The International Journal for Parasitology publishes the results of innovative basic and applied findings in all aspects of parasitology. Areas include but are not restricted to human and veterinary medicine, agriculture, ecology and studies on the microbiota in the context of host-parasite relationships.
Innovative research includes the development of novel concepts and ideas, as well as experimental and observational science that raises new hypotheses. Contributions of broader context are favoured over highly specialised ones.
The Journal publishes two forms of research paper: Full-length and Succinctus. Both must contain substantial results from a major program of research. It also publishes Special Issues incorporating papers on select topical themes. The Journal commissions Reviews and Current Opinions on topical, strategic, or controversial matters in parasitology.Because of the breadth of disciplines covered, the aims and significance of all contributions should be made clear to readers who are not expert in the particular field of study.
Title page. Contains the title, authors' names, addresses, name and contact details of the corresponding author.
Text. (see sections above) In addition to major headings two forms of subheadings are used: (a) the numbered italicised side subheading referring to several paragraphs; (b) the italicised paragraph subheading at the beginning of a single paragraph used only in Materials and methods.
The journal offers an avenue for publishing succinct papers that describe significant research findings of broad interest. Articles are limited to 3,000 words, not divided into sections, and contain not more than three display items (figures or tables). The manuscript should be marked ′Succinctus′ on the top left-hand corner of the title page. The first page should show title, author and address details. A short Abstract of not more than 100 words in the same style as for full papers plus up to six Keywords should follow. The body of the paper should be written with a minimum number of paragraphs and unstructured (i.e. no headings). Text describing the methods should be included in the manuscript body and/or figure legends; the methodology should be succinct but contain sufficient information and/or suitable references to allow readers to replicate the work. Not more than 25 references should be cited. Other instructions are the same as those for original research papers.
General enquiries prior to submission should be directed to the Editorial Office: editor@IJP.org.au
You can use this list to carry out a final check of your submission before you send it to the journal for review. Please check the relevant section in this Guide for Authors for more details.
One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
• E-mail address
• Full postal address
• Include keywords
• All figures (include relevant captions)
• All tables (including titles, description, footnotes)
• Ensure all figure and table citations in the text match the files provided
• Indicate clearly if color should be used for any figures in print
Graphical Abstracts / Highlights files (where applicable)
Supplemental files (where applicable)
• Manuscript has been 'spell checked' and 'grammar checked'
• All references mentioned in the Reference List are cited in the text, and vice versa
• Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Internet)
• Relevant declarations of interest have been made
• Journal policies detailed in this guide have been reviewed
• Referee suggestions and contact details provided, based on journal requirements
Please see our information pages on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication.
Policy and ethics
Care of experimental animals. It is the responsibility of authors to ensure that their practices conform with their national animal ethics guidelines. Submitted papers must contain precise details on the care and use of animals and of experimental procedures, especially interventions such as surgery and tissue sampling, and methods of euthanasia. Referees are asked to indicate whether there is any reason to consider that experimental animals were not well treated or care not taken to avoid distress, and papers may ultimately be rejected on such grounds.
All authors are requested to disclose any actual or potential conflict of interest including any financial, personal or other relationships with other people or organizations within three years of beginning the submitted work that could inappropriately influence, or be perceived to influence, their work. More information.
Submission declaration and verification
Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' section of our ethics policy for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service CrossCheck.
Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the journal Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed.
Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted. While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the Editor will result in a corrigendum.
Article transfer service
This journal is part of our Article Transfer Service. This means that if the Editor feels your article is more suitable in one of our other participating journals, then you may be asked to consider transferring the article to one of those. If you agree, your article will be transferred automatically on your behalf with no need to reformat. Please note that your article will be reviewed again by the new journal. More information.
Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (see more information on this). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.
Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations. If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases.For open access articles: Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an 'Exclusive License Agreement' (more information). Permitted third party reuse of open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license.
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. More information.
You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.
Funding body agreements and policies
Elsevier has established a number of agreements with funding bodies which allow authors to comply with their funder's open access policies. Some funding bodies will reimburse the author for the Open Access Publication Fee. Details of existing agreements are available online.
This journal offers authors a choice in publishing their research:
• Articles are freely available to both subscribers and the wider public with permitted reuse.
• An open access publication fee is payable by authors or on their behalf, e.g. by their research funder or institution.
• Articles are made available to subscribers as well as developing countries and patient groups through our universal access programs.
• No open access publication fee payable by authors.
For open access articles, permitted third party (re)use is defined by the following Creative Commons user licenses:Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY)
Lets others distribute and copy the article, create extracts, abstracts, and other revised versions, adaptations or derivative works of or from an article (such as a translation), include in a collective work (such as an anthology), text or data mine the article, even for commercial purposes, as long as they credit the author(s), do not represent the author as endorsing their adaptation of the article, and do not modify the article in such a way as to damage the author's honor or reputation.
Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND)
For non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.
The open access publication fee for this journal is USD 2200, excluding taxes. Learn more about Elsevier's pricing policy: http://www.elsevier.com/openaccesspricing.
Authors can share their research in a variety of different ways and Elsevier has a number of green open access options available. We recommend authors see our green open access page for further information. Authors can also self-archive their manuscripts immediately and enable public access from their institution's repository after an embargo period. This is the version that has been accepted for publication and which typically includes author-incorporated changes suggested during submission, peer review and in editor-author communications. Embargo period: For subscription articles, an appropriate amount of time is needed for journals to deliver value to subscribing customers before an article becomes freely available to the public. This is the embargo period and it begins from the date the article is formally published online in its final and fully citable form. Find out more.
This journal has an embargo period of 12 months.
Language (usage and editing services)
Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop.
Submission to this journal proceeds totally online and you will be guided stepwise through the creation and uploading of your files. The system automatically converts source files to a single PDF file of the article, which is used in the peer-review process. Please note that even though manuscript source files are converted to PDF files at submission for the review process, these source files are needed for further processing after acceptance. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, takes place by e-mail removing the need for a paper trail. Submitted manuscripts are first reviewed by a specialist editor to assess significance and general suitability for the journal. Approximately half of all submissions progress to peer review.
The final pdf should be no larger than 5 MB.
If file size cannot be reduced to less than 10 MB, the author should contact the IJP Editorial Office for instructions (editor@IJP.org.au).
Name, affiliation, email, telephone and fax numbers and mail address information for one corresponding author.
This must be the same person nominated as corresponding author on the manuscript title page and this person must submit the manuscript on-line.
The corresponding author, through the web access, is responsible for actions with respect to each paper. E-mail prompts will be delivered only to the corresponding author. Articles can also be tracked by the corresponding author via the online system.
Name and affiliations of all other authors.
Cover letter is mandatory for all submissions and should address the novelty, significance of the work.
Note: Current Opinions and Invited Reviews are by invitation only).
Manuscript should contain (in order) Title, Authors and addresses, Corresponding Author and address, Abstract, Keywords. In numbered sections: 1. Introduction; 2. Materials and methods; 3. Results; 4. Discussion; then Acknowledgements; References; Legends to Figures. Tables with their legends (in separate or combined files, numbered, in order). Figures (in separate files); preferred formats: JPEG, EPS or PDF. Supplementary and multimedia files.
The preferred format for the text is Microsoft Word. The title page, abstract and text should be formatted with line numbers. The manuscript should be formatted to A4 size paper, in English, double spaced and with 2 cm margins.
During submission you will also have to:
Agree to an ′ Ethics in Publishing′ document.
Please submit the names and institutional e-mail addresses of several potential referees. For more details, visit our Support site. Note that the editor retains the sole right to decide whether or not the suggested reviewers are used.
Authors should seek advice on data analysis prior to submission. A commentary (Morrison, D.A., 2002. How to improve statistical analysis in parasitology research publications. Int. J. Parasitol. 32, 1065-1070) may also be consulted. Papers may be sent to referees with particular expertise in statistics and modelling.
Use of word processing software
It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier). Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork.
To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.
Subdivision - numbered sections
Divide your article into clearly defined and numbered sections. Subsections (only in sections 2 and 3) should be numbered 2.1 (then 2.1.1, 2.1.2, ...), 2.2, etc. (the abstract is not included in section numbering). Use this numbering also for internal cross-referencing: do not just refer to 'the text'. Any subsection may be given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line.
State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results.
Material and methods
Provide sufficient detail to allow the work to be reproduced. Methods already published should be indicated by a reference: only relevant modifications should be described.
A Theory section should extend, not repeat, the background to the article already dealt with in the Introduction and lay the foundation for further work. In contrast, a Calculation section represents a practical development from a theoretical basis.
Results should be clear and concise.
This should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. A combined Results and Discussion section is often appropriate, however it is not a standard format for this journal; reasons for using the combined format must be provided in the submission cover letter. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature.
This journal does not publish appendices. Information should be included within the manuscript text or provided as supplementary material. If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Formulae and equations should be given separate numbering: Eq. (A.1), Eq. (A.2), etc.; in a subsequent section, Eq. (B.1) and so on.
Essential title page information
• Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
• Author names and affiliations. Please clearly indicate the given name(s) and family name(s) of each author and check that all names are accurately spelled. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
• Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that the e-mail address is given and that contact details are kept up to date by the corresponding author.
• Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.
A concise and factual abstract is required. The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results and major conclusions. An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. For this reason, References should be avoided, but if essential, then cite the author(s) and year(s). Also, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself.
Authors should supply a thumbnail image for all types of manuscripts. Articles accepted for publication will be featured via a copy of the article abstract together with a thumbnail image to direct people to the manuscript. An image that serves to illustrate the theme of the paper is desired. It can be a figure from the paper or a related image that typifies the content of the paper. Authors must supply the thumbnail image separately as an electronic file. The maximum final dimensions of the thumbnail image will be 5 cm x 5 cm. Please consider readability after reduction, especially if using one of the figures from the article itself.
Highlights are mandatory for this journal. They consist of a short collection of bullet points that convey the core findings of the article and should be submitted in a separate editable file in the online submission system. Please use 'Highlights' in the file name and include 3 to 5 bullet points (maximum 85 characters, including spaces, per bullet point). You can view example Highlights on our information site.
Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 6 keywords, using UK spelling and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, "and", "of"). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.
Avoid the use of abbreviations, but if necessary, authors should use the list (click here to see list) as a guide to those terms that need not be given in full, or define each abbreviation on first use.
Authors should provide confirmation of consent from persons acknowledged in manuscripts eg. personal communications. This can be provided in a covering letter or by e-mail to the editorial office.
List funding sources in this standard way to facilitate compliance to funder's requirements:
Funding: This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health [grant numbers xxxx, yyyy]; the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, WA [grant number zzzz]; and the United States Institutes of Peace [grant number aaaa].It is not necessary to include detailed descriptions on the program or type of grants and awards. When funding is from a block grant or other resources available to a university, college, or other research institution, submit the name of the institute or organization that provided the funding.
If no funding has been provided for the research, please include the following sentence:This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors. Math formulae
Please submit math equations as editable text and not as images. Present simple formulae in line with normal text where possible and use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line for small fractional terms, e.g., X/Y. In principle, variables are to be presented in italics. Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp. Number consecutively any equations that have to be displayed separately from the text (if referred to explicitly in the text). Artwork
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.
• Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
• Provide captions to illustrations separately.
• Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the published version.
• Submit each illustration as a separate file.
A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available.
You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format.
Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.
Please do not:
• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
• Supply files that are too low in resolution;
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.
Illustrations of all kinds should be listed together under ′ Legend to Figures′ numbered consecutively and their positions indicated in the text. Figures should be high quality, of an adequate size to ensure clarity, and letters and numbers should be at least 4 mm in height. Magnification should be indicated by inclusion of a scale bar in the figure and its value should be indicated on the figure or in the legend. Each figure should be obvious from its file name. If images have been altered, describe the nature of changes made and software used. This information should be included in the ′ Materials and methods′ section of the manuscript.
In general, figures will be printed and appear on electronic versions of papers in black and white. Where appropriate, colour figures can be provided on the electronic version, but black and white in the printed version. In this instance, authors are required to submit both colour and high quality black and white versions of figures. Authors should note that the figure legend will be the same in both versions. While there is no charge for colour in electronic versions, there generally is a fee for printed colour figures. Please contact the Editorial Office for the current policy.Illustration services
Elsevier's WebShop offers Illustration Services to authors preparing to submit a manuscript but concerned about the quality of the images accompanying their article. Elsevier's expert illustrators can produce scientific, technical and medical-style images, as well as a full range of charts, tables and graphs. Image 'polishing' is also available, where our illustrators take your image(s) and improve them to a professional standard. Please visit the website to find out more.
Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.
Please submit tables as editable text and not as images. Tables can be placed either next to the relevant text in the article, or on separate page(s) at the end. Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text and place any table notes below the table body. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in them do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article. Please avoid using vertical rules.
The references in the reference list should be in alphabetical order. References to journal articles should contain names and initials of all author(s), year of publication, article title, abbreviation of the name of the journal, volume number and page numbers.
Examples:Combes, C., 2001. Parasitism. The ecology and evolution of intimate interactions. University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London.
Kumar, N., Cha, G., Pineda, F., Maciel, J., Haddad, D., Bhattacharyya, M.K., Nagayasu, E., 2004. Molecular complexity of sexual development and gene regulation in Plasmodium falciparum. Int. J. Parasitol. 34, 1451-1458.
Sangster, N.C., Dobson, R.J., 2002. Anthelmintic resistance. In: Lee, D.L. (Ed.), The biology of nematodes. Taylor and Francis, London and New York, pp. 531-567.Citation in text
Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.
As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references to published articles can be included in the reference list. Other web references such as software programs, databases and individual web pages, should have the reference details included at the appropriate place within the text.
Please ensure that the words 'this issue' are added to any references in the list (and any citations in the text) to other articles in the same Special Issue.
Reference management software
Most Elsevier journals have their reference template available in many of the most popular reference management software products. These include all products that support Citation Style Language styles, such as Mendeley and Zotero, as well as EndNote. Using the word processor plug-ins from these products, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article, after which citations and bibliographies will be automatically formatted in the journal's style. If no template is yet available for this journal, please follow the format of the sample references and citations as shown in this Guide.
Users of Mendeley Desktop can easily install the reference style for this journal by clicking the following link:
When preparing your manuscript, you will then be able to select this style using the Mendeley plug-ins for Microsoft Word or LibreOffice.
Journal names should be abbreviated according to the NLM catalogue: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/tsd/serials/lji.html.
Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the files in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 150 MB. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect. Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages. Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.
For non-integrated supplementary files, a footnote should be typed on the title page of the manuscript: ′ Note: Supplementary data associated with this article′ . A copy of supplementary material should be submitted at the same time as the manuscript. Preferred formats are Microsoft Office for text or graphics and avi for movie files. Maximum size of files is 10 MB. If files cannot be reduced to 10MB, authors should contact the IJP Editorial Office (editor@IJP.org.au)
This journal supports Open data, enabling authors to submit any raw (unprocessed) research data with their article for open access publication under the CC BY license. More information.
Elsevier encourages authors to connect articles with external databases, giving readers access to relevant databases that help to build a better understanding of the described research. Please refer to relevant database identifiers using the following format in your article: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN). More information and a full list of supported databases.
The journal encourages authors to create an AudioSlides presentation with their published article. AudioSlides are brief, webinar-style presentations that are shown next to the online article on ScienceDirect. This gives authors the opportunity to summarize their research in their own words and to help readers understand what the paper is about. More information and examples are available. Authors of this journal will automatically receive an invitation e-mail to create an AudioSlides presentation after acceptance of their paper.
KML (Keyhole Markup Language) files (optional): You can enrich your online articles by providing KML or KMZ files which will be visualized using Google maps. The KML or KMZ files can be uploaded in our online submission system. KML is an XML schema for expressing geographic annotation and visualization within Internet-based Earth browsers. Elsevier will generate Google Maps from the submitted KML files and include these in the article when published online. Submitted KML files will also be available for downloading from your online article on ScienceDirect. More information.
This journal enables you to show an Interactive Plot with your article by simply submitting a data file. Full instructions.
The journal encourages authors to supplement in-article microscopic images with corresponding high resolution versions for use with the Virtual Microscope viewer. The Virtual Microscope is a web based viewer that enables users to view microscopic images at the highest level of detail and provides features such as zoom and pan. This feature for the first time gives authors the opportunity to share true high resolution microscopic images with their readers. More information and examples. Authors of this journal will receive an invitation e-mail to create microscope images for use with the Virtual Microscope when their manuscript is first reviewed. If you opt to use the feature, please contact email@example.com for instructions on how to prepare and upload the required high resolution images. Proofs
One set of page proofs (as PDF files) will be sent by e-mail to the corresponding author (if we do not have an e-mail address then paper proofs will be sent by post) or, a link will be provided in the e-mail so that authors can download the files themselves. Elsevier now provides authors with PDF proofs which can be annotated; for this you will need to download the free Adobe Reader, version 9 (or higher). Instructions on how to annotate PDF files will accompany the proofs (also given online). The exact system requirements are given at the Adobe site.
If you do not wish to use the PDF annotations function, you may list the corrections (including replies to the Query Form) and return them to Elsevier in an e-mail. Please list your corrections quoting line number. If, for any reason, this is not possible, then mark the corrections and any other comments (including replies to the Query Form) on a printout of your proof and scan the pages and return via e-mail. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication: please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.
The corresponding author will, at no cost, receive a customized Share Link providing 50 days free access to the final published version of the article on ScienceDirect. The Share Link can be used for sharing the article via any communication channel, including email and social media. For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's Webshop. Corresponding authors who have published their article open access do not receive a Share Link as their final published version of the article is available open access on ScienceDirect and can be shared through the article DOI link.
Submission of sequence data to databases
Novel nucleotide or protein sequence data must be deposited in the GenBank™ , EMBL or DDBJ databases and an accession number obtained before the paper can be accepted for publication. Submission to any one of the collaborating databanks is sufficient to ensure entry in all. The accession number should be included as a footnote on the title page of the manuscript: 'Note: Nucleotide sequence data reported in this paper are available in the GenBank™ , EMBL and DDBJ databases under the accession number(s)'. If requested the database will withhold release of data until publication. The usual method for submitting sequence data is by the World Wide Web to either GenBank (via BankIt: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/BankIt/), EMBL (via WebIn: http://www.ebi.ac.uk/subs/allsubs.html) or to DDBJ (via SAKURA: http://sakura.ddbj.nig.ac.jp/). Special types of submissions, such as genomes, bulk submissions, segmented sets, and population/phylogenetic/mutation studies, can be more easily prepared with the Sequin programme (available from the above Web sites). Authors are encouraged by the databases to update their entries as the need arises.
Example: ′ GenBank accession nos. AI631510, AI631511, AI632198, and BF223228), a B-cell tumor from a chronic lymphatic leukemia (GenBank accession no. BE675048), and a T-cell lymphoma (GenBank accession no. AA361117)′ .
Policy on bioinformatics papers. In silico analysis: The following guidelines apply to papers that exclusively use in silico analysis or rely heavily on this approach for analysis and conclusions. Such papers should address a significant biological issue or issues. Bioinformatic data should be supported by novel or published biological data. Work would typically use information from a number of databases and even from a number of parasite or host species and use a number of analytical methods. Types of ′ metaanalysis′ are encouraged either across a wide range of parasites or, say, at a number of points in a metabolic or signalling pathway or an immune cascade. In silico analysis may be especially suitable for review articles.
Guidelines for the reporting of protein identifications using mass spectrometry: The following information should be provided for protein or peptide identifications using mass spectrometry:
2. The program, and version number, of the program used for database searching. Parameters used for searching should be specified, including, but not limited to, precursor-ion mass tolerance, fragment-ion mass tolerance, modifications allowed for, missed cleavages and enzymes used in protein cleavage.
3. The name and version number of the sequence database used in searches. If a custom-made database is used then complete information on the origin of the sequences and database size should be disclosed. Given the dependence of scoring on database size, the use of a small database, or one excluding contaminants, should be justified. 4. A short description of the methods use to interpret the significance of search results, including any statistical analysis, confidence thresholds and other values specific to judging the certainty of the identification.
5. For large-scale experiments a false-positive determination should be reported. This may be the result of randomized database searches or other approaches.
6. Each protein identification should include the accession number, score generated by the search algorithm used, sequence coverage and the number of unique peptide sequences assigned in the protein identification.
7. Single peptide identifications should include an annotated MS/MS spectrum showing fragment assignments together with the peptide sequence, precursor mass, charge and error.
8. Identifications arising from peptide mass fingerprinting should include an annotated mass spectrum. The number of matched peaks, the number of unmatched peaks and the sequence coverage should also be reported along with all parameters and thresholds used to analyse the data. This includes mass accuracy, resolution, calibration methods, contaminant exclusions along with the scoring scheme used and measure of the false-positive rate.
Taxonomic publications. Taxonomic papers are considered only if they are of broad interest, going beyond purely morphological descriptions which are best suited to specialist journals. Examples of contributions of broader interest include description of new taxa which do not fit within accepted classifications, analyses which are of phylogenetic or biogeographic significance employing a range of analysis techniques or which include information on host-parasite relationships or deleterious effects on the host. Presentations which include description of new species should conform to a prescribed pattern as follows: where the new species name is written for the first time, ′ n.sp′ should succeed it. The name should be followed by: (1) a description, in telegraphic style, i.e. without articles and verbs, of the specific characters; accompanied by illustrations depicting the main differentiating characters; (2) a diagnosis, emphasising the characters of the new species or genus; (3) the details of type material, (host, location in host, geographic locality, collector, place of deposition and registration). Synopses (a brief summary of a small taxonomic group of parasites) and checklists (a list of parasites from particular hosts in particular localities) are acceptable, provided species named are critically evaluated, identifications are sound and the results are of broad scientific interest. Authors byshould comply with the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature.
Ecological Papers. Specimens upon which new host or locality records are based must be deposited in a museum or recognised collection to be available for further study and registration numbers must be cited.
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