The Hong Kong Journal of Occupational Therapy (HKJOT) is the official peer-reviewed, open access, publication of the Hong Kong Occupational Therapy Association, and is indexed in SCIE, CINAHL, EMBASE, ScienceDirect, Scopus and SIIC Data Bases. Its aims are to promote the development of theory and practice in occupational therapy, and to facilitate documentation and communication among educators, researchers and practitioners in the field. The journal also works to advance availability, use, support and excellence of occupational therapy on behalf of the Association to the public, and maintain professional standards to promote better understanding of occupational therapy.
Articles on clinical or laboratory investigations of relevance to occupational therapy and other related fields that are of interest to educators, researchers and practitioners are eligible for consideration. The journal is published twice a year, in June and December, by Elsevier.
The HKJOT wishes to maintain the highest standards appropriate to a scientific journal. Work submitted for consideration must be original, ethically sound, important and leading to an impact on the occupational therapy profession, conflicts of interest are declared, financial and grant support are listed, and the work complies with the standards described in this Guide for Authors. In addition, authors are required to be in compliance with the Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals, which are compiled by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE), and which are available at www.icmje.org.Types of article
The journal accepts systematic reviews or meta-analyses of new and updated assessments and interventions in occupational therapy. These should aim to provide the reader with a balanced overview of an important and topical subject in the field, and should be systematic, critical assessments of literature and data sources. They should cover aspects of a topic in which scientific consensus exists as well as aspects that remain controversial and are the subject of ongoing scientific research. All articles and data sources should be selected systematically for inclusion in the review and critically evaluated.
Typical length: not more than 4500 words (including abstract), and not more than 50 references.
The journal welcomes studies about occupational therapy instrument development and testing, surveillances of occupational dysfunction, occupational therapy student and graduate opinion surveys, efficacy and effectiveness of occupational therapy interventions in the form of preliminary single group studies to multicentre randomized controlled trials, as well as basic science research.
In general, section headings should be: Abstract, Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgements (if any), References. (Your Funding/Support Statement and Conflicts of Interest Statement should be on the Title Page.)
The Introduction should provide a brief background to the subject of the paper, explain the importance of the study, and state a precise study question or purpose.
The Methods section should describe the study design and methods (including the study setting and dates, patient samples or animal specimens used, with inclusion and exclusion criteria, the laboratory methods followed, or data sources and how these were selected for the study, the essential features of any interventions, the main outcome measures), and state the statistical procedures employed in the research.
The Results section should comprise the study results presented in a logical sequence, supplemented with tables and/or figures. Take care that the text does not repeat data that are presented in the tables and/or figures.
The Discussion section should be used to emphasize the new and important aspects of the study, placing the results in context with published literature, the implications of the findings, and the conclusions that follow from the study results.
Typical length: not more than 4000 words (including abstract), and not more than 40 references. There should be no more than 6 tables or figures.
The journal accepts creative designs of assistive devices to innovative and new treatments of rare dysfunctions with detailed documentation in the form of a clinical note, as well as short discussions of a case or case series in clinical practice with unique features not previously described that make an important teaching point or scientific observation.
In general, section headings should be: Abstract, Introduction, Case Report, Discussion, Acknowledgements (if any), References. (Your Funding/Support Statement and Conflicts of Interest Statement should be on the Title Page.)
The Introduction should describe the purpose of the report, the significance of the condition and its specificity, and briefly review the relevant literature.
The Case Report should, in the case of devices, describe the specifications, mechanical or technological aspects and evaluation of the device(s) used in assessment, treatment, management or education, or, in the case of a typical case report, include the general data of the case, medical history, family history, chief complaint, present illness, clinical manifestation, methods of diagnosis and treatment, and outcome.
The Discussion should compare, analyze and discuss the similarities and differences between the reported device or case and existing devices or similar previously reported cases. The importance or specificity of the case should be restated when discussing the differential diagnoses. Suggest the prognosis and possibility of prevention.
Typical length: 800–1200 words, 15–30 references.
The journal welcomes Discussion papers that comment on contemporary professional and research issues in occupational therapy, new concepts, theories and models of occupational therapy frameworks, and cultural dialogue on the applications of occupational therapy particularly in the Asian context. Papers in this category may also include discussions of professional, political, ethical or social issues that impact clients' welfare, and the role and practice of occupational therapy in Hong Kong, Mainland China and other countries in Asia-Pacific. The journal also accepts brief discussions focusing on 1 or 2 key points about a single study—strengths, weaknesses, controversies, how it should or should not change clinical practice, or how it illustrates some important principle of science or methodology. These are usually written by editors or reviewers involved in the evaluation of a submitted manuscript, and published concurrently with that manuscript.
Typical length: 2000–2500 words, 20–40 references.
These include brief constructive comments concerning previously published articles in the HKJOT, interesting cases that do not meet the requirement of being truly exceptional, short letters on significant preliminary clinical data and other communications of general interest.
Correspondence should have a title and include appropriate references, and include the corresponding author's e-mail address. Correspondence are edited, sometimes extensively, to sharpen their focus. They may be sent for peer review at the discretion of the Editor.
Typical length: 300–600 words, 5 references; 1 table and/or 1 figure may be included.
These are written by invited reviewers of newly published books in the field.
Contact details for submission
Manuscripts (meaning all submission items, including all text, tables, artwork, cover letter, conflicts of interest disclosures, and any other required documents/material) must be submitted online to the HKJOT through the Elsevier EVISE site. This site will guide authors stepwise through the submission process. If assistance is required, please refer to the tutorials and/or customer support that are available on the EVISE site; you may also contact the Editorial Office. Please do not post, fax or e-mail your manuscripts to the Editorial Office.
Dr. Kenneth N.K. Fong
Hong Kong Journal of Occupational Therapy
c/o Department of Rehabilitation Sciences
The Hong Kong Polytechnic University
Hunghom, Hong Kong SAR
Tel: (+852) 2766-6716
Fax: (+852) 2764-1435
Official website: www.hkjot-online.com
While colour figures will be reproduced on the journal's Website in colour free of charge, authors will be charged US$400 (HK$3120) per page that has colour figures in the print journal to cover the cost of printing in colour. Authors must inform the HKJOT upon manuscript acceptance if they intend to keep any colour figures for publication in the print journal, otherwise all colour figures will be converted to greyscale as default.
If the work involves the use of human subjects, the author should ensure that the work described has been carried out in accordance with The Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association (Declaration of Helsinki) for experiments involving humans; Uniform Requirements for manuscripts submitted to Biomedical journals. Authors should include a statement in the manuscript that informed consent was obtained for experimentation with human subjects. The privacy rights of human subjects must always be observed.
All animal experiments should comply with the ARRIVE guidelines and should be carried out in accordance with the U.K. Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act, 1986 and associated guidelines, EU Directive 2010/63/EU for animal experiments, or the National Institutes of Health guide for the care and use of Laboratory animals (NIH Publications No. 8023, revised 1978) and the authors should clearly indicate in the manuscript that such guidelines have been followed.Declaration of interest
All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. If there are no conflicts of interest then please state this: 'Conflicts of interest: none'. More information.
Submission declaration and verification
Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' section of our ethics policy for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service CrossCheck.
All authors should have made substantial contributions to all of the following: (1) the conception and design of the study, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data, (2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content, (3) final approval of the version to be submitted.
Changes to authorship
Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the journal Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed.
Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted. While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the Editor will result in a corrigendum.
In line with the position of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, the journal will not consider results posted in the same clinical trials registry in which primary registration resides to be prior publication if the results posted are presented in the form of a brief structured (less than 500 words) abstract or table. However, divulging results in other circumstances (e.g., investors' meetings) is discouraged and may jeopardise consideration of the manuscript. Authors should fully disclose all posting in registries of results of the same or closely related work.
Reporting clinical trials
Randomized controlled trials should be presented according to the CONSORT guidelines. At manuscript submission, authors must provide the CONSORT checklist accompanied by a flow diagram that illustrates the progress of patients through the trial, including recruitment, enrollment, randomization, withdrawal and completion, and a detailed description of the randomization procedure. The CONSORT checklist and template flow diagram are available online.
Registration in a public trials registry is a condition for publication of clinical trials in this journal in accordance with International Committee of Medical Journal Editors recommendations. Trials must register at or before the onset of patient enrolment. The clinical trial registration number should be included at the end of the abstract of the article. A clinical trial is defined as any research study that prospectively assigns human participants or groups of humans to one or more health-related interventions to evaluate the effects of health outcomes. Health-related interventions include any intervention used to modify a biomedical or health-related outcome (for example drugs, surgical procedures, devices, behavioural treatments, dietary interventions, and process-of-care changes). Health outcomes include any biomedical or health-related measures obtained in patients or participants, including pharmacokinetic measures and adverse events. Purely observational studies (those in which the assignment of the medical intervention is not at the discretion of the investigator) will not require registration.
Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (see more information on this). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. More information.
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Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.
You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.
This is a subsidized open access journal where the Hong Kong Occupational Therapy Association pays for the publishing costs incurred by the journal. Authors are not charged Article Processing Charges. All articles will be available Open Access on ScienceDirect. Permitted (re)use is that outlined by the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND) license, which states that for non-commercial purposes, others may distribute and copy the article, and include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.
The Elsevier Publishing Campus (www.publishingcampus.com) is an online platform offering free lectures, interactive training and professional advice to support you in publishing your research. The College of Skills training offers modules on how to prepare, write and structure your article and explains how editors will look at your paper when it is submitted for publication. Use these resources, and more, to ensure that your submission will be the best that you can make it.
Language (usage and editing services)
Please write your text in good English (using British spelling). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop (http://webshop.elsevier.com/languageediting/) or visit our customer support site (http://support.elsevier.com) for more information.
Studies on patients or volunteers require ethics committee approval and informed consent, which should be documented in the paper. Appropriate consents, permissions and releases must be obtained where an author wishes to include case details or other personal information or images of patients and any other individuals in an Elsevier publication. Written consents must be retained by the author and copies of the consents or evidence that such consents have been obtained must be provided to Elsevier on request. For more information, please review the Elsevier Policy on the Use of Images or Personal Information of Patients or other Individuals. Unless you have written permission from the patient (or, where applicable, the next of kin), the personal details of any patient included in any part of the article and in any supplementary materials (including all illustrations and videos) must be removed before submission.
Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files (e.g., Word, LaTeX) are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.
Please submit your article at the journal's EVISE site.
Please submit the names and institutional e-mail addresses of several potential referees. For more details, visit our Support site. Note that the editor retains the sole right to decide whether or not the suggested reviewers are used.
The following documents must be included in your submission. Items (1), (2) and (3) are mandatory. Items (4), (5) and (6) are required only if they are applicable to your manuscript.
(1) Cover Letter. This must include the following information:
• title of the manuscript
• names (spelled out in full) of all the authors
• corresponding author details (name, e-mail, mailing address, telephone and fax numbers)
• a short paragraph explaining why your paper should be published in the HKJOT rather than elsewhere
• a statement that the material contained in the manuscript has not been previously published and is not being concurrently submitted elsewhere
• persons who do not fulfill the requirements to be listed as authors but who nevertheless contributed to the manuscript (such as those who provided writing assistance, for example) should be disclosed
• the signature of the corresponding author
(3) Copyright Transfer Agreement. In the event that your manuscript is accepted for publication in the HKJOT, you are required to transfer all copyright ownership in and relating to the work to the Hong Kong Occupational Therapy Association. Please use the HKJOT Copyright Transfer Agreement. Your signature and those of ALL your coauthors must be included. However, the Agreement will be null and void if your manuscript is not published in the HKJOT.(4) Ethics Statement. Articles covering the use of human or animal samples in research, or human or animal experiments must be accompanied by a letter of approval from the relevant review committee or authorities.
(5) Signed Statement of Informed Consent. Articles where human patients can be identified in descriptions, photographs or pedigrees must be accompanied by a signed statement of informed consent to publish (in print and online) the descriptions, photographs and pedigrees from each patient who can be identified.(6) Copyright Permission. If you have reproduced or adapted material from other copyrighted sources, the letter(s) of permission from the copyright holder(s) to reproduce or adapt the copyrighted sources must be supplied. Otherwise, such material must be removed from your manuscript. Important note
Manuscripts must be prepared according to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). If there are any discrepancies between this Guide for Authors and the APA Manual, the guidelines in the APA Manual shall prevail.
This journal uses double-blind review, which means that both the reviewer and author name(s) are not allowed to be revealed to one another for a manuscript under review. The identities of the authors are concealed from the reviewers, and vice versa. More information is available on our website. To facilitate this, please include the following separately:
Title page (with author details): This should include the title, authors' names and affiliations, and a complete address for the corresponding author including an e-mail address.
Blinded manuscript (no author details): The main body of the paper (including the references, figures, tables and any Acknowledgements) should not include any identifying information, such as the authors' names or affiliations.
This journal operates a double blind review process. All contributions will be initially assessed by the editor for suitability for the journal. Papers deemed suitable are then sent to a minimum of two independent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor's decision is final. More information on types of peer review.
Use of word processing software
It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier). Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork.
To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.
Subdivision - unnumbered sections
Divide your article into clearly defined sections. Each subsection is given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line. Subsections should be used as much as possible when cross-referencing text: refer to the subsection by heading as opposed to simply 'the text'.
State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results. Results
Results should be clear and concise. Conclusion
The main conclusions of the study may be presented in a short Conclusion section, which may stand alone or form a subsection of the Discussion section.
If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq. (A.1), Eq. (A.2), etc.; in a subsequent appendix, Eq. (B.1) and so on. Similarly for tables and figures: Table A.1; Fig. A.1, etc.
The title page should contain the following information (in order, from the top to bottom of the page):
• Article type.
• Article title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
• Author names and affiliations. Spell out the names of authors in full, with the family name last. Where the family name may be ambiguous (e.g., a double name), please indicate this clearly. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate affiliation. Provide the e-mail address, if available, of each author.
• Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that phone numbers (with country and area codes) are provided in addition to the e-mail address and the complete postal address. Contact details must be kept up to date by the corresponding author.
• Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.
• Funding/support statement. All grants, financial and material support for the research, work, writing and editorial assistance from internal or external agencies, including commercial companies, should be clearly and completely identified in a funding/support statement. If none, then state, "No financial or material support of any kind was received for the work described in this article."
• Conflicts of interest statement. Since it is difficult to distinguish between an actual conflict of interest and a perceived conflict of interest, the HKJOT requires authors to disclose all and any potential conflicts of interest and let readers judge for themselves. Therefore, please ensure that you provide information about any potential financial and non-financial conflicts of interest in a concise statement here on the title page. If none, then state, ''The author(s) have no conflicts of interest relevant to this article.''
• Short running title. This should not exceed 50 characters.
A concise and factual abstract is required for the following article categories: Review Article, Research Paper, Case Report and Discussion. Abstracts should be no more than 250 words in length. An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. For this reason, References should be avoided, but if essential, then cite the author(s) and year(s). Also, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself.
Abstracts for Review Articles should be structured, with the subheadings 'Background/Objective', 'Methods', 'Results', and 'Conclusion' for systematic reviews and meta-analyses, and unstructured (i.e., no subheadings) for all other types of review.
Abstracts for Research Papers should be structured, with the subheadings 'Background/Objective', 'Methods', 'Results', and 'Conclusion', and provide, respectively, the context or background for the research and should state its purpose, basic procedures (selection of study subjects or laboratory animals, observational and analytical methods), main findings (giving specific effect sizes and their statistical significance, if possible), and principal conclusions. It should emphasize new and important aspects of the study or observations.
Abstracts for Case Reports are unstructured in one single paragraph, but should include the significance and purpose of the device or case presentation, and, in the case of devices, briefly summarize the technological aspects and evaluation of the device(s) used in assessment, treatment, management or education, or, in the case of a typical case report, include the diagnostic methods of the case, the key data, and brief comments and suggestions with regard to the case. Abstracts for Discussion papers should also be unstructured.
No abstract is required for Correspondence.
Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 5 keywords in alphabetical order, using British spelling and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, 'and', 'of'). Keywords should not simply be taken from the manuscript title but should be representative of the content of the article and be characteristic of the terminology used within the particular field of the study. Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.
No keywords are required for Correspondence.
Where a term/definition will be continually referred to, it must be written in full when it first appears in the text, followed by the subsequent abbreviation in parentheses (even if it was previously defined in the abstract). Thereafter, the abbreviation may be used. An abbreviation should not be first defined in any section heading; if an abbreviation has previously been defined in the text, then the abbreviation may be used in a subsequent section heading. Restrict the number of abbreviations to those that are absolutely necessary and ensure consistency of abbreviations throughout the article. Ensure that an abbreviation so defined does actually appear later in the text (excluding in figures/tables), otherwise, it should be deleted.
Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.).
It is not necessary to include detailed descriptions on the program or type of grants and awards. When funding is from a block grant or other resources available to a university, college, or other research institution, submit the name of the institute or organization that provided the funding.If no funding has been provided for the research, please include the following sentence:
This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.Units
Follow internationally accepted rules and conventions: use the international system of units (SI). If other units are mentioned, please give their equivalent in SI. Blood pressure values are to be reported in mmHg. Use the metric system for the expression of length, area, mass, and volume. Temperatures are to be given in degrees Celsius.
Numbers that begin a sentence or those that are less than 10 should be spelled out using letters. Centuries and decades should be spelled out, e.g., the Eighties or nineteenth century. Laboratory parameters, time, temperature, length, area, mass, and volume should be expressed using digits.
Use the Recommended International Non-proprietary Name (rINN) for medicinal substances, unless the specific trade name of a drug is directly relevant to the discussion. Generic drug names should appear in lowercase letters in the text. If a specific proprietary drug needs to be identified, the brand name may appear only once in the manuscript in parentheses following the generic name the first time the drug is mentioned in the text. For devices and other products, the specific brand or trade name, the manufacturer and their location (city, state, country) should be provided the first time the device or product is mentioned in the text, for example, ''…IBM SPSS Statistics 21.0 was used (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA)''. Thereafter, the generic term (if appropriate) should be used.
Statistical analysis is essential for all research papers except Case Reports. Use correct nomenclature for statistical methods (e.g., two sample t test, not unpaired t test). Descriptive statistics should follow the scales used in data description. Inferential statistics are important for interpreting results and should be described in detail. All p values should be presented to the third decimal place for accuracy. The smallest p value that should be expressed is p < .001 since additional zeros do not convey useful information; the largest p value that should be expressed is p > .99.
Please submit math equations as editable text and not as images. Present simple formulae in line with normal text where possible and use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line for small fractional terms, e.g., X/Y. In principle, variables are to be presented in italics. Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp. Number consecutively any equations that have to be displayed separately from the text (if referred to explicitly in the text).
All grants, financial and material support for the research, work, writing and editorial assistance from internal or external agencies, including commercial companies, should be clearly and completely identified in a funding/support statement on the Title Page of your manuscript. If none, then state, "No financial or material support of any kind was received for the work described in this article."
Since it is difficult to distinguish between an actual conflict of interest and a perceived conflict of interest, the HKJOT requires authors to disclose all and any potential conflicts of interest and let readers judge for themselves. Therefore, please ensure that you provide information about any potential financial and non-financial conflicts of interest on the Title Page of your manuscript. If none, then state, "The author(s) have no conflicts of interest relevant to this article." General guidelines
The number of illustrations should be restricted to the minimum necessary to support the textual material. Ensure that each illustration is numbered consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text and has a caption. Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used at the end of the caption. Items requiring explanatory footnotes should be denoted using superscripted lowercase letters (a, b, c, etc.), with the footnotes in alphabetical order at the end of the caption. Asterisks (*, **) are used only to indicate the probability level of tests of significance. Abbreviations used must be defined and placed after the footnotes in alphabetical order.
Privacy of research participants
Unless you have written permission from the patient (or, where applicable, the next of kin), identifying information (e.g., names, initials, hospital numbers, date of birth) of the patient must be removed. Informed consent should be obtained if there is any doubt that anonymity can be maintained. For example, masking the eye region in photographs of patients is inadequate protection of anonymity. If identifying characteristics are de-identified, authors should provide assurance, and editors should so note, that such changes do not distort scientific meaning. For further information, see http://www.elsevier.com/patientphotographs.
Whilst it is accepted that authors sometimes need to manipulate images for clarity, manipulation for purposes of deception or fraud will be seen as scientific ethical abuse and will be dealt with accordingly. For graphical images, this journal is applying the following policy: no specific feature within an image may be enhanced, obscured, moved, removed, or introduced. Adjustments of brightness, contrast, or color balance are acceptable if and as long as they do not obscure or eliminate any information present in the original. Nonlinear adjustments (e.g. changes to gamma settings) must be disclosed in the figure legend.
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.
• Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
• Provide captions to illustrations separately.
• Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the printed version.
• Submit each illustration as a separate file.
You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.Formats
• If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format.
• Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
- EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
- TIFF (or JPEG): Colour or greyscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
- TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
- TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations of bitmapped line/half-tone (colour or greyscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.
Please do not:
• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colours;
• Supply files that are too low in resolution;
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.
Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format [TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF), or MS Office files] and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable colour figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in colour on the Web (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in colour in the printed version. For colour reproduction in print, authors will be charged US$400 per illustration, figure or table that is in colour. Authors must inform the HKJOT upon manuscript acceptance if they intend to keep any colour figures for publication in the print journal, otherwise all colour figures will be converted to greyscale as default. For further information on the preparation of electronic artwork, please see http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions.
Please note: Because of technical complications which can arise by converting colour figures to greyscale (for the printed version should you not opt for colour in print), please submit in addition usable greyscale versions of all the colour illustrations.
Elsevier's WebShop offers Illustration Services to authors preparing to submit a manuscript but concerned about the quality of the images accompanying their article. Elsevier's expert illustrators can produce scientific, technical and medical-style images, as well as a full range of charts, tables and graphs. Image 'polishing' is also available, where our illustrators take your image(s) and improve them to a professional standard. Please visit the website to find out more.
Tables should have a concise table heading, be self-explanatory, and numbered consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text. Items requiring explanatory footnotes should be denoted using superscripted lowercase letters (a, b, c, etc.), with the footnotes arranged below the table body in alphabetical order. Asterisks (*, **) are used only to indicate the probability level of tests of significance. Abbreviations used in the table must be defined and placed after the footnotes in alphabetical order. Avoid vertical rules. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in tables do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article.
Tables/figures from another source
Authors must obtain permission to reproduce or adapt all or part of a table or figure from a copyrighted source.
Any reproduced or adapted table/figure must be accompanied by a note in the table footnote or at the end of the figure caption giving credit to the original author(s) and to the copyright holder.
Material reprinted from a journal article:
Note. From [or The data in column 1 are from] ''Title of Article,'' by A. N. Author and C. O. Author, 2000, Title of Journal, 50, p. 22. Copyright 2000 by the Name of Copyright Holder. Reprinted [or Adapted] with permission.
Note. From [or The data in column 1 are from] Title of Book (p. 103), by A. N. Author and C. O. Author, 1999, Place of Publication: Publisher. Copyright 1999 by the Name of Copyright Holder. Reprinted [or Adapted] with permission. Citation in text
Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.
Increased discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, CrossRef and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the DOI is encouraged.
As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.
These sources cannot be included in the references list but may be described in the text. The author(s) must give the full name and highest academic degree of the person, the date of the communication, and indicate whether it was in oral or written (letter, fax, e-mail) form. A signed statement of permission should be included from each person identified as a source of information in a personal communication or as a source for unpublished data.
Reference to arXiv
As with unpublished results and personal communications, references to arXiv documents are not recommended in the reference list. Please make every effort to obtain the full reference of the published version of an arXiv document. If a reference to an arXiv document must be included in the references list it should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the volume and page numbers with 'arXiv:YYMM.NNNN' or 'arXiv:arch-ive/YYMMNNN' for articles submitted to arXiv before April 2007.
Please ensure that the words 'this issue' are added to any references in the list (and any citations in the text) to other articles in the same Special Issue.
Reference management software
Most Elsevier journals have their reference template available in many of the most popular reference management software products. These include all products that support Citation Style Language styles, such as Mendeley and Zotero, as well as EndNote. Using the word processor plug-ins from these products, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article, after which citations and bibliographies will be automatically formatted in the journal's style. If no template is yet available for this journal, please follow the format of the sample references and citations as shown in this Guide.
Text: Citations in the text should follow the referencing style used by the American Psychological Association, that is, the author–date method of citation, i.e., the surname(s) of the author(s) [do not include suffixes such as 'Jr.'] and the year of publication are inserted in the text/table(s)/figure caption(s) at the appropriate point. Ensure that all references cited in the text/table(s)/figure caption(s) are included in the reference list. You are referred to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.), ISBN 978-1-4338-0561-5, copies of which may be ordered from http://books.apa.org/books.cfm?id=4200067 or APA Order Dept., P.O.B. 2710, Hyattsville, MD 20784, USA or APA, 3 Henrietta Street, London, WC3E 8LU, UK.
List: References should be arranged first alphabetically by author surname and then further sorted chronologically by year of publication if necessary. More than one reference from the same author(s) in the same year must be identified by the letters 'a', 'b', 'c', etc., placed after the year of publication. References should include, in order, author names, year of publication, article title, journal name, volume and inclusive page numbers. The last names and initials of all the authors up to 6 should be included. When authors number 7 or more, list the first 6 authors only followed by 'et al'. Ensure that all references listed are actually cited in the text/table(s)/figure caption(s).
Examples of the most common reference types are provided below. Please pay particular attention to the formatting, word capitalization, spacing and style.
Note that for more than 6 authors, the first 6 should be listed followed by 'et al.' For further details you are referred to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.)
Mellers, B. A. (2000). Choice and the relative pleasure of consequences. Psychological Bulletin, 126, 910–924.
Reference to a journal article with two authors:
Bendixen, R. M., & Kreider, C. M. (2011). Review of occupational therapy research in the practice area of children and youth. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 65, 351–359.
Poole, J. L., Willer, K., Mendelson, C., Sanders, M., & Skipper, B. (2011). Perceived parenting ability and systemic sclerosis. Musculoskeletal Care, 9, 32–40.
Reference to a journal article with more than six authors:
Kamioka, H., Okuizumi, H., Okada, S., Takahashi, R., Handa, S., Kitayuguchi, J., et al. (2011). Effectiveness of intervention for low back pain in female caregivers in nursing homes: A pilot trial based on multicenter randomization. Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine, 16, 97–105.
Zuckerman, M., & Kieffer, S. C. (in press). Race differences in face-ism: Does facial prominence imply dominance? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.
Reference to a journal supplement:
Alexander, L. A., Crawford, T., & Mendiondo, M. S. (2010). Occupational status, work-site cessation programs and policies and menthol smoking on quitting behaviors of US smokers. Addiction, 105(Suppl. 1), 95–104.
Bradley, E. L., Jr. (1982). Medical and surgical management (2nd ed.). Philadelphia: Saunders.
Reference to a book, group author as publisher:
Australian Bureau of Statistics. (1991). Estimated resident population by age and sex in statistical local areas, New South Wales, June 1990 (No. 3209.1). Canberra, Australian Capital Territory: Author.
Reference to a book with editors:
Letheridge, S., & Cannon, C. R. (Eds.). (1980). Bilingual education: Teaching English as a second language. New York: Praeger.
Rosenthal, R. (1987). Meta-analytic procedures for social research (Rev. ed.). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Reference to a book chapter in a book with editors:
Gibbs, J. T., & Huang, L. N. (1991). Broadening the domain of the fuzzy logical model of perception. In H. L. Pick Jr., P. van den Broek, & D. C. Knill (Eds.), Children of color: Psychological intervention with minority youth (pp. 51–84). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Lanktree, C., & Briere, J. (1991, January). Early data on the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children (TSC-C). Paper (or Poster session) presented at the meeting of the American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children, San Diego, CA.
Reference to an article in an Internet-only journal:
Fredrickson, B. L. (2000, March 7). Cultivating positive emotions to optimize health and well-being. Prevention & Treatment, 3, Article 0001a. Retrieved November 20, 2014, from http://journals.apa.org/prevention/volume3/pre0030001a.html
Greater New Milford Area Healthy Community 2000, Task Force on Teen and Adolescent Issues. (n.d.). Who has time for a family meal? You do! Retrieved October 5, 2001, from http://www.familymealtime.org
Reference to a stand-alone document on the Internet, no author identified, no date:
GVU's 8th WWW user survey. (n.d.). Retrieved August 8, 2000, from http://www.cc.gatech.edu/gvu/user_surveys/survey-1997-10/
Chou, L., McClintock, R., Moretti, F., & Nix, D. H. (1993). Technology and education: New wine in new bottles. Choosing pasts and imagining educational futures. Retrieved August 24, 2000, from Columbia University, Institute for Learning Technologies Web site: http://www.ilt.columbia.edu/publications/papers/newwinel.html
Reference to a report from university, available on private organization Web site:
University of California, San Francisco, Institute for Health and Aging. (1996, November). Chronic care in America: A 21st century challenge. Retrieved September 21, 2000, from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Web site: http://www.rwjf.org/library/chrcare/
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