Guide for Authors

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INTRODUCTION
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
• Ethics in publishing
• Studies in humans and animals
• Declaration of interest
• Submission declaration
• Use of inclusive language
• Changes to authorship
• Copyright
• Role of the funding source
• Open access
• Submission
PREPARATION
• Use of word processing software
• Article structure
• Abbreviations (other than commonly accepted):
• Supplementary material
• Submission checklist
AFTER ACCEPTANCE
• Online proof correction
• Offprints
AUTHOR INQUIRIES


PDF file Detailed instructions with samples for tables and layout



Each manuscript should be prepared according to the guidelines compiled below. MANUSCRIPTS NOT PREPARED IN STRICT ACCORDANCE WITH THESE GUIDELINES WILL NOT BE ACCEPTED FOR PROCESSING.

Electronic submissions by e-mail are preferred as they greatly speed up the review process. It is advised that the authors should keep an identical paper copy of the manuscript submitted online. THE ENTIRE MANUSCRIPT, including tables and figures, MUST BE SUBMITTED AS A SINGLE FILE (.doc or .rtf) not exceeding 20MB. Submissions of separate figures for review process are not acceptable.

If the manuscript is accepted for publication, the editors may ask the author for better quality (higher resolution) figures (see details bellow in section: Final submission of Illustrations).

PLEASE check also the PDF with Guidelines for Authors including sample for tables and layout.

Ethics in publishing

Please see our information pages on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication.

Studies in humans and animals

If the work involves the use of human subjects, the author should ensure that the work described has been carried out in accordance with The Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association (Declaration of Helsinki) for experiments involving humans. The manuscript should be in line with the Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals and aim for the inclusion of representative human populations (sex, age and ethnicity) as per those recommendations. The terms sex and gender should be used correctly.

Authors should include a statement in the manuscript that informed consent was obtained for experimentation with human subjects. The privacy rights of human subjects must always be observed.

All animal experiments should comply with the ARRIVE guidelines and should be carried out in accordance with the U.K. Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act, 1986 and associated guidelines, EU Directive 2010/63/EU for animal experiments, or the National Institutes of Health guide for the care and use of Laboratory animals (NIH Publications No. 8023, revised 1978) and the authors should clearly indicate in the manuscript that such guidelines have been followed. The sex of animals must be indicated, and where appropriate, the influence (or association) of sex on the results of the study.

Declaration of interest

All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential competing interests include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. Authors must disclose any interests in two places: 1. A summary declaration of interest statement in the title page file (if double-blind) or the manuscript file (if single-blind). If there are no interests to declare then please state this: 'Declarations of interest: none'. This summary statement will be ultimately published if the article is accepted. 2. Detailed disclosures as part of a separate Declaration of Interest form, which forms part of the journal's official records. It is important for potential interests to be declared in both places and that the information matches. More information.

Submission declaration

Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract, a published lecture or academic thesis, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder.

Preprints
Please note that preprints can be shared anywhere at any time, in line with Elsevier's sharing policy. Sharing your preprints e.g. on a preprint server will not count as prior publication (see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' for more information).

Use of inclusive language

Inclusive language acknowledges diversity, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and promotes equal opportunities. Articles should make no assumptions about the beliefs or commitments of any reader, should contain nothing which might imply that one individual is superior to another on the grounds of race, sex, culture or any other characteristic, and should use inclusive language throughout. Authors should ensure that writing is free from bias, for instance by using 'he or she', 'his/her' instead of 'he' or 'his', and by making use of job titles that are free of stereotyping (e.g. 'chairperson' instead of 'chairman' and 'flight attendant' instead of 'stewardess').

Changes to authorship

Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the journal Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed.
Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted. While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the Editor will result in a corrigendum.

Copyright

Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (see more information on this). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.

Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations. If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases.

For gold open access articles: Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an 'Exclusive License Agreement' (more information). Permitted third party reuse of gold open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license.

Author rights
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. More information.

Elsevier supports responsible sharing
Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.

Role of the funding source

You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.

Funding body agreements and policies
Elsevier has established a number of agreements with funding bodies which allow authors to comply with their funder's open access policies. Some funding bodies will reimburse the author for the gold open access publication fee. Details of existing agreements are available online.

Open access

This journal offers authors a choice in publishing their research:

Subscription
• Articles are made available to subscribers as well as developing countries and patient groups through our universal access programs.
• No open access publication fee payable by authors.
• The Author is entitled to post the accepted manuscript in their institution's repository and make this public after an embargo period (known as green Open Access). The published journal article cannot be shared publicly, for example on ResearchGate or Academia.edu, to ensure the sustainability of peer-reviewed research in journal publications. The embargo period for this journal can be found below.
Gold open access
• Articles are freely available to both subscribers and the wider public with permitted reuse.
• A gold open access publication fee is payable by authors or on their behalf, e.g. by their research funder or institution.

Regardless of how you choose to publish your article, the journal will apply the same peer review criteria and acceptance standards.

For gold open access articles, permitted third party (re)use is defined by the following Creative Commons user licenses:

Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY)
Lets others distribute and copy the article, create extracts, abstracts, and other revised versions, adaptations or derivative works of or from an article (such as a translation), include in a collective work (such as an anthology), text or data mine the article, even for commercial purposes, as long as they credit the author(s), do not represent the author as endorsing their adaptation of the article, and do not modify the article in such a way as to damage the author's honor or reputation.

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND)
For non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.

The gold open access publication fee for this journal is USD 1800, excluding taxes. Learn more about Elsevier's pricing policy: https://www.elsevier.com/openaccesspricing.

Green open access
Authors can share their research in a variety of different ways and Elsevier has a number of green open access options available. We recommend authors see our open access page for further information. Authors can also self-archive their manuscripts immediately and enable public access from their institution's repository after an embargo period. This is the version that has been accepted for publication and which typically includes author-incorporated changes suggested during submission, peer review and in editor-author communications. Embargo period: For subscription articles, an appropriate amount of time is needed for journals to deliver value to subscribing customers before an article becomes freely available to the public. This is the embargo period and it begins from the date the article is formally published online in its final and fully citable form. Find out more.

This journal has an embargo period of 12 months.

Language (usage and editing services)
Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's Author Services.

Submission

Authors may submit their articles as e-mail attachment to this journal. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, takes place by e-mail, removing the need for a paper trail.

only YPYW (Your Paper Your Way)
There are no strict requirements on reference formatting at submission. References can be in any style or format as long as the style is consistent. Where applicable, author(s) name(s), journal title/book title, chapter title/article title, year of publication, volume number/book chapter and the pagination must be present. Use of DOI is highly encouraged. The reference style used by the journal will be applied to the accepted article by Elsevier at the proof stage. Note that missing data will be highlighted at proof stage for the author to correct.


[dataset] Oguro, M., Imahiro, S., Saito, S., Nakashizuka, T., 2015. Mortality data for Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions. Mendeley Data, v1. http://dx.doi.org/10.17632/xwj98nb39r.1.

Use of word processing software

It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier: https://www.elsevier.com/guidepublication). See also the section on Electronic artwork.
To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.

Language
Manuscripts should be written in literary English, British or American. Use one spelling style throughout the entire manuscript (Example: colour, palaeoanthropology and metre in British English or color, paleoanthropology and meter in American English).

General layout
Typing (in Times or Times New Roman for English language, font size 12) must be in 1.5 line spacing, aligned to the left, unjustified margins at the right.
No line numbering and no footnotes are allowed in text. First paragraph line indented 5 mm, reference list pendant 5 mm. Title and chapter headings in larger font, bold face, sub-chapter headings in bold and smaller than title and chapter headings (all in normal face not in italics).
Use separate line for each chapter or sub-chapter heading.
Do not number the chapters or subchapters. Use italics for species, genus names, medical terms in Latin or, however as rarely as possible, for stressing a particular fragment (examples: Australopithecus africanus, hyperostosis frontalis interna, ''The coronal talar neck plane is the planey'').

Number each page consecutively starting with the very first page.

No active Endnote is allowed. Please remove Endnote activity before submitting.

In case a specific item of formatting is not explained below, obtain from the internet a recent paper published in Homo JCHB and imitate its formatting.

Submit your manuscript without any unnecessary or hidden formatting.

Article structure

Title page
The title page must contain:
The full title of the manuscript
Name(s) of the author(s): initial(s) of the fi rst name(s) and surname(s)
Name(s) of the institution(s) the study was carried in (name of the laboratory, department, school, university with the address including name of the city, state or country and the postal code).
Corresponding author should be indicated with an asterisk and his/her name, academic degree (will not appear in the published version, but needed for correspondence), e-mail address, telephone and fax numbers provided in a separate line.

Example:
Little Foot and big thoughts - a re-evaluation of the Stw573 foot from Sterkfontein, South Africa

R. Kidda*, C. Oxnardb
aSchool of Science Food and Horticulture, University of Western Sydney, Campbelltown, NSW 2560, Australia.
bSchool of Anatomy and Human Biology, University of Western Australia, Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia

Abbreviated title: Re-evaluation of Little Foot

*Corresponding author. Dr. Robert Kidd, tel.: +61-2-46203633, fax: +61-2-46203099. E-mail address: R.Kidd@ uws.edu.au

Abstract and Keywords

Abstract
The abstract briefly presents the objectives of the study, major results and conclusions in a language as nontechnical as possible. Do not structure the abstract with separate headings. Just use paragraphs if necessary. It should not exceed 250 words. Authors whose mother tongue is not English are invited to add an abstract of similar length in their own language. If it requires special characters, it should be submitted in both RTF and PDF versions to ensure correct reproduction of special characters.

Do not include keywords

The text:
The main portion of the manuscript should be divided into sections such as e.g.: Introduction, Materials and Methods (or Materials, Methods), Results, and Discussion followed by Acknowledgements and References. Chapters which reflect specific topics of the manuscript are welcome, too. Add Legends to Figures on a separate page at the end of the text after References.
The sections can be divided into sub-sections but the use of numerous sub-sections should be avoided. There is no restriction on the total length of a manuscript (nor on the number of tables and figures as long as they are deemed necessary by the Editors - see below), but it is advised that neither the "Introduction", nor the "Discussion" may exceed 15 % of the total length of the text. The section "Conclusions" is not allowed at all. Main conclusions of the paper should be apparent from the results and, if necessary, can be added as the last few sentences of the "Discussion

SI system of measurement units:
SI system of measurement units must be used for all measurements: SI system is based principally on the "metric" system but does not use 10 and 100 fold multiplications of basic units. Only 1000 multiplies/divisions are allowed. Therefore centimetre is NOT an acceptable unit. Only metres and millimetres can be used.
Dates should not be given with religious connotations. Use Before the Common Era (BCE) or Common Era (CE), not Before Christ or Anno Domini (AD). The correct SI abbreviation for year is "a" (annus). Therefore a thousand years is ka (kilo anni) and a million years is Ma. Do not use English language abbreviations kyr or Mya (million years ago). Example: "they lived 2.5 Ma ago" to mean "they lived 2.5 million years ago". Celsius (= centigrade) degrees should be used to describe temperatures. SI units abbreviations should be expressed in standard lowercase, without full stops (examples: mm kg km m2).

Abbreviations (other than commonly accepted):

Should not be used in the text; full names of terms are preferred. If used only in tables and figures, the abbreviations should be fully explained in the appropriate captions.

Acknowledgements
Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.).

Formatting of funding sources
List funding sources in this standard way to facilitate compliance to funder's requirements:

Funding: This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health [grant numbers xxxx, yyyy]; the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, WA [grant number zzzz]; and the United States Institutes of Peace [grant number aaaa].

It is not necessary to include detailed descriptions on the program or type of grants and awards. When funding is from a block grant or other resources available to a university, college, or other research institution, submit the name of the institute or organization that provided the funding.

If no funding has been provided for the research, please include the following sentence:

This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Electronic artwork
General points
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Preferred fonts: Arial (or Helvetica), Times New Roman (or Times), Symbol, Courier.
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
• Indicate per figure if it is a single, 1.5 or 2-column fitting image.
• For Word submissions only, you may still provide figures and their captions, and tables within a single file at the revision stage.
• Please note that individual figure files larger than 10 MB must be provided in separate source files.
A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available.
You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
Formats
Regardless of the application used, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings. Embed the font or save the text as 'graphics'.
TIFF (or JPG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones): always use a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF (or JPG): Bitmapped line drawings: use a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF (or JPG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale): a minimum of 500 dpi is required.
Please do not:
• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); the resolution is too low.
• Supply files that are too low in resolution.
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

Color artwork
Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF), or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color online (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. For color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article. Please indicate your preference for color: in print or online only. Further information on the preparation of electronic artwork.

Illustration services
Elsevier's Author Services offers Illustration Services to authors preparing to submit a manuscript but concerned about the quality of the images accompanying their article. Elsevier's expert illustrators can produce scientific, technical and medical-style images, as well as a full range of charts, tables and graphs. Image 'polishing' is also available, where our illustrators take your image(s) and improve them to a professional standard. Please visit the website to find out more.

Tables
Must have minimum gridlines. They should be printed with a concise explanatory caption above the table and each column should carry a separate heading. Additional explanations (such as of abbreviations) should be given as footnotes. In the table format only horizontal lines need to be used and the number of these should be kept to a minimum. Do not use gridlines automatically provided by some programmes. All numbers must be aligned in accordance with the rules of the decimal system (aligned on the decimal point or on decimal positions, not centred). This is easiest achieved by aligning columns of numbers to right margins of columns. Decimal points and decimal places must align vertically so that digits of hundreds are aligned in the same order of digits of numbers below and above, digits of tens align in the same way etc. Either align numbers on the decimal point or, if the number of decimal places is the same in all numbers in a given column, align numbers right. Centering of numbers in tables is not acceptable. Each table should be typed on a separate page. Normally, tables must fi t on the A4 page. Placement of several variables or parameters in the same column is discouraged. Do not use 23.5(13.2-28.5) or 12.8-3.5, place each number in a separate column: 23.5 13.2 28.5 or 12.8 3.5. Use of the(plus/minus) sign for standard deviation is not acceptable. This sign traditionally indicates standard error. Standard deviations must be placed in a separate column, not together with means. Standard deviations should not be given in brackets after means.

Example: https://www.elsevier.com/__data/promis_misc/HOMO Guide for Authors Table example.pdf

Figures
Figures should be used with discretion and are only justified if they clarify or reduce the text. Information should be presented only once in a graph or a table, not in both. Original figures should be approximately twice their final size but must not exceed the size of A4 paper. Letters in figures must be at least 2 mm high after size reduction of figures to 1/2 of A4 page. The figures should be submitted separately from the text only after the manuscript is accepted for publication and when the editor asks for sending them directly to the publisher. Otherwise figures must be placed at the end of a single file containing text, references, tables and figures. A brief descriptive legend should be provided for each figure; the legends should be typed on a separate page (see also The text).
Do not submit illustrations as separate files in the initial submission (include all figures in a single file with the text and tables).

Figures and tables should always be referred to in the text [Examples:.as shown in Figure 1.'; 'The two distributions show(Fig. 1)'; '.described in Table 1.'; 'There is no difference between(Table 1).;]. The author may mark in the manuscript where figures and tables are to be inserted.

The editors and publishers reserve the right to ask the authors for additional formatting of tables and figures. The editors may reject the manuscript if after revisions the manuscript is resubmitted in an incorrect format (i.e. not following these guidelines or editors' request).

FINAL SUBMISSION OF ILLUSTRATIONS (FIGURES)
Illustrations for final printing may need to be submitted separately from text f les. Files for full colour images must be in a CMYK colour space. All illustration files should be in TIFF or JPEG, EPS formats. Files should be given the 2 or 3-letter extension that identifies the file format used (i.e., .tiff, .jpeg, .eps). Journal quality reproduction will require greyscale and colour files at resolutions yielding approximately 300 dpi. Bitmapped line art should be submitted at resolutions yielding 600-1200 dpi. These resolutions refer to the output size of the file; if you anticipate that your images will be enlarged or reduced, resolutions should be adjusted accordingly. For further information on the preparation of electronic artwork, please see www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions.

References to the literature:
In text:
Should be by the author's surname only with the year of publication in brackets. Where there are two authors the names should be linked by ''and''. Where there are more than two authors the reference should be quoted - first author followed by ''et al.'' (not in italics). If references are given in brackets the author's surname and the year of publication should be separated by a comma. If there is more than one reference of the same author, years of publication should be separated by commas. References of the same author that appeared in the same year should be indicated by first letters of the alphabet and separated by commas. References to publications of different authors should be separated by semicolons. Citations may be made directly (or parenthetically). If many references are listed, they should appear first in alphabetical order of authors' surnames and then by the ascending year of publication. References to unpublished or submitted data should be avoided.

Examples:
As indicated by Henschen (1949);
Hahn and Czarnetzki (1980) studied or (Hahn and Czarnetzki, 1980);
Angel et al. (1987) studied;was prepared (Angel et al., 1987);
Hann (1986a, 1986b, 1988); Flores et al. (2000a, 2000b); (Flores et al., 2000a, 2000b)
were studied (Anderson, 1993; Angel et al., 1987; August and Chrisman, 1988; Flores et al., 2000a, 2000b; Glab et al., 1998; Hann, 1986a, 1988; Phillips, 1996).

Direct citations in the text should be avoided, but if this is absolutely necessary, the cited fragment should be in quotation marks and the page of the paper/book the fragment is taken out from should be also cited. The fragment cannot be longer than 250 words due to copyright regulations.

Example:
This approach and "allows for the greater flexibility necessary."(Gauthier and Schutkowski, 2013:47). In section References:

The references (bibliography) at the end of the manuscript should be listed in alphabetical order under the first author's name and then further sorted chronologically if necessary. More than one reference from the same author(s) in the same year must be identified by the letters "a", "b", "c", etc., placed after the year of publication. All names of the authors of the referred paper should be included. If the thesis/dissertation (Master or PhD) is cited, the name of the university and the city the university is located in should be given after the title. Only works referred to in the text should be included in the list. Titles of the journals should be abbreviated (use the abbreviated form officially accepted by a given journal or, as it appears in Current Contents, Medline or any other major literature search source).

Examples:
van Vark, G.N., Holt, K.G., 1989. Some tests. Ann. Hum. Biol. 16, 301-310.
Wolpoff, M.H., 1992. Theories of origins. In: Brauer, G., Smith, F.H. (Eds.), Continuity or Replacement.
Balkema, Rotterdam, pp. 25-63.
Bernhard, W., 1991. Ethnische Anthropologie. G Fischer, Stuttgart.
Dicke-Toupin, C.R., 2012. Population Continuity or Replacement at Lachish: a Dental Affinity Analysis in the Levant. MA thesis, University of Alaska, Fairbanks.

Data references
This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in your published article.

Journal abbreviations source
Journal names should be abbreviated according to the List of Title Word Abbreviations.

Supplementary material

Supplementary material such as applications, images and sound clips, can be published with your article to enhance it. Submitted supplementary items are published exactly as they are received (Excel or PowerPoint files will appear as such online). Please submit your material together with the article and supply a concise, descriptive caption for each supplementary file. If you wish to make changes to supplementary material during any stage of the process, please make sure to provide an updated file. Do not annotate any corrections on a previous version. Please switch off the 'Track Changes' option in Microsoft Office files as these will appear in the published version.

Data in Brief
You have the option of converting any or all parts of your supplementary or additional raw data into one or multiple data articles, a new kind of article that houses and describes your data. Data articles ensure that your data is actively reviewed, curated, formatted, indexed, given a DOI and publicly available to all upon publication. You are encouraged to submit your article for Data in Brief as an additional item directly alongside the revised version of your manuscript. If your research article is accepted, your data article will automatically be transferred over to Data in Brief where it will be editorially reviewed and published in the open access data journal, Data in Brief. Please note an open access fee of 600 USD is payable for publication in Data in Brief. Full details can be found on the Data in Brief website. Please use this template to write your Data in Brief.

MethodsX
You have the option of converting relevant protocols and methods into one or multiple MethodsX articles, a new kind of article that describes the details of customized research methods. Many researchers spend a significant amount of time on developing methods to fit their specific needs or setting, but often without getting credit for this part of their work. MethodsX, an open access journal, now publishes this information in order to make it searchable, peer reviewed, citable and reproducible. Authors are encouraged to submit their MethodsX article as an additional item directly alongside the revised version of their manuscript. If your research article is accepted, your methods article will automatically be transferred over to MethodsX where it will be editorially reviewed. Please note an open access fee is payable for publication in MethodsX. Full details can be found on the MethodsX website. Please use this template to prepare your MethodsX article.

Submission checklist

The following list will be useful during the final checking of an article prior to sending it to the journal for review. Please consult this Guide for Authors for further details of any item.
Ensure that the following items are present:
One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
• E-mail address
• Full postal address
• Phone numbers
Further considerations
• Manuscript has been 'spell-checked' and 'grammar-checked'
• References are in the correct format for this journal
• All references mentioned in the Reference list are cited in the text, and vice versa
• Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Web)
• Color figures are clearly marked as being intended for color reproduction on the Web (free of charge) and in print, or to be reproduced in color on the Web (free of charge) and in black-and-white in print
• If only color on the Web is required, black-and-white versions of the figures are also supplied for printing purposes
For any further information please visit our customer support site at https://service.elsevier.com.

Online proof correction

Corresponding authors will receive an e-mail with a link to our online proofing system, allowing annotation and correction of proofs online. The environment is similar to MS Word: in addition to editing text, you can also comment on figures/tables and answer questions from the Copy Editor. Web-based proofing provides a faster and less error-prone process by allowing you to directly type your corrections, eliminating the potential introduction of errors.
If preferred, you can still choose to annotate and upload your edits on the PDF version. All instructions for proofing will be given in the e-mail we send to authors, including alternative methods to the online version and PDF.
We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication. Please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.

Offprints

The corresponding author will, at no cost, receive a customized Share Link providing 50 days free access to the final published version of the article on ScienceDirect. The Share Link can be used for sharing the article via any communication channel, including email and social media. For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's Author Services. Corresponding authors who have published their article gold open access do not receive a Share Link as their final published version of the article is available open access on ScienceDirect and can be shared through the article DOI link.



For inquiries relating to the submission of articles please contact homojchb@bigpond.com. For detailed instructions on the preparation of electronic artwork, please visit https://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions. Contact details for questions arising after acceptance of an article, especially those relating to proofs, will be provided by the publisher. You can track accepted articles at https://www.elsevier.com/trackarticle. You can also check our Author FAQs at https://www.elsevier.com/authorFAQ and/or contact Customer Support via https://service.elsevier.com.