Guide for Authors

All journal information and instructions compiled in one document (PDF) in just one mouse-click Author information pack

INTRODUCTION
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
• Ethics in publishing
• Human and animal rights
• Submission declaration
• Authorship
• Changes to authorship
• Copyright
• Open access
• Preparation of the Manuscript
• Keywords
• Artwork
• References
• Use of the Digital Object Identifier
• AudioSlides
AFTER ACCEPTANCE
• Proofs
• Offprints
AUTHOR INQUIRIES



International Emergency Nursing is a peer-reviewed journal devoted to nurses and other professionals involved in emergency care. It aims to promote excellence through dissemination of high quality research findings, specialist knowledge and discussion of professional issues that reflect the diversity of this field. With an international readership and authorship, it provides a platform for practitioners worldwide to communicate and enhance the evidence-base of emergency care. The journal publishes a broad range of papers, from personal reflection to primary research findings, created by first-time through to reputable authors from a number of disciples. It brings together research from practice, education, theory, and operational management, relevant to all levels of staff working in emergency care settings worldwide.

Page charges
This journal has no page charges.

Ethics in publishing

Please see our information pages on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication.

Human and animal rights

If the work involves the use of human subjects, the author should ensure that the work described has been carried out in accordance with The Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association (Declaration of Helsinki) for experiments involving humans; Uniform Requirements for manuscripts submitted to Biomedical journals. Authors should include a statement in the manuscript that informed consent was obtained for experimentation with human subjects. The privacy rights of human subjects must always be observed.

All animal experiments should comply with the ARRIVE guidelines and should be carried out in accordance with the U.K. Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act, 1986 and associated guidelines, EU Directive 2010/63/EU for animal experiments, or the National Institutes of Health guide for the care and use of Laboratory animals (NIH Publications No. 8023, revised 1978) and the authors should clearly indicate in the manuscript that such guidelines have been followed.

Declaration of interest
All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding.
Authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work on their Title page. If there is no Conflict of Interest a statement stating “None declared” must be uploaded.

Submission declaration

Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' section of our ethics policy for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere including electronically in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the copyright-holder.

Authorship

All authors should have made substantial contributions to all of the following: (1) the conception and design of the study, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data, (2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content, (3) final approval of the version to be submitted.

Changes to authorship

Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the journal Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed.
Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted. While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the Editor will result in a corrigendum.

Article transfer service
This journal is part of our Article Transfer Service. This means that if the Editor feels your article is more suitable in one of our other participating journals, then you may be asked to consider transferring the article to one of those. If you agree, your article will be transferred automatically on your behalf with no need to reformat. Please note that your article will be reviewed again by the new journal. More information.

Copyright

Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (see more information on this). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.

Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations. If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases.

For open access articles: Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an 'Exclusive License Agreement' (more information). Permitted third party reuse of open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license.

Author rights
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. More information.

Elsevier supports responsible sharing
Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.

Role of the funding source
You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.This disclosure should be included on the Title Page.

Funding body agreements and policies
Elsevier has established a number of agreements with funding bodies which allow authors to comply with their funder's open access policies. Some funding bodies will reimburse the author for the Open Access Publication Fee. Details of existing agreements are available online.
After acceptance, open access papers will be published under a noncommercial license. For authors requiring a commercial CC BY license, you can apply after your manuscript is accepted for publication.

Open access

This journal offers authors a choice in publishing their research:

Open access
• Articles are freely available to both subscribers and the wider public with permitted reuse.
• An open access publication fee is payable by authors or on their behalf, e.g. by their research funder or institution.
Subscription
• Articles are made available to subscribers as well as developing countries and patient groups through our universal access programs.
• No open access publication fee payable by authors.

Regardless of how you choose to publish your article, the journal will apply the same peer review criteria and acceptance standards.

For open access articles, permitted third party (re)use is defined by the following Creative Commons user licenses:

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND)
For non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.

The open access publication fee for this journal is USD 2500, excluding taxes. Learn more about Elsevier's pricing policy: http://www.elsevier.com/openaccesspricing.

Green open access
Authors can share their research in a variety of different ways and Elsevier has a number of green open access options available. We recommend authors see our green open access page for further information. Authors can also self-archive their manuscripts immediately and enable public access from their institution's repository after an embargo period. This is the version that has been accepted for publication and which typically includes author-incorporated changes suggested during submission, peer review and in editor-author communications. Embargo period: For subscription articles, an appropriate amount of time is needed for journals to deliver value to subscribing customers before an article becomes freely available to the public. This is the embargo period and it begins from the date the article is formally published online in its final and fully citable form. Find out more.

This journal has an embargo period of 12 months.

Elsevier Publishing Campus
The Elsevier Publishing Campus (www.publishingcampus.com) is an online platform offering free lectures, interactive training and professional advice to support you in publishing your research. The College of Skills training offers modules on how to prepare, write and structure your article and explains how editors will look at your paper when it is submitted for publication. Use these resources, and more, to ensure that your submission will be the best that you can make it.

Language (usage and editing services)
Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop.

REVIEW POLICY

All original contributions and reports will be submitted to double-blind peer review. As an editorial team, we are committed to providing objective, rigorous and fair feedback. Comments made by referees will be provided to all authors.

Submission
Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files (e.g., Word, LaTeX) are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.

When submitting a paper for the pre-hospital section authors will be asked to select the option during the submission process. Authors are first asked to identify the type of paper they are submitting (ie. Review Article, Full Length Article…) before being asked to confirm whether it is to be considered for the pre-hospital section.

Submit your article
Please submit your article via https://www.evise.com/evise/jrnl/YAAEN.

Your article (written in English) should be typed on A4 format, double-spaced with margins of at least 3cm.  To facilitate the review process line numbering is required in the left margin of the manuscript. (Line numbering can be added from the Page Setup or Format menu of word processing programs.) The line numbering should be continuous throughout the entire manuscript.

Types of contributions
International Emergency Nursing publishes Original Research articles, Reviews, Case Studies and Contemporary Issues. In addition we publish Editorials and Letters.

Research Papers - 2,500-5,000 words The word count includes abstract and references.

Reviews - 2,500-5,000 words

  • Reviews, including:

- systematic reviews, which address focussed practice questions;
- literature reviews (scoping reviews, narrative reviews), which provide a thorough analysis of the literature on a broad topic;
- policy reviews, i.e. reviews of published literature and policy documents which inform nursing practice, the organisation of nursing services, or the education and preparation of nurses and/or midwives).

The word count includes abstract and references.

Case Studies - up to 2,500 words
Case Studies usually document the management of one patient, with an emphasis on presentations that include care given in an emergency setting and involving emergency nurses and/or nurse practitioners. Other features that will be of interest to the reader include cases:

  1. that are unusual, rare or where there was an unexpected response to treatment and/or
  2. where new diagnostic tools were used and/or
  3. that inform readers of new treatment and management options, including relevance to emergency care practice.

Case Studies should be written in a similar format to include the following:
Initial patient presentation
Relevant history
Relevant physical exam findings
Relevant diagnostics
Case progression
Final case outcome
Discussion/Teaching points
References

Please note for Case Studies it is suggested that authors utilise the checklist from the CARE reporting guideline when writing their paper. Although not a requirement, it is strongly recommended that the completed CARE checklist be submitted to the Editor along with the Case Study. The checklists for each reporting guideline, including CARE, can be found on the EQUATOR website

Graphics that will enhance the case study are encouraged (e.g. photos, diagrams, diagnostics)

Authors must receive, and submit, the appropriate permission from the source(s) to use such images in the final publication. Information or graphics that uniquely identify the patient may only be included if written permission is received from the patient for publication in IENJ.

Elsevier will not reimburse the author for any costs incurred for permission to use a graphic for publication in IENJ.

Contemporary Issues - 1,500-2,000 words
Authors should select "Feature Article" at submission stage when submitting a Contemporary Issue.
Papers that discuss contemporary issues within emergency care, and stimulate debate, are welcomed. Authors who have ideas which address issues of substantive interest to the field, including those of a controversial nature, should consider submitting a Contemporary Issue piece. The issues must be current and, although they can be of national agenda, they must have international implications or be of relevance to an international audience. Contemporary Issues should be in editorial format, with no abstract, but with keywords and up to 8 references (following the style as outlined in this Guide). Contemporary Issues should be submitted online in the usual way for the journal.

Letters to the Editor (up to 1,000 words)
As is common in journals the Editorial Board welcomes critical responses to any aspect of the journal. In particular, letters that point out deficiencies and that add to, or further clarify points made in a recently published work, are welcomed. The Editorial Board reserves the right to offer authors of papers the right of rebuttal, which may be published alongside the letter.

Editorials - 1,000-2,000 words
Authors who have ideas for editorials which address issues of substantive concern to the discipline, particularly those of a controversial nature or linked directly to current/forthcoming content in the journal, should contact the Editor in Chief (ienj@elsevier.com)

Preparation of the Manuscript

A structured abstract, of your manuscript, by means of appropriate headings, should provide the context or background for the research and should state its purpose, basic procedures (selection of study subjects or laboratory animals, observational and analytical methods), main findings (giving specific effect sizes and their statistical significance, if possible), and principal conclusions. It should emphasize new and important aspects of the study or observations.

The sub-headings used in the Abstract should align to sub-headings used within the article.

The abstract should be a maximum of 200 words and should be provided on a separate sheet following the title page.

Highlights
Highlights are mandatory for this journal. They consist of a short collection of bullet points that convey the core findings of the article and should be submitted in a separate editable file in the online submission system. Please use 'Highlights' in the file name and include 3 to 5 bullet points (maximum 85 characters, including spaces, per bullet point). You can view example Highlights on our information site.

Keywords

Include six or ten keywords. These are to increase the likely accessibility of your paper to potential readers searching the literature. Use the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH(r)) thesaurus or Cumulative Indexto Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL) headings where possible (see http://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/meshhome.html).

Considerations specific to types of research designs
The editors require that manuscripts adhere to recognized reporting guidelines relevant to the research design used. These identify matters that should be addressed in your paper. These are not quality assessment frameworks and your study need not meet all the criteria implied in the reporting guideline to be worthy of publication in the journal. The checklists identify essential matters that should be considered and reported upon. For example, a controlled trial may or may not be blinded but it is important that the paper identifies whether or not participants, clinicians and outcome assessors were aware of treatment assignments.

You are encouraged (although not required) to submit a checklist from the appropriate reporting guideline together with your paper as a guide to the editors and reviewers of your paper. If you submit a Reporting Guideline Checklist this should be uploaded as a "Checklist" file during the submission process.

Reporting guidelines endorsed by the journal are listed below:

Observational cohort, case control and cross sectional studies - STROBE - Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology http://www.equator-network.org/index.aspx?o=1032

Quasi-experimental/non-randomised evaluations - TREND - Transparent Reporting of Evaluations with Non-randomized Designs http://www.equator-network.org/index.aspx?o=1032

Randomised (and quasi-randomised) controlled trial - CONSORT - Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials http://www.equator-network.org/index.aspx?o=1032

Study of Diagnostic accuracy/assessment scale - STARD - Standards for the Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies http://www.equator-network.org/index.aspx?o=1032

Systematic Review of Controlled Trials - PRISMA - Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses http://www.equator-network.org/index.aspx?o=1032

Systematic Review of Observational Studies - MOOSE - Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology http://www.equator-network.org/index.aspx?o=1032

Qualitative researchers might wish to consult the guideline listed below:

Qualitative studies - COREQ - Consolidated criteria for reporting qualitative research. Tong, A., Sainsbury, P., Craig, J., 2007. Consolidated criteria for reporting qualitative research (COREQ): a 32-item checklist for interviews and focus groups.International Journal for Quality in Health Care 19 (6), 349-357.http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/intghc/mzm042

Guidance on the submission of Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Guidelines

All reviews submitted MUST include a PRISMA flow chart and have followed the PRISMA guidelines. These can be accessed via: http://www.prisma-statement.org

PRISMA stands for Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. It is an evidence-based minimum set of items for reporting in systematic reviews and meta-analyses. The aim of the PRISMA Statement is to help authors improve the reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. We have focused on randomized trials, but PRISMA can also be used as a basis for reporting systematic reviews of other types of research, particularly evaluations of interventions. PRISMA may also be useful for critical appraisal of published systematic reviews, although it is not a quality assessment instrument to gauge the quality of a systematic review.

How it is used and presented can be downloaded from several publications: http://www.prisma-statement.org/usage.htm

Please note that papers will not be accepted for review unless the use of PRISMA guidelines and checklist are evident in the manuscript.

Headings: The content of your paper should determine the headings which you use. If yours is a research paper the headings should follow the usual layout; such as: Introduction, Background/Literature, Methods, Data/Results, Discussion, Conclusions. If your paper takes another form you should use the appropriate headings, but do bear in mind that headings should facilitate reading and understanding. You should use only two kinds of headings: major headings should be indicated by underlined capital letters in the centre of the page, whereas minor headings should be underlined, have lower case letters (beginning with a capital) and begin at the left hand margin.

Acknowledgements

All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship as defined above should be listed in a statement on the title page.Examples of those who might be acknowledged include a person who provided purely technical help, writing assistance, or a department chair who provided only general support. Authors should disclose whether they had any writing assistance and identify the entity that paid for this assistance. Acknowledgements should be disclosed on the Title page for original submissions and transferred to the manuscript file for revisions.

Formatting of funding sources
List funding sources in this standard way to facilitate compliance to funder's requirements:

Funding: This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health [grant numbers xxxx, yyyy]; the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, WA [grant number zzzz]; and the United States Institutes of Peace [grant number aaaa].

It is not necessary to include detailed descriptions on the program or type of grants and awards. When funding is from a block grant or other resources available to a university, college, or other research institution, submit the name of the institute or organization that provided the funding.

If no funding has been provided for the research, please include the following sentence:

This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

A separate title page file is required which contains all author details. For Review and Research papers the title page should also include the following declarations: (1) Conflict of Interest, (2) Ethical Statement, (3) Funding Source in the order given here. Clinical Trials Registry and Registration number and any Acknowledgments can be stated under 4th and 5th headings if applicable. Where no information is available, the headings (1)-(3) should still be used with "None", or "Not applicable" used.For revised manuscripts these headings should be transferred to the manuscript file in order that they will be published, should the article be accepted for publication.

Artwork

Electronic artwork
General points
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.
• Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
• Provide captions to illustrations separately.
• Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the published version.
• Submit each illustration as a separate file.
A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available.
You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
Formats
If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format.
Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.
Please do not:
• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
• Supply files that are too low in resolution;
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

References

Responsibility for the accuracy of bibliographic citations lies entirely with the authors.

Citations in the text: Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Avoid using references in the abstract. Avoid citation of personal communications or unpublished material. Citations to material "in press" is acceptable and implies that the item has been accepted for publication.. Citation of material currently under consideration elsewhere (e.g. "under review" or "submitted") is not.

Text: All citations in the text should refer to: 1. Single author: the author's name (without initials, unless there is ambiguity) and the year of publication; 2. Two authors: both authors' names and the year of publication; 3. Three or more authors: first author's name followed by "et al." and the year of publication.

Citations may be made directly (or parenthetically). Groups of references should be listed first alphabetically, then chronologically. Examples: "...as demonstrated (Allan, 2000a, 2000b, 1999; Allan and Jones, 1999). Kramer et al. (2010) have recently shown..."

List: References should be arranged first alphabetically and then further sorted chronologically if necessary. More than one reference from the same author(s) in the same year must be identified by the letters "a", "b", "c", etc., placed after the year of publication.

Examples: Reference to a journal publication: Grant, K., Crouch, R. Who should nurse children requiring emergency care? International Emergency Nursing. 2011; 19:209-11.

Reference to a book: Wright, B. Sudden Death: Intervention Skills for the Caring Professions. London: Churchill Livingston, 1991.

Reference to a chapter in an edited book: Mettam, G.R., Adams, L.B., 2009. How to prepare an electronic version of your article, in: Jones, B.S., Smith, R.Z. (Eds.)

Web references: As a minimum, the page name, full URL and date of access should be given. Any further information, if known (author names, dates, etc.), should also be given. Where there is no named author, authorship may be attributed to the organisation producing the site, (if appropriate). Where journal articles have been accessed online a full bibliographic reference to the publication should be given in the style illustrated above although a doi or web address may be added.

Royal College of Nursing (2012) New RCN initiative to shape nursing's future. http://www.rcn.org.uk/newsevents/news/article/uk/new_rcn_initiative_to_shape_nursings_future accessed 5/12/2012

Data references
This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in your published article.

Reference management software
Most Elsevier journals have their reference template available in many of the most popular reference management software products. These include all products that support Citation Style Language styles, such as Mendeley and Zotero, as well as EndNote. Using the word processor plug-ins from these products, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article, after which citations and bibliographies will be automatically formatted in the journal's style. If no template is yet available for this journal, please follow the format of the sample references and citations as shown in this Guide.

Users of Mendeley Desktop can easily install the reference style for this journal by clicking the following link:
http://open.mendeley.com/use-citation-style/international-emergency-nursing
When preparing your manuscript, you will then be able to select this style using the Mendeley plug-ins for Microsoft Word or LibreOffice.

The Editors of International Emergency Nursing would like to alert authors to the new reference style below – “Vancouver non-superscript numbered”.

Reference style
Text: Indicate references by number(s) in square brackets in line with the text. The actual authors can be referred to, but the reference number(s) must always be given.
List: Number the references (numbers in square brackets) in the list in the order in which they appear in the text.
Examples:
Reference to a journal publication:
[1] Van der Geer J, Hanraads JAJ, Lupton RA. The art of writing a scientific article. J Sci Commun 2010;163:51–9.
Reference to a book:
[2] Strunk Jr W, White EB. The elements of style. 4th ed. New York: Longman; 2000.
Reference to a chapter in an edited book:
[3] Mettam GR, Adams LB. How to prepare an electronic version of your article. In: Jones BS, Smith RZ, editors. Introduction to the electronic age, New York: E-Publishing Inc; 2009, p. 281–304.
Reference to a website:
[4] Cancer Research UK. Cancer statistics reports for the UK, http://www.cancerresearchuk.org/aboutcancer/statistics/cancerstatsreport/; 2003 [accessed 13.03.03].
Reference to a dataset:
[dataset] [5] Oguro M, Imahiro S, Saito S, Nakashizuka T. Mortality data for Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions, Mendeley Data, v1; 2015. http://dx.doi.org/10.17632/xwj98nb39r.1.
Note shortened form for last page number. e.g., 51–9, and that for more than 6 authors the first 6 should be listed followed by 'et al.' For further details you are referred to 'Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts submitted to Biomedical Journals' (J Am Med Assoc 1997;277:927–34) (see also Samples of Formatted References).

Use of the Digital Object Identifier

The Digital Object Identifier (DOI) may be used to cite and link to electronic documents. The DOI consists of a unique alpha-numeric character string which is assigned to a document by the publisher upon the initial electronic publication. The assigned DOI never changes. Therefore, it is an ideal medium for citing a document, particularly 'Articles in press' because they have not yet received their full bibliographic information. Example of a correctly given DOI (in URL format; here an article in the journal Physics Letters B): http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physletb.2010.09.059

When you use a DOI to create links to documents on the web, the DOIs are guaranteed never to change.

Supplementary data-supplementary data can be uploaded at e-component files during the end of the submission process.

Elsevier now accepts electronic supplementary material (e-components) to support and enhance your scientific research. Supplementary files offer the Author additional possibilities to publish supporting applications, movies, animation sequences, high-resolution images, background datasets, sound clips and more. Supplementary files supplied will be published online alongside the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: http://www.sciencedirect.com. In order to ensure that your submitted material is directly usable, please ensure that data is provided in one of our recommended file formats. Authors should submit the material in electronic format together with the article and supply a concise and descriptive caption for each file. For more detailed instructions please visit our artwork instruction pages at: http://www.elsevier.com/authors.

Revised Submission
Submission of a revised article implies that all authors are confirming that they have been involved with, and have agreed to, any revisions made.

At revision stage the following documentation is required:

  • a separate "Response to Reviewers" file - Responses to the reviewers' and editors' comments in a table format that shows the original comments and the responses made.
  • a revised blinded manuscript with changes clearly highlighted in yellow/or using alternative coloured text to the rest of the article
  • a "clean", blinded version of the revised manuscript without any highlights or comments.

Revised submissions should be accompanied by the table file which responds, point by point, to the reviewers' and editors' comments, and changes to the revised paper should be highlighted so they can be spotted easily by the editors and reviewers during further review. A "clean" copy of the manuscript without any identifying information or highlights should also be submitted. Any revisions missing any of the above elements/files may be returned to authors.

AudioSlides

The journal encourages authors to create an AudioSlides presentation with their published article. AudioSlides are brief, webinar-style presentations that are shown next to the online article on ScienceDirect. This gives authors the opportunity to summarize their research in their own words and to help readers understand what the paper is about. More information and examples are available. Authors of this journal will automatically receive an invitation e-mail to create an AudioSlides presentation after acceptance of their paper.

The following list will be useful during the final checking of an article prior to sending it to the journal for review. Please consult this Guide for Authors for further details of any item.
Ensure that the following items are present:
One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
• E-mail address
• Full postal address
All necessary files have been uploaded, and contain:
• Keywords
• All figure captions
• All tables (including title, description, footnotes)
Further considerations
• Manuscript has been 'spell-checked' and 'grammar-checked'
• References are complete
• All references mentioned in the Reference list are cited in the text, and vice versa
• Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Internet)
Printed version of figures (if applicable) in color or black-and-white
• Indicate clearly whether or not color or black-and-white in print is required.
For any further information please visit our Support Center.

PERMISSIONS TO REPRODUCE BORROWED MATERIAL: Written permission to reproduce borrowed material (illustrations, tables and identifiable clinical photographs) must be obtained from the original publishers and authors, and submitted with the typescript. Borrowed material should be acknowledged in the caption in this style: Reproduced by kind permission of ... (publishers) ... from ... (reference).

Proofs

One set of page proofs (as PDF files) will be sent by e-mail to the corresponding author (if we do not have an e-mail address then paper proofs will be sent by post) or, a link will be provided in the e-mail so that authors can download the files themselves. Elsevier now provides authors with PDF proofs which can be annotated; for this you will need to download the free Adobe Reader, version 9 (or higher). Instructions on how to annotate PDF files will accompany the proofs (also given online). The exact system requirements are given at the Adobe site.
If you do not wish to use the PDF annotations function, you may list the corrections (including replies to the Query Form) and return them to Elsevier in an e-mail. Please list your corrections quoting line number. If, for any reason, this is not possible, then mark the corrections and any other comments (including replies to the Query Form) on a printout of your proof and scan the pages and return via e-mail. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication: please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.

Offprints

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