Guide for Authors

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General information

General information
Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Diseases International (HBPD INT) is a journal published bimonthly in English language by the First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China. We welcome original research articles, review articles, editorials, and others from any part of the world. Manuscripts are reviewed by members of the international editorial board and our expert peer reviewers, then either accepted for publication or rejected by the chief editor. Manuscripts should be submitted via

Submission checklist

You can use this list to carry out a final check of your submission before you send it to the journal for review. Please check the relevant section in this Guide for Authors for more details.

Ensure that the following items are present:

One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
• E-mail address
• Full postal address

All necessary files have been uploaded:
• Include keywords
• All figures (include relevant captions)
• All tables (including titles, description, footnotes)
• Ensure all figure and table citations in the text match the files provided
• Indicate clearly if color should be used for any figures in print
Graphical Abstracts / Highlights files (where applicable)
Supplemental files (where applicable)

Further considerations
• Manuscript has been 'spell checked' and 'grammar checked'
• All references mentioned in the Reference List are cited in the text, and vice versa
• Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Internet)
• A competing interests statement is provided, even if the authors have no competing interests to declare
• Journal policies detailed in this guide have been reviewed
• Referee suggestions and contact details provided, based on journal requirements

For further information, visit our Support Center.

Ethics in publishing

Please see our information pages on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication.

Declaration of interest

All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential competing interests include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. Authors must disclose any interests in two places: 1. A summary declaration of interest statement in the title page file (if double-blind) or the manuscript file (if single-blind). If there are no interests to declare then please state this: 'Declarations of interest: none'. This summary statement will be ultimately published if the article is accepted. 2. Detailed disclosures as part of a separate Declaration of Interest form, which forms part of the journal's official records. It is important for potential interests to be declared in both places and that the information matches. More information.

Submission declaration

Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract, a published lecture or academic thesis, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder.

Use of inclusive language

Inclusive language acknowledges diversity, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and promotes equal opportunities. Content should make no assumptions about the beliefs or commitments of any reader; contain nothing which might imply that one individual is superior to another on the grounds of age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition; and use inclusive language throughout. Authors should ensure that writing is free from bias, stereotypes, slang, reference to dominant culture and/or cultural assumptions. We advise to seek gender neutrality by using plural nouns ("clinicians, patients/clients") as default/wherever possible to avoid using "he, she," or "he/she." We recommend avoiding the use of descriptors that refer to personal attributes such as age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition unless they are relevant and valid. These guidelines are meant as a point of reference to help identify appropriate language but are by no means exhaustive or definitive.

Changes to authorship

Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the journal Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed.
Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted. While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the Editor will result in a corrigendum.


Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (see more information on this). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.

Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations. If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases.

For gold open access articles: Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an 'Exclusive License Agreement' (more information). Permitted third party reuse of gold open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license.

Author rights
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. More information.

Role of the funding source

You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.

Language (usage and editing services)
Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's Author Services.


Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files (e.g., Word, LaTeX) are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.

Original research articles including randomized trials, intervention studies, studies of screening and diagnostic tests, cohort studies, cost-effectiveness analyses and case control studies should be prepared in accordance with the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals ( Those of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) should follow the CONSORT-statement ( The reporting of other articles should follow the guidelines set by the different initiatives or groups listed in the appendix. We require an emailed copy of the whole article, including an abstract, illustrations, captions, tables and a list of references. The article should have two cover pages, one with complete details of the title, the source, the authors and an address, telephone and fax number or email address for the corresponding author. The second cover page, which should show only the title and subtitle of the article, will be sent to reviewers.

The authors' names (normally no more than six) and their initials should be in the same form as in their other publications with one major qualification such as MD or PhD, their current appointment and a full postal address. One author should be named for editorial correspondence.

Each submission must be accompanied by a letter of copyright transfer signed by all the authors (see the detailed description in the last section) and other relevant documents including informed consent obtained from research subjects and research approval from the supervising or institutional ethics bodies. Author(s) of each submission should clarify the functions in or contributions to their research and declare, if any, competing interest. A choice of one of the following statements will be requested when a decision has been made to accept the paper:

  • The author or one or more of the authors have received or will receive benefits for personal or professional use from a commercial party related directly or indirectly to the subject of this article.
  • No benefits in any form have been received or will be received from a commercial party related directly or indirectly to the subject of this article.
  • The author or authors do not choose to declare any conflict of interest related directly or indirectly to the subject of this article.

The statements selected by the author or authors will be published with the article. The signature of each author will be required. No article will be published until the completed form has been received at the Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Diseases International office.

Manuscripts should be prepared with generous margins, and double spacing is essential throughout the text, the references and the captions. Tables, figures, captions and list of references should appear properly in the text. The style should be simple and direct, free from ambiguity and jargon, and with minimal use of abbreviations.

The title of the paper should be chosen with care: a short one has more impact and may be expanded by a subtitle.

Peer review

This journal operates a single anonymized review process. All contributions are typically sent to a minimum of two independent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor's decision is final. Editors are not involved in decisions about papers which they have written themselves or have been written by family members or colleagues or which relate to products or services in which the editor has an interest. Any such submission is subject to all of the journal's usual procedures, with peer review handled independently of the relevant editor and their research groups. More information on types of peer review.

Use of word processing software
It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier). Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork.
To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.

Article structure

Subdivision - numbered sections
Divide your article into clearly defined and numbered sections. Subsections should be numbered 1.1 (then 1.1.1, 1.1.2, ...), 1.2, etc. (the abstract is not included in section numbering). Use this numbering also for internal cross-referencing: do not just refer to 'the text'. Any subsection may be given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line.

State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results.

Material and methods
Provide sufficient details to allow the work to be reproduced by an independent researcher. Methods that are already published should be summarized, and indicated by a reference. If quoting directly from a previously published method, use quotation marks and also cite the source. Any modifications to existing methods should also be described.

A Theory section should extend, not repeat, the background to the article already dealt with in the Introduction and lay the foundation for further work. In contrast, a Calculation section represents a practical development from a theoretical basis.

Results should be clear and concise.

This should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. A combined Results and Discussion section is often appropriate. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature.

The main conclusions of the study may be presented in a short Conclusions section, which may stand alone or form a subsection of a Discussion or Results and Discussion section.

If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq. (A.1), Eq. (A.2), etc.; in a subsequent appendix, Eq. (B.1) and so on. Similarly for tables and figures: Table A.1; Fig. A.1, etc.

Essential title page information

Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
Author names and affiliations. Please clearly indicate the given name(s) and family name(s) of each author and check that all names are accurately spelled. You can add your name between parentheses in your own script behind the English transliteration. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. This responsibility includes answering any future queries about Methodology and Materials. Ensure that the e-mail address is given and that contact details are kept up to date by the corresponding author.
Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.


Highlights are optional yet highly encouraged for this journal, as they increase the discoverability of your article via search engines. They consist of a short collection of bullet points that capture the novel results of your research as well as new methods that were used during the study (if any). Please have a look at the examples here: example Highlights.

Highlights should be submitted in a separate editable file in the online submission system. Please use 'Highlights' in the file name and include 3 to 5 bullet points (maximum 85 characters, including spaces, per bullet point).

Structured Abstracts
Structured abstract of original articles should include four sections as Background, Methods, Results and Conclusions and have no more than 300 words summarizing the most important points in the article, incorporating key words suitable for electronic retrieval systems. Background: This section should provide a precise statement of the primary focus of the study and the context in which it was carried out. Methods: This section describes how the study was performed, including details of clinical and/or technical procedures. Results: This section describes the salient results of the study. Conclusions: This section covers conclusions and their clinical application or others, while equal emphasis should be given to positive and negative findings of equal scientific merit.

The main text should be divided under headings. For many research papers the best sequence is Introduction, Methods (Materials or Patients), Results, and Discussion. The text should comment on, but should not repeat, the details given in tables, figures or captions. Any acknowledgements should be made at the end of the main text.

Introduction: This should explain the problem which is to be addressed, with a definition of the hypothesis to be examined if appropriate, out-lining, briefly, its relevance to the appropriate literature.

Methods (Materials or Patients): The subjects of the study and the methods employed in the investigation must be clearly described. For example, the reasons for examining the particular group of patients should be made clear, and reasons for exclusion of individuals from the study must be stated. Any group used as controls must be defined accurately.

Ethical approval of studies and informed consent are required. For all manuscripts reporting data from studies involving human participants or animals, formal review and approval, or formal review and waiver, by an appropriate institutional review board or ethics committee is required and should be described in the Methods section. For those investigators who do not have formal ethics review committees, the principles outlined in the Declaration of Helsinki should be followed. For investigations of humans, state in the Methods section the manner in which informed consent was obtained from the study participants (i.e., oral or written). Editors may request that authors provide documentation of the formal review and recommendation from the institutional review board or ethics committee responsible for oversight of the study.

Results: These must be clearly expressed in simple language. Tables or similar diagrams can be used but must not duplicate material already described in the text.

Discussion: This section must be succinct, pointing out the relevance of the work described in the article and its contribution to current knowledge. The results must be interpreted clearly, and both strength and weakness expressed. Discussion of pertinent references must be concise and short.

Each of the tables should have a short descriptive heading.

Graphical abstract
Although a graphical abstract is optional, its use is encouraged as it draws more attention to the online article. The graphical abstract should summarize the contents of the article in a concise, pictorial form designed to capture the attention of a wide readership. Graphical abstracts should be submitted as a separate file in the online submission system. Image size: Please provide an image with a minimum of 531 × 1328 pixels (h × w) or proportionally more. The image should be readable at a size of 5 × 13 cm using a regular screen resolution of 96 dpi. Preferred file types: TIFF, EPS, PDF or MS Office files. You can view Example Graphical Abstracts on our information site.
Authors can make use of Elsevier's Illustration Services to ensure the best presentation of their images and in accordance with all technical requirements.


Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 6 keywords, using American spelling and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, 'and', 'of'). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.

Define abbreviations that are not standard in this field in a footnote to be placed on the first page of the article. Such abbreviations that are unavoidable in the abstract must be defined at their first mention there, as well as in the footnote. Ensure consistency of abbreviations throughout the article.

Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.).

Math formulae
Please submit math equations as editable text and not as images. Present simple formulae in line with normal text where possible and use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line for small fractional terms, e.g., X/Y. In principle, variables are to be presented in italics. Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp. Number consecutively any equations that have to be displayed separately from the text (if referred to explicitly in the text).

Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article. Many word processors can build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Otherwise, please indicate the position of footnotes in the text and list the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article. Do not include footnotes in the Reference list.


Electronic artwork
General points
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.
• Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
• Provide captions to illustrations separately.
• Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the published version.
• Submit each illustration as a separate file.
• Ensure that color images are accessible to all, including those with impaired color vision.

A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available.
You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format.
Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.
Please do not:
• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
• Supply files that are too low in resolution;
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

Color artwork
Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF), or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color online (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. For color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article. Please indicate your preference for color: in print or online only. Further information on the preparation of electronic artwork.

Illustrations Photographs, drawings, diagrams, charts and graphs should meet the editorial demands. The "three-dimensional" bar charts produced by computer programs are not acceptable. Photomicrographs with no inset scale should have the magnification of the print in the caption; stains should be indicated. The lettering on diagrams and graphs should be large enough to be clear after it has been reduced for printing and be consistent in size and style. Color will be accepted only where it is essential. Permission to reproduce any borrowed illustration must be obtained from the author and the publisher, and evidence of this permission must accompany the submitted article.

Review articles are welcome especially systematic, critical assessments of the literature and data sources pertaining to clinical topics, emphasizing factors such as cause, diagnosis, prognosis, therapy, or prevention. All articles and data sources reviewed should include information about the specific type of study or analysis, population, intervention, exposure, and tests or outcomes. All articles or data sources should be selected systematically for inclusion in the review and critically evaluated, and the selection process should be described in the article. Meta-analyses also will be considered as review articles. Editors ask potential authors of review articles to check the MOOSE initiative for meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology (See the appendix).

Study Design
Randomized controlled trial (RCT)--superiority design CONSORT statement (Begg C, et al. JAMA 1996;276:637-639.) RCT with non-inferiority/equivalence design Modified CONSORT statement (Piaggio G, et al. JAMA 2006;295:1152-1160.) Systematic review of therapeutic interventions QUOROM statement (Moher D, et al. Lancet 1999;354:1896-1900.) PIIS0140-6736(99)04149-5/fulltext Diagnostic test performance study STARD statement (Bossuyt PM, et al. Clin Chem 2003;49:1-6.) Systematic review of diagnostic tests QUADAS statement (BMC Med Res Method 2006;6(9). Systematic review of observational study MOOSE statement (Stroup DF, et al. JAMA 2000;283:2008-2012.) Economic evaluations CHEC criteria (Evers S, et al. Int J Tech Assess Health Care 2005;21:240-245.) fromPage=online and aid=292673

Article Types
Letters to the editor on matters of recently published articles in the journal are especially welcome, which should not exceed 400 words. Letters of general interest, unlinked to items published in the journal, can be up to 1500 words long and are to be sent for peer-reviewed. Correspondence letters are not usually peer reviewed, but the journal might invite replies from the authors of the original publication, or pass on letters to these authors. Only two tables or figures are permitted, and there should be no more than 10 references and six authors. All accepted letters are edited, and proofs will be sent out to authors before publication.

Letter of Copyright Transfer
Letter of copyright transfer
We require a letter of copyright transfer signed by all named authors, stating that they have taken a significant and active part in the preparation of the article, that they have read and approved the final version, and are willing to discuss it in detail. This is essential for the reviewing process to be completed. Possibly duplicative materials (i.e., those containing substantially similar content or using the same or similar data) that have been previously published or are being considered elsewhere must be provided at the time of manuscript submission.

To conform with the Copyright Act of China, this letter must contain the following paragraph:

In consideration of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Diseases International reviewing and editing my (our) submission, the author(s) undersigned hereby transfer(s), assign(s), or otherwise conveys all copyright ownership to Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Diseases International represent(s) that he (they) own(s) all rights in the material submitted. The author(s) further confirm(s) that the article is original, that it is not under consideration by another journal in any language, and that it has not been previously published, in whole or in part, in another journal in any language. There is no conflict of interests relevant to the study reported in this article.

For convenience potential author can download the form of the letter from our journal's website. This assignment is to take effect only if the work is published in Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Diseases International.

These instructions can also be found on the journal's website at and may be copied by those intending to submit an article.

Letter of Copyright Transfer

Your name (printed)__________________________________
Tel_____________________ Fax_________________________
Corresponding author ________________________________
Manuscript entitled:__________________________________________
We have taken a significant and active part in the preparation of the article, and we have read and approved the final version. We are willing to discuss it in detail.

In consideration of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Diseases International reviewing and editing my(our) submission, the author(s) undersigned hereby transfer(s), assign(s), or otherwise conveys all copyright ownership to Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Diseases International represent(s) that he(they) own(s) all rights in the material submitted. The author(s) further confirm(s) that the article is original, that it is not under consideration by another journal in any language, and that it has not been previously published, in whole or in part, in another journal in any language. There is no conflict of interests relevant to the study reported in this article.

This assignment is to take effect only if the work is published in Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Diseases International. Authors' name(s) in order of appearance in the manuscript, signatures (date):

  1. Full name (printed):_____________________________________
    Abbreviated name in PubMed (printed):____________________
    Signed (handwritten):____________________________________

  2. Full name (printed):_____________________________________
    Abbreviated name in PubMed (printed):____________________
    Signed (handwritten):____________________________________

Figure captions
Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.


Please submit tables as editable text and not as images. Tables can be placed either next to the relevant text in the article, or on separate page(s) at the end. Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text and place any table notes below the table body. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in them do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article. Please avoid using vertical rules and shading in table cells.

Citation in text
Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.

Reference links
Increased discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, CrossRef and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the DOI is highly encouraged.

A DOI is guaranteed never to change, so you can use it as a permanent link to any electronic article. An example of a citation using DOI for an article not yet in an issue is: VanDecar J.C., Russo R.M., James D.E., Ambeh W.B., Franke M. (2003). Aseismic continuation of the Lesser Antilles slab beneath northeastern Venezuela. Journal of Geophysical Research, Please note the format of such citations should be in the same style as all other references in the paper.

The references in the text should include only those that are important and have been studied fully by the authors. The authors are responsible for the accuracy and completeness of the cited references and for correct citation of the text. When listing references the names of journals should be abbreviated according to Index Medicus (List all authors and/or editors up to 6; if more than 6, list the first 6 and et al). All references will be checked deliberately by the authors; PMID roots in the abstract serial number indexed by PubMed
( are requested. The references cited should be represented in the text by superscript numbers in the order of their appearance. The list of references at the end of the text should be in this numerical order with details and punctuation as follows:

Article from journal-more than one author Yan S, Zhang QY, Yu YS, He JJ, Wang WL, Zhang M, et al. Microsurgical reconstruction of hepatic artery in living donor liver transplantation: experiences and lessons. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int 2009;8:575- 580. PMID: 20007072

Article from journals with English abstracts only Ma Y, Hu AB, Xiong J. Migration of donor dendritic cell inducing graft acceptance in combined transplantation of liver and kidney [abstract in English]. Zhonghua Shi Yan Wai Ke Za Zhi 2006;23: 750-752.

Monographic series Davidoff RA. Migraine: manifestations, pathogenesis, and management. Philadelphia, Pa: FA Davis; 1995. Contemporary Neurology Series, No. 42.

Online journals with volume and page information Simon JA, Hudes ES. Relationship of ascorbic acid to blood lead levels. JAMA 1999;281:2289-2293. PMID: 10386552. Accessed June 11, 2009. http://jama.ama-assn. org/cgi/content/full/281/24/2289

Online journals without volume and page information Verschuur EM, Steyerberg EW, Tilanus HW, Polinder S, Essink-Bot ML, Tran KT, et al. Nurse-led follow-up of patients after oesophageal or gastric cardia cancer surgery: a randomised trial. Br J Cancer 2008 Dec 9. PMID: 19066612 6604811

Online website Morse SS. Factors in the emergence of infectious diseases. Emerg Infect Dis [serial online] 1995 Jan-Mar [cited 1996 Jun 5]; 1(1): [24 screens]. Available from: www.cdc. gov/ncidod/eid/vol1no1/ morse.htm

Book-more than one author (list all authors if six or less, otherwise list first three followed by et al) Baselt RC, Cravey RH. Disposition of toxic drugs and chemicals in man, 4th ed. Foster City, CA: Chemical Toxicology Institute;1995.

Chapter from a book Calne RY. Experimental background. In: Calne RY, ed. Liver transplantation, 2nd ed. London: Grune and stratton; 1987:3-7.

Book-with editors Maddrey WC, ed. Transplantation of the liver. New York: Elsevier Science Publishing;1998.

Data references
This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in your published article.

References in a special issue
Please ensure that the words 'this issue' are added to any references in the list (and any citations in the text) to other articles in the same Special Issue.

Reference style
Text: Indicate references by number(s) in square brackets in line with the text. The actual authors can be referred to, but the reference number(s) must always be given.
Example: '..... as demonstrated [3,6]. Barnaby and Jones [8] obtained a different result ....'
List: Number the references (numbers in square brackets) in the list in the order in which they appear in the text.

Journal abbreviations source
Journal names should be abbreviated according to the List of Title Word Abbreviations.


Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the file in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 150 MB per file, 1 GB in total. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect. Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages. Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.

Supplementary material

Supplementary material such as applications, images and sound clips, can be published with your article to enhance it. Submitted supplementary items are published exactly as they are received (Excel or PowerPoint files will appear as such online). Please submit your material together with the article and supply a concise, descriptive caption for each supplementary file. If you wish to make changes to supplementary material during any stage of the process, please make sure to provide an updated file. Do not annotate any corrections on a previous version. Please switch off the 'Track Changes' option in Microsoft Office files as these will appear in the published version.


One set of page proofs (as PDF files) will be sent by e-mail to the corresponding author (if we do not have an e-mail address then paper proofs will be sent by post) or a link will be provided in the e-mail so that authors can download the files themselves. To ensure a fast publication process of the article, we kindly ask authors to provide us with their proof corrections within two days. Elsevier now provides authors with PDF proofs which can be annotated; for this you will need to download the free Adobe Reader, version 9 (or higher). Instructions on how to annotate PDF files will accompany the proofs (also given online). The exact system requirements are given at the Adobe site.
If you do not wish to use the PDF annotations function, you may list the corrections (including replies to the Query Form) and return them to Elsevier in an e-mail. Please list your corrections quoting line number. If, for any reason, this is not possible, then mark the corrections and any other comments (including replies to the Query Form) on a printout of your proof and scan the pages and return via e-mail. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication: please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.


The corresponding author, at no cost, will be provided with a PDF file of the article via e-mail (the PDF file is a watermarked version of the published article and includes a cover sheet with the journal cover image and a disclaimer outlining the terms and conditions of use). For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's Author Services.

Visit the Elsevier Support Center to find the answers you need. Here you will find everything from Frequently Asked Questions to ways to get in touch.
You can also check the status of your submitted article or find out when your accepted article will be published.