Guide for Authors

All journal information and instructions compiled in one document (PDF) in just one mouse-click Author information pack

• Types of paper
• Ethics in publishing
• Declaration of interest
• Submission declaration and verification
• Changes to authorship
• Copyright
• Role of the funding source
• Open access
• Language services
• Informed consent and patient details
• Submission
• Referees
• Peer review
• Double-blind review
• Essential title page information
• Abstract
• Clinical implications
• Abbreviations
• Acknowledgments
• Presentation of data
• Artwork
• Tables
• References
• Video clips
• Supplemental material for online publication
• Submission Checklist
• Proofs
• Offprints

The Journal of AAPOS, the official publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, publishes clinical and laboratory investigations, current concept reviews, case reports, descriptions of instrumentation and surgical techniques, editorials, and correspondence on topics relevant to pediatric ophthalmology and strabismus. (Authors do not need to be members of the AAPOS, and manuscripts written by AAPOS members are not given preferential consideration.) Text or data previously published in a similar form or extensively reported in "tabloid" ophthalmological publications will not be considered. Questions pertaining to prior or simultaneous publication should be directed to the editor in chief ( before the manuscript is submitted. Review articles, concept reviews (State of the Art), editorials, and AAPOS Workshops are generally submitted by invitation.

Types of paper

Major Articles
Short Reports
AAPOS Workshops
Video Articles
Letters to the Editor
Obituaries / News Items
Eye on the Arts / First Person / Clinical Pearls

Ethics in publishing

Please see our information pages on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication.

Declaration of interest

All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. Authors must disclose any interests in two places: 1. A summary declaration of interest statement in the title page file (if double-blind) or the manuscript file (if single-blind). If there are no interests to declare then please state this: 'Declarations of interest: none'. This summary statement will be ultimately published if the article is accepted. 2. Detailed disclosures as part of a separate Declaration of Interest form, which forms part of the journal's official records. It is important for potential interests to be declared in both places and that the information matches. More information.

Declarations regarding IRB-HIPAA compliance should appear within the body of the paper. HIPAA should be spelled out e.g., this study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of [name of institution] and conformed to the requirements of the United States Health Insurance Portability and Privacy Act.

Submission declaration and verification

Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract, a published lecture or academic thesis, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service Crossref Similarity Check.

Changes to authorship

Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the journal Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed.
Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted. While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the Editor will result in a corrigendum.

Article transfer service
This journal is part of our Article Transfer Service. This means that if the Editor feels your article is more suitable in one of our other participating journals, then you may be asked to consider transferring the article to one of those. If you agree, your article will be transferred automatically on your behalf with no need to reformat. Please note that your article will be reviewed again by the new journal. More information.


Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (see more information on this). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.

Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations. If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases.

For gold open access articles: Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an 'Exclusive License Agreement' (more information). Permitted third party reuse of gold open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license.

Author rights
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. More information.

Elsevier supports responsible sharing
Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.

Role of the funding source

Identify sources of financial support for the research and/or preparation of the article and briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement, then this should be stated. Please see

Funding body agreements and policies
Elsevier has established a number of agreements with funding bodies which allow authors to comply with their funder's open access policies. Some funding bodies will reimburse the author for the gold open access publication fee. Details of existing agreements are available online.

Open access

This journal offers authors a choice in publishing their research:

• Articles are made available to subscribers as well as developing countries and patient groups through our universal access programs.
• No open access publication fee payable by authors.
• The Author is entitled to post the accepted manuscript in their institution's repository and make this public after an embargo period (known as green Open Access). The published journal article cannot be shared publicly, for example on ResearchGate or, to ensure the sustainability of peer-reviewed research in journal publications. The embargo period for this journal can be found below.
Gold open access
• Articles are freely available to both subscribers and the wider public with permitted reuse.
• A gold open access publication fee is payable by authors or on their behalf, e.g. by their research funder or institution.

Regardless of how you choose to publish your article, the journal will apply the same peer review criteria and acceptance standards.

For gold open access articles, permitted third party (re)use is defined by the following Creative Commons user licenses:

Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY)
Lets others distribute and copy the article, create extracts, abstracts, and other revised versions, adaptations or derivative works of or from an article (such as a translation), include in a collective work (such as an anthology), text or data mine the article, even for commercial purposes, as long as they credit the author(s), do not represent the author as endorsing their adaptation of the article, and do not modify the article in such a way as to damage the author's honor or reputation.

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND)
For non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.

The gold open access publication fee for this journal is USD 3000, excluding taxes. Learn more about Elsevier's pricing policy:

Green open access
Authors can share their research in a variety of different ways and Elsevier has a number of green open access options available. We recommend authors see our green open access page for further information. Authors can also self-archive their manuscripts immediately and enable public access from their institution's repository after an embargo period. This is the version that has been accepted for publication and which typically includes author-incorporated changes suggested during submission, peer review and in editor-author communications. Embargo period: For subscription articles, an appropriate amount of time is needed for journals to deliver value to subscribing customers before an article becomes freely available to the public. This is the embargo period and it begins from the date the article is formally published online in its final and fully citable form. Find out more.

This journal has an embargo period of 12 months.

Language services

Please write your text in American English. Authors who feel their manuscript may require editing to eliminate grammatical and spelling errors or stylistic infelicities are encouraged to seek assistance from the English Language Editing service at Elsevier's WebShop Visit our customer support site for more information.

Informed consent and patient details

For reports or studies, excluding Short Reports, involving human subjects, a statement must appear early in the Methods section regarding Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval or waiver and when and from whom informed consent was obtained. For North American authors, the statement should indicate the name of the approving committee or body. For studies and reports from the United States, a declaration of compliance with HIPAA regulations should also be included. For studies from other areas, approval by an IRB is strongly encouraged. If IRB approval outside of North America is not available, the authors should confirm that the study and data collection conformed to all local laws and were compliant with the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki (JAMA 2000;284:3043-3045; ). Patients' names, initials, hospital or university numbers, dates and other potentially identifying information should not appear in the manuscript. For studies involving animals, where appropriate, approval by IRB or an equivalent body should be indicated in the Methods section.


Submission to this journal proceeds totally online and you will be guided stepwise through the creation and uploading of your files. The system automatically converts source files to a single PDF file of the article, which is used in the peer review process. Please note that even though manuscript source files are converted to PDF files at submission for the review process, these source files are needed for further processing after acceptance. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, takes place by email.

Submit your article
All new manuscripts must be submitted in digital form through the Journal of AAPOS online submission and review Web site

Submission items include (as separate files):

  • Cover letter (for specific content of which, see below, "Authors' Responsibility")
  • Signed release forms for identifiable patients
  • Response to reviews (revised manuscripts only)
  • Title page (as a separate file for initial review but integrated into manuscript with revisions)
  • Manuscript (abstract, text, references, and figure legends), including continuous marginal line numbers, or "clean" revised manuscript (with all changes accepted)
  • Highlighted revision, with changes tracked and including continuous marginal line numbers (revised manuscripts only)
  • Tables
  • Figures. Clinical, radiological, and histopathological images should be cropped closely to the point(s) of interest, which may be further indicated by arrows and the like.
  • Video clips or e-supplements

Each page of the manuscript must include continuous line numbers in the margin. Files should be labeled with appropriate and descriptive file names (eg, Text.doc, Fig1.eps, Table3.doc). Upload text, tables, and graphics as separate files. A ".zip" file combining all files may also be used. Do not import figures or tables into the text document, and do not upload your text as a PDF file.

For initial review, a "masked" manuscript is required. Manuscript files, tables, figures, and electronic media should not contain the author's identities in the contents, header/footer, or file names.

Revised manuscripts must be submitted in two versions: a "clean" version, without highlighting or marginal callouts, and a second, "highlighted" version, with substantive changes tracked. Author name(s), institution(s), or the geographic location of the study masked for initial review may be unmasked in revision. Revised manuscripts must be accompanied by a separate file (distinct from the cover letter) with point-by-point responses to reviewers’ comments and indications of line numbers in the highlighted revision where changed text may be found. Note, it is not acceptable to simply reply to reviewers without also modifying the text accordingly; authors who decline to make a suggested revision must explain their reasoning.

The publisher and editors regret that they are not able to consider submissions that do not follow these procedures. Authors who are unable to provide electronic files or have other circumstances that prevent online submission may contact the editorial office prior to submission to discuss alternate options.


Please submit, with the manuscript, the names, addresses and email addresses of at least 2 potential referees. Note that the editor retains the sole right to decide whether or not the suggested reviewers are used.

If a manuscript is returned to the author for revision, the revised version should be received by the Journal within 2 months. Otherwise, it will be considered a new submission.

In general, manuscripts should follow AMA Manual of Style (9th ed.) guidelines; technical terminology should reflect Dorland's Illustrated Medical Dictionary (30th ed.). Spelling must conform to U.S. English. Word processing software can assist with this task; in MS Word, for example, choose Tools, then Language, and Set Language: select English (U.S.). See also the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals (

Limit the use of abbreviations to those that are commonly understood without explanation (eg, mm Hg). Do not abbreviate a syndrome or term merely because it appears frequently in the manuscript. Pharmaceuticals should be referred to by the generic name. When brand names of equipment or other products are specified, the manufacturer and city and state of manufacture must be included in parentheses following first mention. Patients should be referred to by case number rather than by name or initials.

To mask author identity from reviewers, references to the author(s), institution(s), or geographic location(s) by name or initial should be masked from the manuscript until after initial peer review. If authors refer to their own previously published work, they may forgo masking that material. In such cases, authors should identify the issue in question in the cover letter. The editorial office can make a decision about whether or not to mask the material.

To enable the publisher to use your text files, please follow these instructions carefully. Do not justify the right margin or use centering tabs for text or headers. Be sure to key the letter O, the number 0, the letter l, and the number 1 correctly. Use only one space after colons or periods. Use the default hyphenation of your word processor. Use two hyphens for long dashes. Key in the reference list at the end of the text. Software designed to create references that is used as an adjunct to word processing software (eg, Endnote) may be used, but do not use your word processor's footnote or endnote feature to create such references. When preparing tables, use the table format or use only tabs, not spaces, to align columns. Text to be italicized or set in boldface in print may be keyboarded thus (italics may also be indicated by underlining). Do not input special typesetting codes. The publisher will handle all design considerations for typefaces and page layout.

Authors should make every effort to present Major Articles as concisely as possible. The Introduction generally need not exceed 2 paragraphs. Methods that require extensive detail may be supplemented with e-components. Discussions should focus on interpretation of the most salient features of the results. There is no need for a summary at the end of the manuscript.

Literature search
When making a statement such as "this is, to our knowledge, the first/only report of...," or providing a review of the published literature in a field, authors must demonstrate that they have conducted a comprehensive and systematic review of the literature. Methods of literature search and criteria for including/excluding articles much be stated directly in the manuscript in these cases. This paragraph, which should be placed at the end of the manuscript, before the reference list, under the heading "Literature Search," should state the databases and search terms used, years covered, and additional sources. (eg, articles cited in the reference lists of other articles). It should also indicate how the foreign literature was treated. Other databases such as ExerptaMedica/EMBASE (1947-present), Ophthalmic Literature (1947-1988),and Zentralblatt für die gesamte Ophthalmologie und ihre Grenzgebiete may include key articles that are not cited in MEDLINE.

Peer review

This journal operates a double blind review process. All contributions will be initially assessed by the editor for suitability for the journal. Papers deemed suitable are then typically sent to a minimum of two independent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor's decision is final. More information on types of peer review.

Double-blind review

This journal uses double-blind review, which means the identities of the authors are concealed from the reviewers, and vice versa. More information is available on our website. To facilitate this, please include the following separately:
Title page (with author details): This should include the title, authors' names, affiliations, acknowledgements and any Declaration of Interest statement, and a complete address for the corresponding author including an e-mail address.
Blinded manuscript (no author details): The main body of the paper (including the references, figures, tables and any acknowledgements) should not include any identifying information, such as the authors' names or affiliations.

Use of word processing software
It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier). Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork.
To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.


Publication Constraints
Major Articles may not exceed 2,800 words in length, not including references. Most manuscripts do not require encyclopedic referencing; please provide justification in your cover letter if more than 25 references are cited. Review articles and AAPOS Workshops may be allowed greater freedom; contact the editorial office( submitting your work.

Major Articles are limited to a total of 4 tables and figures. More than the permitted number of tables and figures may be submitted, but if the submission is accepted for publication, only the permitted number will be prioritized for print; other tables or figures may be published in print, at the discretion of the editor, or on e-appended pages. Authors should properly designate tables and figures during the submission process with this constraint in mind (eg, eFig 1, eTable 1); also, very large tables or figures should be designated e-only.

Constraints on word count etc. that apply to Major Articles do not apply to the submission type Major Article (unrestricted): authors selecting this article type during the submission process must understand that these articles, if accepted, will be published in full on e-pages, with a short precis appearing in print when the article is assigned to an issue.

Subdivision - unnumbered sections
Divide your article into clearly defined sections. Each subsection is given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line. Subsections should be used as much as possible when cross-referencing text: refer to the subsection by heading as opposed to simply 'the text'.

State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results.

Materials and Methods
Provide sufficient detail to allow the work to be reproduced. Methods already published should be indicated by a reference: only relevant modifications should be described.

Results should be clear and concise.

This should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. A combined Results and Discussion section is often appropriate. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature.

The main conclusions of the study may be presented in a short Conclusions section, which may stand alone or form a subsection of a Discussion or Results and Discussion section.

If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq. (A.1), Eq. (A.2), etc.; in a subsequent appendix, Eq. (B.1) and so on. Similarly for tables and figures: Table A.1; Fig. A.1, etc.

Essential title page information

Title page. The title page should include the following elements:

  • Title of the manuscript
  • Each author's name and two highest academic degrees only
  • Author affiliations
  • Corresponding author
  • Institution at which the study was conducted
  • Word count for entire manuscript, including abstract
  • Word count for abstract alone

The word count for the entire manuscript should include the words in the abstract and body of the manuscript but not the acknowledgments, legends, and references. It should not include the words on the title page itself. The corresponding author's address, telephone number, fax number, and email address should be listed. Authors wishing to receive email communication from readers may have their email addresses printed with the published manuscript. Authors should indicate on the title page whether material was presented at the AAPOS annual meeting or any other national meeting. Any author's financial conflict of interest regarding the subject matter in the manuscript should be disclosed on the title page.


The abstract must be in the "structured" format and less than 250 words in length. Where appropriate, abstract headings should read: background or purpose; methods; results; and conclusions. See Ann Intern Med 1997;126:36-47 ( ) for more information on structured abstracts. Short reports should not have an abstract but should have an introductory paragraph (in boldface) that summarizes the article.

Clinical implications

When you upload your Major Article, you will be required to highlight the clinical implications of your study in fewer than 150 words.


Ensure consistency of abbreviations throughout the article.


Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (eg, providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc).

Presentation of data

Correlation coefficient. When interpreting correlation coefficients, avoid using the terms "significant correlation" or "correlated significantly." A correlation coefficient is concerned with the strength of the relationship between two variables, not merely whether the correlation observed differs significantly from zero. (It is possible, given enough data points, to have a "significant" correlation coefficient of 0.1, which represents a very weak relationship between variables, where one variable influences the other by less than 1%.) Authors are encouraged to calculate and present 95% confidence intervals on the observed and reported correlations (instead of using P values) and to comment on the strength of the correlation as, for example, "strong," "moderate," or "weak."

Multiple comparisons. Statistical comparisons are generally considered statistically significant when the P value is <0.05, that is, when there is less than a 5% chance that the observed differences are not due to a chance sampling error. When just one test is performed, this is correct; however, when 100 comparisons are performed, we expect that 5% of those (5 comparisons) will falsely appear to be "significantly different." Therefore, when making more than a few statistical comparisons, it is important to perform an additional analysis (for example, the Bonferroni analysis) to refine the desired P value. Statistical consultation may be necessary. For more information, see

Mean visual acuity. When calculating the mean visual acuity, it is not correct to determine the mathematical average of the decimal equivalent of Snellen acuity. In general, it is important to convert to LogMAR acuity prior to statistical manipulations; it is then possible to convert back to Snellen equivalents after the calculations have been performed. For more information consult the following article: Holladay JT. Visual acuity measurements. J Cataract Refract Surg 2004;30:287-90 (

Numeric precision. For numeric results, avoid reporting too many digits the precision of a reported value should not exceed what can be justified by the data. For example, a study might report a quotient of 30/93 as 0.3225, implying that the number is known with greater precision and accuracy than is possible with this sample size. In general, the number of digits in the reported value should not exceed the number of digits in the quantity of measurements (eg, for 8 subjects, report one digit of precision, for 80 report two digits of precision, for 800 subjects report three digits of precision). In the example above, the quotient may be reported as 0.32. There are three exceptions to this guideline. First, at least two digits may be reported for percentages (eg, 2 of 6 subjects would be reported as 33%.) Second, when the first digit of a value is 1, an extra digit of precision may be warranted (eg, when reporting the mean refraction of 80 patients, 1.23 D may be preferable to 1.2 D.) Third, it does not make sense to report a value to its true precision if such precision exceeds its clinical significance or measurability (eg, while it may be technically correct to report the mean esotropia of 4,300 patients as 23.59 PD, this degree of precision is neither measurable nor important.)

Safe and effective. In the U.S. context, the term safe and effective has a specific meaning, having been adopted by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to indicate that a device or drug has met that agency’s standards and may be sold and marketed in the United States.(For details, consult Albrecht J and Bigby M. The meaning of “safe and effective.” J Am Acad Dermatol 2003;48:144-7.) Published case reports and case series generally cannot establish either safety or effectiveness and the term is thus rarely appropriate. Authors may of course use either term in, say, discussions of complication rates, noting how effectively a procedure met specified goals; furthermore, they may compare this procedure to the complication and effectiveness rates of others. Likewise, statements concerning the relative safety of a procedure in particular contexts may be appropriate. However, general statements concerning a procedure’s "safety" or "effectiveness," while perhaps desirable for rhetorical effect, are in fact meaningless and should be avoided.

Present simple formulae in the line of normal text where possible and use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line for small fractional terms, eg, X/Y. In principle, variables are to be presented in italics. Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp. Number consecutively any equations that have to be displayed separately from the text (if referred to explicitly in the text).

Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article. Many word processors can build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Otherwise, please indicate the position of footnotes in the text and list the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article. Do not include footnotes in the Reference list.


Electronic artwork

Color artwork
Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF), or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color online (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. For color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article. Please indicate your preference for color: in print or online only. Further information on the preparation of electronic artwork.

Prices are available on request from Mosby, Inc . Inquiries may be sent to Depending on the priority (assigned by the reviewers) for publishing the illustrations in color, funds may be available from the Journal office to offset some of the cost of color printing. For current funding information, please contact the Journal office. Authors wishing to publish color photographs should state so in their cover letter. Please refer to the section on Authors' Responsibility regarding permission to publish photographs. If an illustration from an article is selected for the cover, it will be published in color at no charge to the authors.

Illustration services
Elsevier's WebShop offers Illustration Services to authors preparing to submit a manuscript but concerned about the quality of the images accompanying their article. Elsevier's expert illustrators can produce scientific, technical and medical-style images, as well as a full range of charts, tables and graphs. Image 'polishing' is also available, where our illustrators take your image(s) and improve them to a professional standard. Please visit the website to find out more.

Figure captions
Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.


Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text. Place footnotes to tables below the table body and indicate them with superscript lowercase letters. Abbreviations should be resolved in a note. Avoid vertical rules. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in tables do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article. Very large tables documenting extensive clinical details are discouraged and will be printed at the discretion of the editor in chief; authors are encouraged to analyze and summarize these data in a concise format. Submit each table as a separate file.


Citation in text
Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.

Reference links
Increased discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, CrossRef and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the DOI is encouraged.

A DOI can be used to cite and link to electronic articles where an article is in-press and full citation details are not yet known, but the article is available online. A DOI is guaranteed never to change, so you can use it as a permanent link to any electronic article. An example of a citation using DOI for an article not yet in an issue is: VanDecar J.C., Russo R.M., James D.E., Ambeh W.B., Franke M. (2003). Aseismic continuation of the Lesser Antilles slab beneath northeastern Venezuela. Journal of Geophysical Research, Please note the format of such citations should be in the same style as all other references in the paper.

Web references
As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (eg, after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.

References in a special issue
Please ensure that the words 'this issue' are added to any references in the list (and any citations in the text) to other articles in the same Special Issue.

Reference management software
Most Elsevier journals have their reference template available in many of the most popular reference management software products. These include all products that support Citation Style Language styles, such as Mendeley and Zotero, as well as EndNote. Using the word processor plug-ins from these products, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article, after which citations and bibliographies will be automatically formatted in the journal's style. If no template is yet available for this journal, please follow the format of the sample references and citations as shown in this Guide.

Users of Mendeley Desktop can easily install the reference style for this journal by clicking the following link:
When preparing your manuscript, you will then be able to select this style using the Mendeley plug-ins for Microsoft Word or LibreOffice.

Data Reference
This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. This identifier will not appear in your published article.

[dataset] 5. Oguro, M, Imahiro, S, Saito, S, Nakashizuka, T. Mortality data for Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions, Mendeley Data, v1; 2015.

Reference style
References should be numbered consecutively in the manuscript in the order in which they are cited. For model citations, authors may consult the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedicl Journals (Ann Intern Med 1997: 126:36-47;, noting, however, that the Journal deviates in some respects from formats recommended there as well as in the current edition of AMA Manual of Style.

For publications by more than six authors, list only the first three, followed by "et al." Titles of books and journals are capitalized but not italicized. Journal titles are abbreviated as in Cumulated Index Medicus. Do not include issue number or month of publication for continuously paginated journals.

In citations of Web pages and the like, include the following information: Author or name of organization responsible for site. Web page title or organizational name. Date. Web site name. URL. Accessed [date], if pertinent.

Unpublished data, informal communications, meeting abstracts and the like should be cited parenthetically in the text as concisely as possible rather than in the reference list: include first author, journal abbreviation, volume, and item identifier. For personal communications, the author must provide the Journal's editorial office with a written statement from the cited correspondent granting permission to quote and/or publish privately communicated information.

Gupta SR, Cogen MS, Metz TH Jr. Congenital osteoma cutis of the lateral canthus. Epub ahead of print, May 29, 2009. J AAPOS.

Hussin HM, Spry PGD, Majid MA, Gouws P. Reliability and validity of the partial coherence interferometry for measurement of ocular axial length in children. Eye 2006; 20:1021-4.

Lubchenco LO, Papadapoulos M, Butterfield LJ, et al. Long-term follow-up studies of prematurely born infants: Relationship of handicaps to nursery routines. J. Pediatr 1972: 80(Suppl 2); 501-8.

Saunders RA. When and how to strengthen the superior oblique muscle. J AAPOS. In press.

Parks MM. Ocular motility and strabismus. Hagerstown (MD): Harper & Row; 1975:99.

Phillips SJ, Wisnant JP, Norman IJ, et al. Hypertension and stroke. In:Laragh JH, Brenner BM, eds. Hypertension: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Management. Vol 2. 2nd ed. Albany, NY: Raven Press; 1995:465-78.

Internet sources
American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus and the American Academy of Ophthalmology, Amblyopia is a medical condition. 2006. Accessed July 1, 2009.

Unpublished material
(Child CS, et al. J AAPOS 2009; 13: Abstract 046)

Journal abbreviations source
Journal names should be abbreviated according to the List of Title Word Abbreviations.

Video clips

Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the files in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 50 MB. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages at Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content

Supplemental material for online publication

JAAPOS allows publication of additional tables, figures, or text (eg, methodology, explanations of analysis, spreadsheets with detailed subject data) in the electronic versions of published manuscripts. This material will not be included in print versions, but a reference to its being available online will appear in print versions. Supplemental material is subject to peer review but, once accepted, will be published "as is," without additional editing or formatting. Any supplemental material must be submitted as an "e-component" supplement when the manuscript is first submitted for publication. Authors should indicate in the submitted manuscript that this material is additional information, to be published electronically. The electronic version should not be used as a repository for redundant or unnecessary data.

Submission Checklist

The following list will be useful during the final checking of an article prior to sending it to the journal for review. Please consult this Guide for Authors for further details of any item.
Ensure that the following items are present:
One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
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All necessary files have been uploaded, and contain:
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• All tables (including title, description, footnotes)
Further considerations
• Manuscript has been spell-checked and grammar-checked
• References are in the correct format for this journal
• All references mentioned in the Reference list are cited in the text, and vice versa
• Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Web)
• Color figures are clearly marked as being intended for color reproduction on the Web (free of charge) and in print, or to be reproduced in color on the Web (free of charge) and in black-and-white in print
• If only color on the Web is required, black-and-white versions of the figures are also supplied for printing purposes
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Video Articles are high-quality, meticulously produced presentations of advanced operative techniques, examination and diagnostic procedures, and extraordinary cases. Videos are lightly peer reviewed for relevance, overall didactic value, and general production quality. They may combine photographic footage, animation, and cine-image. Voice-over is a prerequisite for acceptance. Accepted articles are streamed at A complete submission comprises the following items:

  • A video of no more than 10 minutes in length and less than 500 MB in a standard file format (eg, MPG, MP4, Apple QuickTime, Microsoft AVI). The larger a video file is, the longer it will take to upload or download, which means that an author's Internet connection may time out before a larger file can be uploaded. If you experience difficulties with submission of large video or animation files in Editorial Manager, please contact the Editorial Office (; alternative submission options exist for large files.
  • A voice-over transcript, indicating the start time (min:sec) for each narrative segment.
  • A short summary of the article, no more than 400 words, including references.
  • A short video clip (about 2 minutes in duration) presenting highlights of the full article. Clips must adhere to Elsevier guidelines for file type, resolution, etc. High-definition video is preferred (720p or greater). On-camera interviews (“talking heads”) should be kept to a minimum.
  • Exceptions to the 10-minute maximum will be considered but must be approved by the editor-in-chief in advance of submission.


    This section includes case reports, surgical techniques, description of instrumentation, or small studies of limited scope. Unless otherwise stated, the general requirements for manuscripts outlined above apply to Short Reports.

    Short Reports may not exceed 1,100 words in length (excluding references and figure legends) and should be in the following form: title page, text, references (no more than 10), legends for figures. Instead of a structured abstract, Short Reports must begin with a summary paragraph (up to 200 words), in boldface type, that encapsulates the salient points of the presentation. This paragraph may not contain references and its contents should not be duplicated in the manuscript. Short Reports may include up to 5 illustrations (figures or tables); however, only 2 illustrations of accepted reports will be prioritized for print publication, and authors should designate illustrations accordingly on submission (eg, Figure 1, eFigure 1.

    Case reports should always have the following structure: (1) age of patient; (2) where presented; (3) main complaint; (4) present illness; (5) relevant medical history/review of systems/family history, if any; (6) examination, labs/special studies, or pertinent missing labs; (7) clinical course. Ophthalmological examination results should present data in the following order: (1) visual acuity in each eye, (2) pertinent findings, (3) pertinent negative findings.


    Reviews and AAPOS Workshops are typically submitted by invitation. Prospective authors with an idea for a Review should contact the editor-in-chief prior to submission. Reviews are comprehensive summaries of the literature that present all sides of an issue. Workshops are nearly as comprehensive as Reviews but emphasize practical approaches reflecting the individual preferences of the authors, and include specific recommendations regarding the diagnosis and treatment of highlighted conditions. Reviews and AAPOS Workshops must conform to the guidelines provided for Major Articles, except that the limit of 25 references does apply and, with the editor's approval, the word count may exceed 3,000.


    Correspondence regarding articles that have been published in the Journal should be submitted within 8 weeks of that publication. Letters to the Editor will be considered for publication by the editorial board and may be subject to editing. If a Letter to the Editor is regarding a previous publication in the Journal, the author of that article will be given an opportunity to reply. The letter and response may be published exclusively on the Journal Web site.


    Editorials are typically submitted by invitation; however, prospective authors with an idea for an Editorial should contact the editor-in-chief prior to submission. Editorials should be limited to fewer than 600 words and five references.


    The Journal does not publish notices or other items regarding meetings, honors, or named lectures. These items may be submitted to the AAPOS newsletter, or presented within purchased advertising space. Obituaries relevant to the Journal readership will be considered. Obituaries should be in narrative form and fewer than 100 words.


    The Journal publishes short materials that highlight the human side of medicine. These features are printed within available white space at theend of major articles and may be sent directly to the editor-in-chief ( for consideration. The "Eye on the Arts" feature excerpts passages from novels, poems, or other published works of art that reflect the eyes or the visual system. These excerpts may be submitted directly to the managing editor as PDF files. Include the marked passage, the book cover, and publication information. "Eye on the Arts" contributors are anonymous. The "First Person" feature provides clinicians with an opportunity to share the wealth of emotion that occurs in daily interactions with patients. Contributions might include a humorous comment made by a child or parent, or an event that has touched the life of a family and a physician. In "Clinical Pearls," clinicians share their practical tricks and shortcuts for examination, diagnosis, and treatment. A figure may be included. "First Person" and "Clinical Pearls" contributions should be no more than 200 words. Contributors are acknowledged unless theauthor requests anonymity.


    One set of page proofs (as PDF files) will be sent by email to the corresponding author (if we do not have an email address then paper proofs will be sent by post) or, a link will be provided in the email so that authors can download the files themselves. Elsevier now provides authors with PDF proofs which can be annotated; for this you will need to download Adobe Reader version 7 (or higher) available free from Instructions on how to annotate PDF files will accompany the proofs (also given online). The exact system requirements are given at the Adobe site:
    If you do not wish to use the PDF annotations function, you may list the corrections (including replies to the Query Form) and return them to Elsevier in an email. Please list your corrections quoting line number. If for any reason this is not possible, then mark the corrections and any other comments (including replies to the Query Form) on a printout of your proof and return by fax, or scan the pages and email, or by post. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately – please send your corrections within 48 hours. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication: please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility. Note that Elsevier may proceed with the publication of your article if no response is received.


    The corresponding author will, at no cost, receive a customized Share Link providing 50 days free access to the final published version of the article on ScienceDirect. The Share Link can be used for sharing the article via any communication channel, including email and social media. For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's Webshop. Corresponding authors who have published their article gold open access do not receive a Share Link as their final published version of the article is available open access on ScienceDirect and can be shared through the article DOI link.

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