Guide for Authors

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Your Paper Your Way

We now differentiate between the requirements for new and revised submissions. You may choose to submit your manuscript as a single Word or PDF file to be used in the refereeing process. Only when your paper is at the revision stage, will you be requested to put your paper in to a 'correct format' for acceptance and provide the items required for the publication of your article.
To find out more, please visit the Preparation section below.

The Editors of the Journal welcome contributions for publication from the following categories: Letters to the Editor and Editorials, Reviews and Original Research articles, Protocols, Commentaries, Education, Clinical and Practice articles (Case Studies)

The Guidelines are separated into the following sections:

A Online Submission
B Types of Contributions
C General Guidance
D Preparation of the Manuscript
E Specific Guidance for Original Research Articles
F Specific Guidance for Protocols
G Post Acceptance

Types of contributions

For all the following types of contributions authors are requested to consider the international readership of the journal and to be aware of the need to explain local contexts or define terminology where these are likely not to be commonly understood internationally. Word limits exclude tables, figures and reference list.

Letters to the Editor (up to 1,000 words)
As is common in biomedical journals the Editorial Board welcomes critical responses to any aspect of the journal. In particular, letters that point out deficiencies and that add to, or further clarify points made in a recently published work, are welcomed. The Editorial Board reserves the right to offer authors of papers the right of rebuttal, which may be published alongside the letter.

Reviews and Original Articles (2,000 - 5,000 words)
Authors should select "Review Article" or "Full Length Article" at the submission stage when submitting either a Review or an Original Research article.
These should be either (i) reports of new findings related to osteopathic medicine that are supported by research evidence. These should be original, previously unpublished works; or (ii) a critical or systematic review that seeks to summarise or draw conclusions from the established literature on a topic relevant to osteopathic medicine.

Please see specific guidance below for original research articles and the requirement to submit a checklist from the appropriate reporting guideline together with your paper as a guide to the editors and reviewers of your paper. The checklists for each reporting guideline can be found on the EQUATOR website. Checklists should be uploaded at submission as "Checklist" file types.

Short review (1,500-3,000 words)
The drawing together of present knowledge in a subject area, in order to provide a background for the reader not currently versed in the literature of a particular topic. Shorter in length than and not intended to be as comprehensive as that of the critical or systematic review paper. These papers typically place more emphasis on outlining areas of deficit in the current literature that warrant further investigation.

Research Note (up to 1,500 words)
Authors should select "Research Paper" at submission stage when submitting a Research Note.
Findings of interest arising from a larger study but not the primary aim of the research endeavour, for example short experiments aimed at establishing the reliability of new equipment used in the primary experiment or other incidental findings of interest, arising from, but not the topic of the primary research. Includes further clarification of an experimental protocol after addition of further controls, or statistical reassessment of raw data.

Preliminary Findings (1,500-2,500 words)
Authors should select "Preliminary Report" at submission stage when submitting a Preliminary Findings paper.
Presentation of results from pilot studies which may establish a solid basis for further investigations. Format similar to original research report but with more emphasis in discussion of future studies and hypotheses arising from pilot study.

Professional Commentaries (up to 2,000 words)
Includes articles that do not fit into the above criteria as original research. Includes commentaries and essays especially in regards to history, professional identity, clinical scope and development, and political and legal aspects of osteopathic medicine.

Clinical Practice
Authors should select the article type "Clinical Commentary" when submitting a Clinical Practice paper - there will be an option within the submission process to further select the type of format as below.
Authors are encouraged to submit papers in one of the following formats: Case Report, Case Problem, and Evidence in Practice.

i. Case Reports - usually document the management of one patient, with an emphasis on presentations that are unusual, rare or where there was an unexpected response to treatment (e.g. an unexpected side effect or adverse reaction). Authors may also wish to present a case series where multiple occurrences of a similar phenomenon are documented. Preference will be given to reports that are prospective in their planning and utilise Single System Designs, including objective measures.

ii. The aim of the Case Problem is to provide a more thorough discussion of the differential diagnosis of a clinical problem. The emphasis is on the clinical reasoning and logic employed in the diagnostic process.

iii. The purpose of the Evidence in Practice report is to provide an account of the application of the recognised Evidence Based Medicine process to a real clinical problem. The paper should be written with reference to each of the following five steps: 1. Developing an answerable clinical question. 2. The processes employed in searching the literature for evidence. 3. The appraisal of evidence for usefulness and applicability. 4. Integrating the critical appraisal with existing clinical expertise and with the patient's unique biology, values, and circumstances. 5. Reflect on the process (steps 1-4), evaluating effectiveness, and identifying deficiencies.

Please note for Case Reports there is a requirement to submit a checklist from the CARE reporting guideline together with your paper as a guide to the editors and reviewers of your paper. The checklists for each reporting guideline can be found on the EQUATOR website

Protocols (1,500 - 2,000 words)
Authors should select "Method Article" at submission stage when submitting a Protocol.
The IJOM accepts the submission of protocols of randomised interventions, systematic reviews and meta-analyses, observational studies, and selected phase I and II studies (novel intervention for a novel indication; a strong or unexpected beneficial or adverse response; or a novel mechanism of action), with the overall aim to encourage good principles in clinical research design.

The editors are looking for studies that will appeal to a wide general readership. The question being addressed and the planned design and analysis will need to be as original as possible, topical, and valid. All protocols will be subject to the journal's usual peer review process.

Authors should select "Feature Article" at submission stage when submitting a Masterclass.
The purpose of the Masterclass section is to describe in detail clinical aspects of osteopathic medicine or topics relevant to osteopathic clinicians. This may focus on specific treatment techniques, a particular management approach, management of a specific clinical entity, or topics such as understanding research design, use of measurement in practice, and professional issues such as clinical governance and audit. The majority of Masterclasses are commissioned by the Editors, but if you wish submit an idea for a Masterclass for consideration of publication please contact Oliver Thomson ( or David Evans (
• The article should be between 3500-4000 words in length excluding references.
• A short summary should precede the main body of the article overviewing the contents.

• The introduction should review the relevant literature and put the subject matter into context.
• The main body of the text will describe the technique or approach in detail.
Illustrations are considered an essential part of the Masterclass in order to fully inform the reader and a minimum of six photographs or line drawings are required.
In addition, authors may wish to include supplementary material which would be available online only. This may include, for example, podcasts, videoclips, animation sequences, high-resolution colour images, author reflections on the Masterclass, and background datasets. Authors are invited to refer to previously published Masterclasses as examples.

New section - Osteopathic Education:
This new section of the International Journal of Osteopathic Medicine provides accounts of new teaching and learning methods, curriculum development and implementation, and assessment strategies in undergraduate and post-qualifying osteopathic education, and continuous professional development initiatives. It also serves as a forum for communication between osteopathic educators, policy developers and those involved in clinical practice. Papers which focus on osteopathic education in both classroom and clinical/practice environments are welcomed for this new section of the journal. It is essential that the evidence-base to osteopathic education is developed and this is reflected in papers submitted for publication. In alignment with the journal's overall Aims and Scope, papers submitted for consideration of publication should be relevant to an international audience, even if they are national in scale of study. The editorial team wish to encourage submission of papers that demonstrate:
• Innovation and development of education
• Creativity in teaching and learning and assessment strategies
• Evaluation and quality assurance of academic standards
• Advancement of practice-based education
• Collaborative interdisciplinary education initiatives
• Delivery and evaluation of education within osteopathic and related services.

If your submission constitutes original research or is in the form of a review, please see Specific guidance below for original research articles and the requirement to submit a checklist from the appropriate reporting guideline together with your paper as a guide to the editors and reviewers of your paper. The checklists for each reporting guideline can be found on the EQUATOR website.

When submitting a paper for the Education Section authors will be asked to select the option "Education" during the submission process. Authors are first asked to identify the type of paper they are submitting (ie. Review Article, Full Length Article…) before being asked to confirm whether it is to be considered for the Education Section.

Author Enquiries
For enquiries relating to the submission of articles (including electronic submission where available) please visit this journal's homepage at You can track accepted articles at and set up e-mail alerts to inform you of when an articles status has changed. Also accessible from here is information on copyright, frequently asked questions and more.

Contact details for questions arising after acceptance of an article, especially those relating to proofs, will be provided by the publisher.

Submission checklist

You can use this list to carry out a final check of your submission before you send it to the journal for review. Please check the relevant section in this Guide for Authors for more details.

Ensure that the following items are present:

One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
• E-mail address
• Full postal address

All necessary files have been uploaded:
• Include keywords
• All figures (include relevant captions)
• All tables (including titles, description, footnotes)
• Ensure all figure and table citations in the text match the files provided
• Indicate clearly if color should be used for any figures in print
Graphical Abstracts / Highlights files (where applicable)
Supplemental files (where applicable)
Cover Letter
Conflict of Interest Statement
Author agreement

Further considerations
• Manuscript has been 'spell checked' and 'grammar checked'
• All references mentioned in the Reference List are cited in the text, and vice versa
• Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Internet)
• Relevant declarations of interest have been made
• Journal policies detailed in this guide have been reviewed
• Referee suggestions and contact details provided, based on journal requirements

For further information, visit our Support Center.

Ethics in publishing

Please see our information pages on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication.

A statement of Ethical Approval is required to be completed during online submission and included in the Conflict of Interest file and uploaded as a separate file in the final stage of the online submission system. Examples of such statements are given below:

  • "The study design and procedures were approved by XXXX (Approval number: XXXX)".
  • "The study was granted an exemption by the institutional review board".

Studies in humans and animals

If the work involves the use of human subjects, the author should ensure that the work described has been carried out in accordance with The Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association (Declaration of Helsinki) for experiments involving humans. The manuscript should be in line with the Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals and aim for the inclusion of representative human populations (sex, age and ethnicity) as per those recommendations. The terms sex and gender should be used correctly.

Authors should include a statement in the manuscript that informed consent was obtained for experimentation with human subjects. The privacy rights of human subjects must always be observed.

All animal experiments should comply with the ARRIVE guidelines and should be carried out in accordance with the U.K. Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act, 1986 and associated guidelines, EU Directive 2010/63/EU for animal experiments, or the National Institutes of Health guide for the care and use of Laboratory animals (NIH Publications No. 8023, revised 1978) and the authors should clearly indicate in the manuscript that such guidelines have been followed. The sex of animals must be indicated, and where appropriate, the influence (or association) of sex on the results of the study.

Patient anonymity
Studies on patients or volunteers require ethics committee approval and informed consent which should be documented in the manuscript.

Patients have a right to privacy. Therefore identifying information, including patients' images, names, initials, or hospital numbers, should not be included in videos, recordings, written descriptions, photographs, and pedigrees unless the information is essential for scientific purposes and you have obtained written informed consent for publication in print and electronic form from the patient (or parent, guardian or next of kin where applicable). If such consent is made subject to any conditions, Elsevier must be made aware of all such conditions. Evidence of written consent must be provided to Elsevier on request.

Even where consent has been given, identifying details should be omitted if they are not essential. If identifying characteristics are altered to protect anonymity, such as in genetic pedigrees, authors should provide assurance that alterations do not distort scientific meaning and editors should so note.

Authors submitting manuscripts as Case Reports, Case Problems, and Evidence in Practice should ensure that they have received consent from patients who are the subject of such reports. A statement to this effect should be included in the manuscript.

If such consent has not been obtained, personal details of patients included in any part of the paper and in any supplementary materials (including all illustrations and videos) must be removed before submission.

Declaration of interest

All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential competing interests include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. Authors must disclose any interests in two places: 1. A summary declaration of interest statement in the title page file (if double-blind) or the manuscript file (if single-blind). If there are no interests to declare then please state this: 'Declarations of interest: none'. This summary statement will be ultimately published if the article is accepted. 2. Detailed disclosures as part of a separate Declaration of Interest form, which forms part of the journal's official records. It is important for potential interests to be declared in both places and that the information matches. More information.

A Conflict of Interest statement should be uploaded as a separate file in the final stages of the online submission system.

Conflict of Interest file: A Conflict of Interest file is required and should include statements of 1) Conflict of Interest, (2) Funding Sources, and (3) ethical approval details (if applicable) under these headings. If some, or all three, do not apply, please still include the headings stating "None" / "Not applicable". Clinical Trial Registry name and registration number and Acknowledgments may be added if applicable as 4th and 5th headings. For revised manuscripts this information must be transferred to the manuscript file.

Submission declaration and verification

Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract, a published lecture or academic thesis, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service Crossref Similarity Check.

Please note that preprints can be shared anywhere at any time, in line with Elsevier's sharing policy. Sharing your preprints e.g. on a preprint server will not count as prior publication (see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' for more information).

Use of inclusive language

Inclusive language acknowledges diversity, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and promotes equal opportunities. Content should make no assumptions about the beliefs or commitments of any reader; contain nothing which might imply that one individual is superior to another on the grounds of age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition; and use inclusive language throughout. Authors should ensure that writing is free from bias, stereotypes, slang, reference to dominant culture and/or cultural assumptions. We advise to seek gender neutrality by using plural nouns ("clinicians, patients/clients") as default/wherever possible to avoid using "he, she," or "he/she." We recommend avoiding the use of descriptors that refer to personal attributes such as age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition unless they are relevant and valid. These guidelines are meant as a point of reference to help identify appropriate language but are by no means exhaustive or definitive.

IJOM Author Contribution Statement
All manuscripts submitted to the journal should be accompanied by an Author Agreement file - this is a statement of author contribution. The purpose of the Statement is to give appropriate credit to each author for their role in the study. All persons listed as authors should have made substantive intellectual contributions to the research. To qualify for authorship each person listed should have made contributions in each of the following;
1) Contributions to conception and design; data acquisition; data analysis and interpretation;
2) Drafting of manuscript, or critical revision for important intellectual content;
3) All authors must have given approval to the final version of the manuscript submitted for consideration to publish.
Acquisition of funding; provision of resources; data collection; or general supervision, alone, is not sufficient justification for authorship. Contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship as outlined above should be listed in the Acknowledgements section. Acknowledgements may include contributions of technical assistance, proof reading and editing, or assistance with resources and funding. The statement may be published in the paper as appropriate.
Example of suggested format (note the use of author initials).
AB conceived the idea for the study. AB and CD contributed to the design and planning of the research. All authors were involved in data collection. AB and EF analysed the data. AB and CD wrote the first draft of the manuscript. EF coordinated funding for the project. All authors edited and approved the final version of the manuscript.

Changes to authorship

Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the journal Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed.
Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted. While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the Editor will result in a corrigendum.

Clinical trial results

In line with the position of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, the journal will not consider results posted in the same clinical trials registry in which primary registration resides to be prior publication if the results posted are presented in the form of a brief structured (less than 500 words) abstract or table. However, divulging results in other circumstances (e.g., investors' meetings) is discouraged and may jeopardise consideration of the manuscript. Authors should fully disclose all posting in registries of results of the same or closely related work.

Authors should include the Clinical Trial Registration number in the Conflict of Interest statement (see above) at original submission stage, and will be required to transfer the number into the manuscript file for revised articles.

Original research articles

The text of original research for a quantitative or qualitative study is typically subdivided into the following sections:

Describe the wider context of the topic and its relevance providing selected citations that evidence and underpin the context. Identify key relevant research and briefly describe the strengths and weaknesses of past work and identify the gaps in the literature and key questions that are pertinent to the topic and practice. Build on this descriptive account to establish an argument for the manuscript’s focus and end the introductory section with the aims of the research that is being reported and or the research questions.

Materials and Methods
Describe your selection of observational or experimental participants (including controls). Identify the methods, apparatus (manufacturer's name and address in parenthesis) and procedures in sufficient detail to allow workers to reproduce the results. Give references and brief descriptions for methods that have been published but are not well known; describe new methods and evaluate limitations.

Indicate whether procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institution or regional committee responsible for ethical standards. Do not use patient names or initials. Take care to mask the identity of any participants in illustrative material.

Present results in a logical sequence in the text, tables and illustrations. Do not repeat in the text all the data in the tables or illustrations. Emphasise or summarise only important observations.

Emphasise the new and important aspects of the study and the conclusions that follow from them. Do not repeat in detail data or other material given in the introduction or the results section. Include implications of the findings and their limitations, and include implications for future research. Relate the observations to other relevant studies. Link the conclusion with the goals of the study, but avoid unqualified statements and conclusions not completely supported by your data. State new hypothesis when warranted, but clearly label them as such. Recommendations, when appropriate, may be included.

A summary of the pertinent findings and, relevance of the study and implications of the study for future research.

Appendices may also be used to publish supplementary files online, to which a reference should be made in the printed article. Material that is to be included in appendices should be submitted in separate "e-component" files.

Types of research designs

Manuscripts are required to adhere to recognized reporting guidelines relevant to the research design used. These identify matters that should be addressed in your paper. These are not quality assessment frameworks and your study need not meet all the criteria implied in the reporting guideline to be worthy of publication in the journal.

To improve the quality of reporting of other categories of research, the IJOM supports the initiatives available through the EQUATOR Network (Enhancing the Quality and Transparency Of health Research) which houses a database of all reporting guidelines for health research ( All authors of research articles and reviews are required to complete and submit a checklist from the appropriate reporting guideline together with your paper as a guide to the editors and reviewers of your paper. The checklists for each reporting guideline can be found on the EQUATOR website. A copy of the complete checklist should accompany your submission. The checklist should be uploaded at submission as a "Checklist" file type.

Reporting guidelines endorsed by the journal are listed below:

Observational cohort, case control and cross sectional studies - STROBE - Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology

Quasi-experimental/non-randomised evaluations - TREND - Transparent Reporting of Evaluations with Non-randomized Designs

Randomised (and quasi-randomised) controlled trial - CONSORT - Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials

Study of Diagnostic accuracy/assessment scale - STARD - Standards for the Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies

Quality Appraisal of Reliability Studies - QAREL

Consensus-based Clinical Case Reporting Guideline Development - CARE

Systematic Review of Controlled Trials - PRISMA - Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses

Systematic Review of Observational Studies - MOOSE - Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology

Qualitative researchers might wish to consult the guideline listed below:

Qualitative studies - COREQ - Consolidated criteria for reporting qualitative research. Tong, A., Sainsbury, P., Craig, J., 2007. Consolidated criteria for reporting qualitative research (COREQ): a 32-item checklist for interviews and focus groups. International Journal for Quality in Health Care 19 (6), 349-357.


Organisation of a Protocol - the following need to be adequately addressed.
• Title
• Abstract/Summary - this should provide a concise description of the purpose of the Protocol and should not exceed 200 words.
• Background, including rationale and any previous systematic review(s).
• Keywords - provide 4-10 keywords.
• Principal investigator(s); contact details.
• Aim(s).
• Design (randomised, double-blind) - including inclusion and exclusion criteria; intervention(s)/method; primary and secondary endpoint(s); side-effects reporting and quantification
• Statistical analysis - including sample size and power calculations; type of analysis; statistical testing.
• Ethical issues - including ethics committee approval; informed consent form and information sheet.
• Publication plan.
• Time required - an estimation of the time required to run the protocol should be given per separate step and for the whole protocol, including reporting.
• Funding source(s).
• References.

Randomised controlled trials

The International Journal of Osteopathic Medicine has adopted the proposal from the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors(ICMJE) (see a recent Editorial in Manual Therapy, Editorial: "Clinical trial registration inphysiotherapy journals: Recommendations from the International Society of Physiotherapy Journal Editors"), which requires, as a condition of consideration for publication of clinical trials, registration in a public trials registry. Trials must register at or before the onset of patient enrolment. The clinical trial registration number should be included at the end of the abstract of the article in the final published version. For the peer review process however the clinical trial registration number should be included in the Conflict of Interest Statement (see below). For this purpose, a clinical trial is defined as any research project that prospectively assigns human subjects to intervention or comparison groups to study the cause and effect relationship between a medical intervention and a health outcome. Studies designed for other purposes, such as to study pharmacokinetics or major toxicity (e.g. phase I trials) would be exempt. Further information can be found at Clinical Trials that commence after 1st June 2013 must be registered to be considered for publication in the International Journal of Osteopathic Medicine. From January 2014 the International Journal of Osteopathic Medicine will not be able to accept any unregistered Clinical Trial papers. By 2015 the journal will not be able to publish any Clinical Trials that are unregistered prior to recruitment of the first participant.


This journal offers authors a choice in publishing their research: Open Access and Subscription.

For Subscription articles
Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (for more information on this and copyright, see An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement. Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations (please consult If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases: please consult

For Open Access articles
Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an 'Exclusive License Agreement' (for more information see Permitted reuse of open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license (see

Retained author rights
As an author you (or your employer or institution) retain certain rights. For more information on author rights for:

Subscription articles please see

Open access articles please see

Elsevier supports responsible sharing
Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.

Role of the funding source

You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.

This disclosure should be uploaded in the Conflict of Interest statement file in the final stages of manuscript submission (see above).

Open access

Please visit our Open Access page for more information.

Elsevier Researcher Academy
Researcher Academy is a free e-learning platform designed to support early and mid-career researchers throughout their research journey. The "Learn" environment at Researcher Academy offers several interactive modules, webinars, downloadable guides and resources to guide you through the process of writing for research and going through peer review. Feel free to use these free resources to improve your submission and navigate the publication process with ease.

Language (usage and editing services)
Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's Author Services.


Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files (e.g., Word, LaTeX) are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.

Submit your article
Please submit your article via

Please submit the names and institutional e-mail addresses of several potential referees. For more details, visit our Support site. Note that the editor retains the sole right to decide whether or not the suggested reviewers are used.

Submitted papers should be relevant to an international audience and authors should not assume knowledge of national practices, policies, law, etc. Authors should consult a recent issue of the journal for style if possible. Since the journal is distributed all over the world, and as English is a second language for many readers, authors are requested to write in plain English and use terminology which is internationally acceptable.

Avoid the use of abbreviations unless they are likely to be widely recognised. In particular you should avoid abbreviating key concepts in your paper where readers might not already be familiar with the abbreviation. Any abbreviations which the authors intend to use should be written out in full and followed by the letters in brackets the first time they appear, thereafter only the letters without brackets should be used. Statistics - Standard methods of presenting statistical material should be used. Where methods used are not widely recognised explanation and full reference to widely accessible sources must be given.

There are no strict requirements on reference formatting at submission. References can be in any style or format as long as the style is consistent. Where applicable, author(s) name(s), journal title/book title, chapter title/article title, year of publication, volume number/book chapter and the article number or pagination must be present. Use of DOI is highly encouraged. The reference style used by the journal will be applied to the accepted article by Elsevier at the proof stage. Note that missing data will be highlighted at proof stage for the author to correct.

However, should you wish to use the Vancouver numbered style adopted by the journal, full guidance is given below.

Review process
The decision to publish a paper is based on an editorial assessment and peer review. Initially all papers are assessed by an editor of the journal. The prime purpose is to decide whether to send a paper for peer review and to give a rapid decision on those that are not.

Manuscripts going forward to the review process are reviewed by members of an international expert panel. All such papers will undergo a double blind peer review by two or more reviewers. All papers are subject to peer review and the Journal takes every reasonable step to ensure author identity is concealed during the review process. The Editors reserve the right to the final decision regarding acceptance.

Double-blind peer review - This journal uses double-blind review, which means that both the reviewer and author name(s) are not allowed to be revealed to one another for a manuscript under review. The identities of the authors are concealed from the reviewers, and vice versa. To facilitate anonymity, the author's names and any reference to their addresses should only appear on the title page.

Blinded manuscript (no author details): The main body of the paper (including the references, figures, tables) should not include any identifying information, such as the authors' names or affiliations. Authors should also ensure that the place of origin of the work or study, and/or the organization(s) that have been involved in the study/development are not revealed in the manuscript – “X” can be used in the manuscript and details can be completed if the manuscript is processed further through the publication process.

Manuscript Layout
The manuscript with a font size of 12 or 10 pt double-spaced with wide margins (2.5 cm at least) and number pages consecutively beginning with the Title Page. Depending on the paper type (see above) this should include the title, abstract, key words, text, references, tables, figure legends, figures, appendix. Microsoft Word or similar programme should be used.
Please check your typescript carefully before you send it off, both for correct content and typographic errors. It is not possible to change the content of accepted typescripts during production.
To facilitate anonymity, the author's names and any reference to their addresses should only appear on the title page. Please check your typescript carefully before you send it off, both for correct content and typographic errors. It is not possible to change the content of accepted typescripts during production.

The text of observational and experimental articles is usually, but not necessarily, divided into sections with the headings; introduction, methods, results, results and discussion. In longer articles, headings should be used only to enhance the readability. Three categories of headings should be used:

• major headings should be typed in capital letter in the centre of the page and underlined (i.e. INTRODUCTION)

• secondary ones should be typed in lower case (with an initial capital letter) in the left hand margin and underlined (i.e. Participants).

• minor ones typed in lower case and italicised (i.e. questionnaire).

Do not use 'he', 'his' etc. where the sex of the person is unknown; say 'the patient' etc. Avoid inelegant alternatives such as 'he/she'.

Submission to this journal proceeds totally online and you will be guided stepwise through the creation and uploading of your files. The system automatically converts your files to a single PDF file, which is used in the peer-review process.

As part of the Your Paper Your Way service, you may choose to submit your manuscript as a single file to be used in the refereeing process. This can be a PDF file or a Word document, in any format or lay-out that can be used by referees to evaluate your manuscript. It should contain high enough quality figures for refereeing. If you prefer to do so, you may still provide all or some of the source files at the initial submission. Please note that individual figure files larger than 10 MB must be uploaded separately

Formatting requirements
There are no strict formatting requirements but all manuscripts must contain the essential elements needed to convey your manuscript, for example Abstract, Keywords, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Conclusions, Artwork and Tables with Captions and "Contribution of Paper" (where applicable).

If your article includes any Videos and/or other Supplementary material, this should be included in your initial submission for peer review purposes.

Divide the article into clearly defined sections.

Figures and tables embedded in text
Please ensure the figures and the tables included in the single file are placed next to the relevant text in the manuscript, rather than at the bottom or the top of the file. Ensure that figures and tables are referred to in the body of the text and that they are clearly labelled.


The following documents are needed for all submissions.

Title page (with author details) - This should include the title, authors' names and affiliations, and a complete address for the corresponding author including telephone and e-mail address.

Blinded manuscript (no author details) - The main body of the paper (including the references, figures, tables) should not include any identifying information, such as the authors' names or affiliations.

Covering letter - to the editor in which you detail authorship contributions and other matters you wish the editors to consider.

Implications for Practice
At submission stage, authors of reviews and original research articles are required to provide three to four bullet points outlining what the manuscript adds to the literature. This should succinctly and accurately summarise the key new knowledge resulting from the study along with the implications for clinical, educational or research practice as appropriate for the focus of the manuscript. These should be placed after the Abstract and before the main body of the text.

Essential title page information

Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
Author names and affiliations. Please clearly indicate the given name(s) and family name(s) of each author and check that all names are accurately spelled. You can add your name between parentheses in your own script behind the English transliteration. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. This responsibility includes answering any future queries about Methodology and Materials. Ensure that the e-mail address is given and that contact details are kept up to date by the corresponding author.
Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.


Both qualitative and quantitative research approaches should be accompanied by a structured abstract of no more than 250 words. Commentaries and Essays may continue to use text based abstracts of no more than 150 words. All original articles should include the following headings in the abstract as appropriate: Background, Objective, Design, Setting, Methods, Participants, Results, and Conclusions. As an absolute minimum: Objectives, Methods, Results, and Conclusions must be provided for all original articles. Abstracts for reviews of the literature (in particular systematic reviews and meta-analysis) should include the following headings as appropriate: Objectives, Data Sources, Study Selection, Data Extraction, Data Synthesis, Conclusions. Abstracts for Case Studies should include the following headings as appropriate: Background, Objectives, Clinical Features, Intervention and Outcomes, Conclusions.

Include four to ten keywords in alphabetical order, which accurately identify the paper's subject, purpose, method and focus. These should be indexing terms that may be published with the abstract with the aim of increasing the likely accessibility of your paper to potential readers searching the literature. Therefore, ensure keywords are descriptive of the study. Use the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH®) thesaurus or Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL) headings where possible (see

Abbreviations- Avoid the use of abbreviations unless they are likely to be widely recognised. In particular you should avoid abbreviating key concepts in your paper where readers might not already be familiar with the abbreviation. Any abbreviations which the authors intend to use should be written out in full and followed by the letters in brackets the first time they appear, thereafter only the letters without brackets should be used.

One or more statements should specify (a) contributions that need acknowledging, but do not justify authorship (b) acknowledgments of technical support (c) acknowledgments of financial and material support, specifying the nature of the support. Persons named in this section must have given their permission to be named. Authors are responsible for obtaining written permission from those acknowledged by name since readers may infer their endorsement of the data and conclusions. Authors should include Acknowledgments in the Conflict of Interest statement at original submission stage, and will be required to transfer the Acknowledgments into the manuscript file for revised articles.

Statement of Competing Interests
When submitting a manuscript you will need to consider if you, or any of your co-authors, are an Editor or Editorial Board member of the International Journal of Osteopathic Medicine. If this is the case you will need to upload a Conflict of Interest statement at submission. Example statement, which may require editing, is as follows: {Name of author} is an Editor of the Int J Osteopath Med; {Name of author} is a member of the Editorial Board of the Int J Osteopath Med but was not involved in review or editorial decisions regarding this manuscript.

Formatting of funding sources
List funding sources in this standard way to facilitate compliance to funder's requirements:

Funding: This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health [grant numbers xxxx, yyyy]; the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, WA [grant number zzzz]; and the United States Institutes of Peace [grant number aaaa].

It is not necessary to include detailed descriptions on the program or type of grants and awards. When funding is from a block grant or other resources available to a university, college, or other research institution, submit the name of the institute or organization that provided the funding.

If no funding has been provided for the research, please include the following sentence:

This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.


File Formatting for Artwork &Illustrations - General points

• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Save text in illustrations as "graphics" or enclose the font.
• Only use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times, Symbol.
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
• Provide captions to illustrations separately.
• Produce images near to the desired size of the printed version.
• Submit each figure as a separate file.

A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available on our website:

Please do not:
• Supply embedded graphics in your word processor (spreadsheet, presentation) document.
• Supply files that are optimised for screen use (like GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); the resolution is too low.
• Supply files that are too low in resolution.
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

Electronic artwork
General points
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.
• Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
• Provide captions to illustrations separately.
• Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the published version.
• Submit each illustration as a separate file.
• Ensure that color images are accessible to all, including those with impaired color vision.

A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available.
You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format.
Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.
Please do not:
• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
• Supply files that are too low in resolution;
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

Tables, Illustrations and Figures
Tables, illustrations and figures should be placed on separate pages as separate electronic files and not placed within the manuscript. Each table, illustration or figure should be accompanied by a number (e.g. Table 1) and a brief description of the content of the table, figure or illustration, below the table, illustration or figure. All tables, illustrations or figures should be referred to in the manuscript.

Illustrations and tables that have appeared elsewhere must be accompanied by written permission to reproduce them from the original publishers. This is necessary even if you are an author of the borrowed material. Borrowed material should be acknowledged in the captions in the exact wording required by the copyright holder. If not specified, use this style: `Reproduced by kind permission of . . . (publishers) from . . . (reference).' Identifiable clinical photographs must be accompanied by written permission from the patient.


Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. . Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.

Reference links
Increased discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, CrossRef and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the DOI is highly encouraged.

A DOI is guaranteed never to change, so you can use it as a permanent link to any electronic article. An example of a citation using DOI for an article not yet in an issue is: VanDecar J.C., Russo R.M., James D.E., Ambeh W.B., Franke M. (2003). Aseismic continuation of the Lesser Antilles slab beneath northeastern Venezuela. Journal of Geophysical Research, Please note the format of such citations should be in the same style as all other references in the paper.

Web references
As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.

Data references
This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in your published article.

Reference management software
Most Elsevier journals have their reference template available in many of the most popular reference management software products. These include all products that support Citation Style Language styles, such as Mendeley. Using citation plug-ins from these products, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article, after which citations and bibliographies will be automatically formatted in the journal's style. If no template is yet available for this journal, please follow the format of the sample references and citations as shown in this Guide. If you use reference management software, please ensure that you remove all field codes before submitting the electronic manuscript. More information on how to remove field codes from different reference management software.

Reference style
Text: Indicate references by number(s) in square brackets in line with the text. The actual authors can be referred to, but the reference number(s) must always be given.
List: Number the references (numbers in square brackets) in the list in the order in which they appear in the text.
Reference to a journal publication:
[1] Van der Geer J, Hanraads JAJ, Lupton RA. The art of writing a scientific article. J Sci Commun 2010;163:51–9.
Reference to a book:
[2] Strunk Jr W, White EB. The elements of style. 4th ed. New York: Longman; 2000.
Reference to a chapter in an edited book:
[3] Mettam GR, Adams LB. How to prepare an electronic version of your article. In: Jones BS, Smith RZ, editors. Introduction to the electronic age, New York: E-Publishing Inc; 2009, p. 281–304.
Reference to a website:
[4] Cancer Research UK. Cancer statistics reports for the UK,; 2003 [accessed 13.03.03].
Note shortened form for last page number. e.g., 51–9, and that for more than 6 authors the first 6 should be listed followed by 'et al.' For further details you are referred to 'Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts submitted to Biomedical Journals' (J Am Med Assoc 1997;277:927–34) (see also Samples of Formatted References).

Data visualization

Include interactive data visualizations in your publication and let your readers interact and engage more closely with your research. Follow the instructions here to find out about available data visualization options and how to include them with your article.

Research data

This journal encourages and enables you to share data that supports your research publication where appropriate, and enables you to interlink the data with your published articles. Research data refers to the results of observations or experimentation that validate research findings. To facilitate reproducibility and data reuse, this journal also encourages you to share your software, code, models, algorithms, protocols, methods and other useful materials related to the project.

Below are a number of ways in which you can associate data with your article or make a statement about the availability of your data when submitting your manuscript. If you are sharing data in one of these ways, you are encouraged to cite the data in your manuscript and reference list. Please refer to the "References" section for more information about data citation. For more information on depositing, sharing and using research data and other relevant research materials, visit the research data page.

Data linking
If you have made your research data available in a data repository, you can link your article directly to the dataset. Elsevier collaborates with a number of repositories to link articles on ScienceDirect with relevant repositories, giving readers access to underlying data that gives them a better understanding of the research described.

There are different ways to link your datasets to your article. When available, you can directly link your dataset to your article by providing the relevant information in the submission system. For more information, visit the database linking page.

For supported data repositories a repository banner will automatically appear next to your published article on ScienceDirect.

In addition, you can link to relevant data or entities through identifiers within the text of your manuscript, using the following format: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN).

Mendeley Data
This journal supports Mendeley Data, enabling you to deposit any research data (including raw and processed data, video, code, software, algorithms, protocols, and methods) associated with your manuscript in a free-to-use, open access repository. During the submission process, after uploading your manuscript, you will have the opportunity to upload your relevant datasets directly to Mendeley Data. The datasets will be listed and directly accessible to readers next to your published article online.

For more information, visit the Mendeley Data for journals page.

Data statement
To foster transparency, we encourage you to state the availability of your data in your submission. This may be a requirement of your funding body or institution. If your data is unavailable to access or unsuitable to post, you will have the opportunity to indicate why during the submission process, for example by stating that the research data is confidential. The statement will appear with your published article on ScienceDirect. For more information, visit the Data Statement page.

Interactive Case Insights

The journal encourages authors to complement their case reports with test questions that reinforce the key learning points. These author created questions are submitted along with the article ( new or revised ) and will be made available in ScienceDirect along with your paper. More information and examples are available at Test questions are created online at Create the test questions, save them as a file to your desktop, and submit along with your (new or revised) manuscript through EES. For questions, please contact

Please check the manuscript carefully before it is sent off to the Editorial Office, both for correct content and typographical errors, as it is not possible to change the content of accepted typescripts during the production process. As a guide, please ensure the following had been included:

• One copy of manuscript and;
• Tables, figures and illustrations, uploaded separately and correctly labelled;
• Reference list in correct style and correct in-text referencing;
• Written permission from original publishers and authors to reproduce any borrowed any borrowed material (where relevant).

Statistics - Standard methods of presenting statistical material should be used. Where methods used are not widely recognised explanation and full reference to widely accessible sources must be given.


At revision stage the following documentation is required:
• a separate "Response to Reviewers" file – Responses to the reviewers' and editors' comments.
• a revised blinded manuscript with changes clearly highlighted.

Revised submissions should be accompanied by a letter which responds point by point to the reviewers' and editors' comments, and changes to the revised paper should be highlighted so they can be spotted easily by the reviewers to whom the paper is normally returned for further review/comment.

Use of word processing software
Regardless of the file format of the original submission, at revision you must provide us with an editable file of the entire article. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier: See also the section on Electronic artwork.

To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.

Online proof correction

To ensure a fast publication process of the article, we kindly ask authors to provide us with their proof corrections within two days. Corresponding authors will receive an e-mail with a link to our online proofing system, allowing annotation and correction of proofs online. The environment is similar to MS Word: in addition to editing text, you can also comment on figures/tables and answer questions from the Copy Editor. Web-based proofing provides a faster and less error-prone process by allowing you to directly type your corrections, eliminating the potential introduction of errors.
If preferred, you can still choose to annotate and upload your edits on the PDF version. All instructions for proofing will be given in the e-mail we send to authors, including alternative methods to the online version and PDF.
We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication. Please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.


The corresponding author will, at no cost, receive a customized Share Link providing 50 days free access to the final published version of the article on ScienceDirect. The Share Link can be used for sharing the article via any communication channel, including email and social media. For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's Author Services. Corresponding authors who have published their article gold open access do not receive a Share Link as their final published version of the article is available open access on ScienceDirect and can be shared through the article DOI link.

Visit the Elsevier Support Center to find the answers you need. Here you will find everything from Frequently Asked Questions to ways to get in touch.
You can also check the status of your submitted article or find out when your accepted article will be published.