevant data or entities through identifiers within the text of your manuscript, using the following format: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN).

Mendeley Data
This journal supports Mendeley Data, enabling you to deposit any research data (including raw and processed data, video, code, software, algorithms, protocols, and methods) associated with your manuscript in a free-to-use, open access repository. During the submission process, after uploading your manuscript, you will have the opportunity to upload your relevant datasets directly to Mendeley Data. The datasets will be listed and directly accessible to readers next to your published article online.

For more information, visit the Mendeley Data for journals page.

Data statement
To foster transparency, we encourage you to state the availability of your data in your submission. This may be a requirement of your funding body or institution. If your data is unavailable to access or unsuitable to post, you will have the opportunity to indicate why during the submission process, for example by stating that the research data is confidential. The statement will appear with your published article on ScienceDirect. For more information, visit the Data Statement page.



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