The Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies (JAMS) is a bimonthly, peer-reviewed journal featuring high-quality studies related to basic and clinical acupuncture and meridian research. It also includes new paradigm of integrative research, covering East–West and traditional–modern medicine. The following subjects will be covered by the journal: acupressure, electroacupuncture, laser therapy, pharmacopuncture (aqua-acupuncture, bee venom therapy, eight principle pharmacopuncture, meridian pharmacopuncture, moxibustion, Sasang constitutional medicine), herbal medicine, veterinary acupuncture, and related animal studies. Articles on general health science and other modalities, such as anthroposophy, homeopathy, ayurveda, bioelectromagnetic therapy, chiropractic, neural therapy and meditation, are eligible for consideration if the articles are related to acupuncture and meridian studies. Manuscripts should fall into one of the categories: topical review, original research paper, brief report and case report.
The Editorial Board requires authors to be in compliance with the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals (URMs); current URMs are available at http://www.icmje.org.1. MANUSCRIPT SUBMISSION
Authors are requested to submit their manuscript through the Editorial System, available at https://www.evise.com/profile/api/navigate/JAMS. Any further inquiry relating to manuscript submission, please contact the Editorial Office (email@example.com).
Important information· Articles submitted by e-mail should be in Microsoft Word document format (*.doc) and prepared in the simplest form possible. We will add in the correct font, font size, margins and so on according to the journal's style.
· You may use automatic page numbering, but do NOT use other kinds of automatic formatting such as footnotes, endnotes, headers and footers.
· Put text, references, tables, figures, and legends in one file, with each table and figure on a new page.
· Figures that are line drawing or photographs must be submitted separately in high-resolution EPS or TIFF format (or alternatively in high-resolution JPEG format). Please ensure that files are supplied at the correct resolution of a minimum of 300 dpi. The files are to be named according to the figure number and format, e.g. Fig1.tif
Please ensure that the following submission documents are also included, where applicable:
(1) A cover letter. It must include your name, address, telephone and fax numbers, e-mail address, and a list of up to five suggested reviewers with their contact information, and state that all authors have contributed to the paper and have never submitted the manuscript, in whole or in part, to other journals.
(2) A conflict of interest disclosure statement (see relevant section below).
(3) Articles covering the use of human samples in research and human experiments must be approved by the relevant review committee (see relevant section below).
(4) Articles covering the use of animals in experiments must be approved by the relevant authorities.
(5) Articles where human subjects can be identified in descriptions, photographs or pedigrees must be accompanied by a signed statement of informed consent to publish (in print and online) the descriptions, photographs and pedigrees from each subject who can be identified (see relevant section below).
(6) Where material has been reproduced from other copyrighted sources, the letter(s) of permission from the copyright holder(s) to use the copyrighted sources must be supplied.
2.1. Ethics in publishing
For information on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication see https://www.elsevier.com/publishingethics and https://www.elsevier.com/journal-authors/ethics
For human or animal experimental investigations, appropriate institutional review board or ethics committee approval is required, and such approval should be stated in the methods section of the manuscript. For those investigators who do not have formal ethics review committees, the principles outlined in the Declaration of Helsinki should be followed (World Medical Association. Declaration of Helsinki: ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects. Available at: http://www.wma.net/en/30publications/10policies/b3/17c.pdf).
2.3. Identification of Patients in Descriptions, Photographs and Pedigrees
A signed statement of informed consent to publish (in print and online) patient descriptions, photographs and pedigrees should be obtained from all subjects (parents or legal guardians for minors) who can be identified (including by the subjects themselves) in such written descriptions, photographs or pedigrees. Such persons should be shown the manuscript before its submission. Omitting data or making data less specific to de-identify patients is acceptable, but changing any such data is not acceptable.
All authors are requested to disclose any actual or potential conflict of interest including any financial, personal or other relationships with other people or organizations within three years of beginning the submitted work that could inappropriately influence, or be perceived to influence, their work. See also https://www.elsevier.com/conflictsofinterest. Further information and an example of a Conflict of Interest form can be found at: http://service.elsevier.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/286/supporthub/publishing.
2.5. Submission declaration
Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see https://www.elsevier.com/sharingpolicy), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere including electronically in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the copyright-holder.
The Corresponding Author must submit a completed Author Consent Form to the ANR editorial office with manuscripts. All authors must sign the Author Consent Form.According to the International Committee on Medical Journal Editor (ICMJE), an author is defined as one who has made substantial contributions to the conception and development of a manuscript.Adhere to the ICMJE guidelines (HYPERLINK "http://www.icmje.org/" \t "_blank" http://www.icmje.org) which state that “authorship credit should be based on all of the following: 1) substantial contributions to conception and design of the study, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; 2) drafting the article or advising it critically for important intellectual content; and 3) final approval of the version to be published”. All other contributors should be listed as acknowledgments.
2.7. Changes to authorship
Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the journal Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed. Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted. While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the Editor will result in a corrigendum.
JAMS is the official peer-reviewed publication of the Medical Association of Pharmacopuncture Institute. Manuscripts published in the Journal become the permanent property the Medical Association of Pharmacopuncture Institute. All articles published in the Journal are protected by copyright, which covers the exclusive rights to reproduce and distribute the article, as well as translation rights. No JAMS article, in part or whole, may be reproduced, stored in any retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, by photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior written permission from the Medical Association of Pharmacopuncture Institute.
2.9. Open access
Every peer-reviewed research article appearing in this journal will be published open access. This means that the article is universally and freely accessible via the internet in perpetuity, in an easily readable format immediately after publication. The author does not have any publication charges for open access. The Medical Association of Pharmacopuncture Institute will pay to make the article open access. A CC user license manages the reuse of the article (see http://www.elsevier.com/openaccesslicenses). All articles will be published under the following license: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND) : For non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.
You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.
Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files (e.g., Word, LaTeX) are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.
3.1. Review Articles
These describe new developments of significance in the field of acupuncture and meridian studies, and highlight unresolved questions and future directions. Most reviews are solicited by the editors, but unsolicited submissions may also be considered for publication. Review articles should have an Abstract, an Introduction, and brief main headings. The text should be limited to 5,000 words (including tables, figures and references).
These are expected to present major advances and important new research results related to acupuncture and meridian studies. Section headings should be: Abstract, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgments (if applicable), and References. The text should be limited to 4,000 words (including figures and references).
3.3. Brief Reports
These are short peer-reviewed papers presenting novel results in basic acupuncture and meridian studies. Section headings should be: Abstract, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, and References. The text should be limited to 2,000 words (including figures and references). A maximum of 4 figures/tables may be included.
All types of the case report including Clinical Images, in the section of the Case Presentation, all relevant details concerning the case must be presented. (1) Demographic information (without adding any details that could be lead to the identification of the patient) (2) Medical history (3) Symptoms and sign (4) Tests carried out and Treatment or Intervention (5) If it is a case series, then details must be included for all patients.
3.4.1. Case Report
These are short peer-reviewed papers presenting novel findings in clinical studies. Section headings should be: Abstract, Introduction, Case Presentation, and Discussion. The text should be limited to 2,000 words (including figures and references). A maximum of 4 figures/tables may be included.
3.4.2. Brief Case Report
The legend should be no more than 750 words (Including figures and references). A maximum of 4 figures/tables may be included. Section headings should be: Abstract, Introduction, Case Presentation, and Discussion.
3.5. Protocol & Technical Note
These are short peer-reviewed papers presenting novel protocols in basic acupuncture and meridian studies. They also present new techniques for instruments and acupuncture. Receipt of technical notes will not be acknowledged nor are authors generally consulted before publication. Section headings should be: Abstract, Introduction, Materials, Procedure, Timing, Trouble shooting and Anticipated Result. The text should be limited to 2,000 words (including figures and references).
The purpose of ImpactShot is to provide researchers and potential authors the opportunity to present the essence of their research in a 'One-Figure' (with several panels) format to have a 'Deep Impact' on the research community and general public. The figure must be clear and concise in message. The motto of the ImpactShot is "A figure speaks louder than words".
PREPARING YOUR SUBMISSION TO ImpactShot
• Please include a title for your submission. The title should contain no more than eight words.
• The legend should contain no more than 150 words.
• The figure should be a completed one that does not need to be revised in the editorial procedure. For figures, it is permissible to send low-resolution images for peer review, although we may ask for high-resolution files at a later stage. Please submit a high-resolution still image.
3.7. Book Reviews
These evaluate books on acupuncture and meridian studies and related subjects. Receipt of book reviews will not be acknowledged nor are authors generally consulted before publication. The text should be limited to 400 words (including spaces) and accepted manuscripts are subject to editing for clarity and space.
These are letters about readers' opinions or issues of concern on previously published articles in the journal. Receipt of letters will not be acknowledged nor are authors generally consulted before publication. The text should be limited to 400 words (including spaces) and accepted letters are subject to editing for clarity and space. 4.1. Use of word processing software
It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier: https://www.elsevier.com/guidepublication). Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork. To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.
4.2. Manuscript Preparation
Manuscripts should be typed double-spaced throughout. Each section of the manuscript should begin on a new page. Pages should be numbered consecutively and organized as follows.
The title page should contain the following information:
· category of paper
· article title*
· names (spelled out in full) of all authors**, and the institutions with which they are affiliated
· short running title not exceeding 50 characters
· corresponding author details (name, e-mail address, mailing address, telephone and fax numbers)
· declaration of any source of financial support
* The article title should not exceed two lines in print. This equates to 100 characters (including spaces) for articles. The article title does not normally include numbers, acronyms, abbreviations or punctuation. It should include sufficient detail for indexing purposes but be general enough for readers outside the field to appreciate what the paper is about.** The name of each author should be written with the family name last, e.g. Charles Darwin. Authorship is restricted only to direct participants who have contributed significantly to the work.
Abstracts for Review Articles, Research Articles, Brief Reports and Case Reports are unstructured and should not exceed 200 words, with 4-6 relevant key words provided in alphabetical order.
The text for Research Articles should include the following sections: Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, and Discussion. The Introduction should be as concise as possible, without subheadings. The Materials and Methods section should be sufficiently detailed. Subheadings may be used to organize the Results and Discussion. Sections for Brief Reports are: Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, and Discussion. Sections for Case Reports are: Introduction, Case Presentation, and Discussion. Each section should begin on a new page.
Where a term/definition will be continually referred to, it must be written in full when it first appears in the text, followed by the subsequent abbreviation in brackets. Thereafter, the abbreviation may be used. The use of abbreviations should be kept to a minimum.
18.104.22.168. Ethical Approval
For human or animal experimental investigations, appropriate institutional review board or ethics committee approval is required, and such approval should be stated in the methods section. Investigators who do not have formal ethics review committees should state whether the principles outlined in the Declaration of Helsinki were followed. For work involving experimental animals, the guidelines for the care and use of the animals that were followed should be included in the methodssection.
For investigations of human subjects, state explicitly in the methods section that informed consent was obtained from all participating adult subjects and from parents or legal guardians for minors or incapacitated adults, together with the manner in which informed consent was obtained (i.e. oral or written).
22.214.171.124. Identification of Patients in Descriptions, Photographs, and Pedigrees
Omitting data or making data less specific to de-identify patients is acceptable, but changing any such data is not acceptable.
Système International (SI) units must be used, with the exception of blood pressure values which are to be reported in mmHg. Please use the metric system for the expression of length, area, mass, and volume. Temperatures are to be given in degrees Celsius.
126.96.36.199. Drug Names
Use the Recommended International Non-proprietary Name for medicinal substances, unless the specific trade name of a drug is directly relevant to the discussion.
Refer to the Standard Acupuncture Nomenclature (http://www.centerfortraditionalmedicine.org/uploads/2/3/7/5/23750643/standard_acupuncture_nomenclature.pdf) and WHO International Standard Terminologies on Traditional Medicine in the Western Pacific Region (http://www.wpro.who.int/publications/who_istrm_file.pdf?ua=1) published by the World Health Organization Regional Office for the Western Pacific.
188.8.131.52. Controlled Trials of Acupuncture in Clinical Studies
Use the preferred reporting criteria based on the Guidelines for Clinical Research in Acupuncture (http://www.wpro.who.int/publications/docs/Guidelines_Clinical_Research_on_Acupuncture.pdf?ua=1).
184.108.40.206. Statistical Requirements
Statistical analysis is essential for all research papers except case reports. Use correct nomenclature of statistical methods (e.g. two sample t test, not unpaired t test). All p values should be presented to the third decimal place for accuracy, unless they are less than 0.001. Descriptive statistics should follow the scales used in data description. Inferential statistics are important for interpreting results and should be described in detail.
General acknowledgments for consultations, statistical analysis, etc., should be listed at the end of the text, including the names of the individuals involved. All financial and material support for the research and the work should be clearly and completely identified. Ensure that any conflicts of interest are explicitly declared.
· References should be assembled on a separate sheet and should be limited to those cited in the text.
· Each reference citation within the main body of the text should be an Arabic numeral enclosed in square brackets on the same line as the text, not a superscript. · References must be numbered consecutively in order of appearance in the text, and listed in numerical order in the reference list: do not alphabetize.
· References cited in tables or figure legends should be included in sequence at the point where the table or figure is first mentioned in the main text.
· Abstracts should not be cited unless the abstract is the only available reference to an important concept.
· Do not cite uncompleted work or work that has not yet been accepted for publication as references.
· References should include the complete title of the article and the last names and initials of all the authors up to 6. If there are 7 or more authors, include the last names and initials of the first 6 authors only, followed by "et al".
· Abbreviations for journal titles should conform to those used in MEDLINE.
· If citing a website, please provide the author information, article title, website address and the date you accessed the information.
· Reference to an article that is in press must state the journal name and, if possible, the year and volume. Authors are responsible for the accuracy and completeness of their references and for correct text citation.
Examples are given below.
1. Streitberger K, Steppan J, Maier C, Hill H, Backs J, Plaschke K. Effects of verum acupuncture compared to placebo acupuncture on quantitative EEG and heart rate variability in healthy volunteers. J Altern Complement Med 2008;14:505–13
2. Yeh GY, Ryan MA, Phillips RS, Audette JF. Doctor training and practice of acupuncture: results of a survey. J Eval Clin Pract 2008;14:439–45
3. Chien CM, Cheng JL, Chang WT, Tien MH, Tsao CM, Chang YH, et al. Polysaccharides of Ganoderma lucidum alter cell immunophenotypic expression and enhance CD56+ NK-cell cytotoxicity in cord blood. Bioorg Med Chem 2004;12:5603–9. Book:
Robinson AJ, Snyder-Mackler L. Clinical Electrophysiology: Electrotherapy and Electrophysiologic Testing, 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2007.
Book chapter: Baldry P. Acupuncture treatment of fibromyalgia and myofascial pain. In: Chaitow L, ed. Fibromyalgia Syndrome: A Practitioner's Guide to Treatment, 2nd ed. Edinburgh: Churchill Livin
Conference proceedings: Pacak K, Aguilera G, Sabban E, Kvetnansky R, eds. Stress: Current Neuroendocrine and Genetic Approaches. 8th Symposium on Catecholamines and Other Neurotransmitters in Stress, June 28–July 3, 2003, Smolenice Castle, Slovakia. New York: New York Academy of Sciences, 2004.
Tables should supplement, not duplicate, the text. They should be numbered consecutively using Arabic numerals in the order of their citation in the text. Tables should be typed double-spaced on separate pages in as simple a form as possible, with a short descriptive title typed directly above and with essential footnotes below. Information requiring explanatory footnotes should be denoted using these symbols (in order of appearance): *, †, ‡, §, ?, ¶, #, **, ††, ‡‡. Abbreviations used in the table must be defined in the footnotes. If you include data from another source, whether published or unpublished, you must acknowledge the original source.
The number of figures should be restricted to the minimum necessary to support the textual material. Figures should be labeled in Arabic numerals in the order of their citation in the text. All symbols and abbreviations should be defined in the legend. Figure legends should indicate the anatomic area and/or pathologic condition shown. Patient identification should be obscured. All lettering should be done professionally and should be in proportion to the drawing, graph or photograph. For photomicrographs, include the type of specimen, original magnification, and stain.
Each figure should be submitted separately in high-resolution EPS or TIFF format (or alternatively in high-resolution JPEG format). Please ensure that files are supplied at the correct resolution of a minimum of 300 dpi. The files are to be named according to the figure number and format, e.g. Fig1.tif.
4.2.7. Video data
Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the files in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 150 MB. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: http://www.sciencedirect.com. Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages at https://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions. Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.
4.2.8. Supplementary material
Supplementary material can support and enhance your scientific research. Supplementary files offer the author additional possibilities to publish supporting applications, high-resolution images, background datasets, sound clips and more. Please note that such items are published online exactly as they are submitted; there is no typesetting involved (supplementary data supplied as an Excel file or as a PowerPoint slide will appear as such online). Please submit the material together with the article and supply a concise and descriptive caption for each file. If you wish to make any changes to supplementary data during any stage of the process, then please make sure to provide an updated file, and do not annotate any corrections on a previous version. Please also make sure to switch off the 'Track Changes' option in any Microsoft Office files as these will appear in the published supplementary file(s). For more detailed instructions please visit our artwork instruction pages at https://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions. 4.3. Editorial and Peer Review Process
As a general rule, the receipt of a manuscript will be acknowledged by e-mail within 2 weeks of submission, and authors will be provided with a manuscript number for future correspondence. If such an acknowledgment is not received in a reasonable period of time, the author should contact the Editorial Office.
Manuscripts are reviewed by the Editorial Office to ensure that the submission contains all parts.
The Editorial Office will not accept a submission if the author has not supplied all parts of the manuscript as outlined in this document.
Manuscripts are then forwarded to the Editor-in-Chief, who makes an initial assessment of the manuscript. If the manuscript does not appear to be of sufficient merit or is not appropriate for the journal, then the manuscript will be rejected.
Manuscripts that appear meritorious and appropriate for the journal are reviewed by at least two Editorial Board members or consultants assigned by the Editor-in-Chief. Authors should, at the time of manuscript submission, also submit a list of up to five suggested reviewers whom they wish to review their manuscript. Authors will usually be notified within 10 weeks by e-mail of whether the submitted article is accepted for publication, rejected, or subject to revision before acceptance. However, do note that delays are sometimes unavoidable.
The publisher of Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies, Elsevier, is a member of the CrossCheck plagiarism detection initiative. In cases of suspected plagiarism CrossCheck is available to the editors of Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies to detect instances of overlapping and similar text in submitted manuscripts. CrossCheck is a multi-publisher initiative allowing screening of published and submitted content for originality.
This journal operates a double blind review process. All contributions will be initially assessed by the editor for suitability for the journal. Papers deemed suitable are then sent to a minimum of two independent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor's decision is final. For more information on the types of peer review, please visit: https://www.elsevier.com/reviewers/peer-review. 5. AFTER ACCEPTANCE
5.1. Use of the Digital Object Identifier
The Digital Object Identifier (DOI) may be used to cite and link to electronic documents. The DOI consists of a unique alpha-numeric character string which is assigned to a document by the publisher upon the initial electronic publication. The assigned DOI never changes. Therefore, it is an ideal medium for citing a document, particularly 'Articles in press' because they have not yet received their full bibliographic information. Example of a correctly given DOI (in URL format; here an article in the journal Physics Letters B): http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physletb.2010.09.059 When you use a DOI to create links to documents on the web, the DOIs are guaranteed never to change.
One set of page proofs (as PDF files) will be sent by e-mail to the corresponding author (if we do not have an e-mail address then paper proofs will be sent by post) or, a link will be provided in the e-mail so that authors can download the files themselves. Elsevier now provides authors with PDF proofs which can be annotated; for this you will need to download Adobe Reader version 9 (or higher) available free from http://get.adobe.com/reader. Instructions on how to annotate PDF files will accompany the proofs (also given online). The exact system requirements are given at the Adobe site: http://www.adobe.com/products/reader/tech-specs.html. If you do not wish to use the PDF annotations function, you may list the corrections (including replies to the Query Form) and return them to Elsevier in an e-mail. Please list your corrections quoting line number. If, for any reason, this is not possible, then mark the corrections and any other comments (including replies to the Query Form) on a printout of your proof and scan the pages and return via e-mail. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication: please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.
The corresponding author, at no cost, will be provided with 10 stapled printed offprints via post and a PDF file of the article via e-mail (the PDF file is a watermarked version of the published article and includes a cover sheet with the journal cover image and a disclaimer outlining the terms and conditions of use). For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's WebShop (http://webshop.elsevier.com/myarticleservices/offprints). Authors requiring printed copies of multiple articles may use Elsevier WebShop's 'Create Your Own Book' service to collate multiple articles within a single cover (http://webshop.elsevier.com/myarticleservices/booklets).
Inclusive language acknowledges diversity, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and promotes equal opportunities. Articles should make no assumptions about the beliefs or commitments of any reader, should contain nothing which might imply that one individual is superior to another on the grounds of race, sex, culture or any other characteristic, and should use inclusive language throughout. Authors should ensure that writing is free from bias, for instance by using 'he or she', 'his/her' instead of 'he' or 'his', and by making use of job titles that are free of stereotyping (e.g. 'chairperson' instead of 'chairman' and 'flight attendant' instead of 'stewardess').
Elsevier supports responsible sharing
Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.
This journal operates a single blind review process. All contributions will be initially assessed by the editor for suitability for the journal. Papers deemed suitable are then typically sent to a minimum of one independent expert reviewer to assess the scientific quality of the paper. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor's decision is final. More information on types of peer review.
Use of word processing software
It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier). Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork.
To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.
This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in your published article.
This journal encourages and enables you to share data that supports your research publication where appropriate, and enables you to interlink the data with your published articles. Research data refers to the results of observations or experimentation that validate research findings. To facilitate reproducibility and data reuse, this journal also encourages you to share your software, code, models, algorithms, protocols, methods and other useful materials related to the project.
If you have made your research data available in a data repository, you can link your article directly to the dataset. Elsevier collaborates with a number of repositories to link articles on ScienceDirect with relevant repositories, giving readers access to underlying data that gives them a better understanding of the research described.
For supported data repositories a repository banner will automatically appear next to your published article on ScienceDirect.In addition, you can link to relevant data or entities through identifiers within the text of your manuscript, using the following format: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN).
This journal supports Mendeley Data, enabling you to deposit any research data (including raw and processed data, video, code, software, algorithms, protocols, and methods) associated with your manuscript in a free-to-use, open access repository. During the submission process, after uploading your manuscript, you will have the opportunity to upload your relevant datasets directly to Mendeley Data. The datasets will be listed and directly accessible to readers next to your published article online.
To foster transparency, we encourage you to state the availability of your data in your submission. This may be a requirement of your funding body or institution. If your data is unavailable to access or unsuitable to post, you will have the opportunity to indicate why during the submission process, for example by stating that the research data is confidential. The statement will appear with your published article on ScienceDirect. For more information, visit the Data Statement page.
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