Guide for Authors

All journal information and instructions compiled in one document (PDF) in just one mouse-click Author information pack

BEFORE YOU BEGIN
• Peer review
• Ethics in publishing
• Human and animal rights
• Declaration of interest
• Submission declaration and verification
• Authorship
• Changes to authorship
• Copyright
• Role of the funding source
• Open access
• Open access fee
• Informed consent and patient details
• Submission
• Revision policy
• Manuscript categories
PREPARATION
• Article structure
• Essential title page information
• Keywords
• Abbreviations
• Artwork
• Tables
• References
• Supplementary material
• RESEARCH DATA
• Virtual Microscope
• Submission checklist
AFTER ACCEPTANCE
• Open access license and payment
• Proofs
AUTHOR INQUIRIES


HeartRhythm Case Reports provides rapid online electronic publication of the most important current case reports, illustrations, and educational vignettes in the field of cardiac arrhythmias and electrophysiology. Submissions are encouraged from all professionals that participate in the care and management of heart rhythm disorders. The Journal publishes case reports and series devoted to the diagnosis and treatment of heart rhythm disorders, as well as the electrophysiology of the heart and blood vessels. All articles are peer-reviewed, and the Journal is published online only with open access. Articles from the Editor's institution are processed by a guest editor.

Manuscripts must be submitted online at http://ees.elsevier.com/hrcr/

Peer review

This journal operates a double blind review process. All contributions will be initially assessed by the editor for suitability for the journal. Papers deemed suitable are then sent to a minimum of two independent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper, frequently under the direction of a section editor with expertise in the manuscript topic. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor's decision is final. For more information on the types of peer review, please visit: https://www.elsevier.com/reviewers/peer-review

Ethics in publishing

Please see our information pages on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication.

Human and animal rights

If the work involves the use of human subjects, the author should ensure that the work described has been carried out in accordance with The Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association (Declaration of Helsinki) for experiments involving humans, http://www.wma.net/en/30publications/10policies/b3/index.html; Uniform Requirements for manuscripts submitted to Biomedical journals, http://www.icmje.org. Authors should include a statement in the manuscript that informed consent was obtained for experimentation with human subjects. The privacy rights of human subjects must always be observed.

In any submission in which an animal model or study is used to confirm the clinical findings of a case report or study, all animal experiments must be carried out in accordance with the U.K. Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act, 1986 and associated guidelines, EU Directive 2010/63/EU for animal experiments, or the National Institutes of Health guide for the care and use of Laboratory animals (NIH Publications No. 8023, revised 1978) and the authors should clearly indicate in the manuscript that such guidelines have been followed. All animal studies need to ensure they comply with the ARRIVE guidelines. More information can be found at http://www.nc3rs.org.uk/page.asp?id=1357.

Declaration of interest

All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. If there are no conflicts of interest then please state this: 'Conflicts of interest: none'. More information.

The corresponding author must upload a signed HeartRhythm Case Reports conflict of interest form: http://ees.elsevier.com/hrcr/img/HR_Case_Reports_COI_Form.docx

Submission declaration and verification

Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' section of our ethics policy for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service CrossCheck.

Please confirm in the cover letter with your submission that the manuscript is original and that no aspect of the case report, images, or tables has been published elsewhere outside of abstract form for a meeting. Please also confirm that all authors are responsible for the contents and have read and approved the manuscript for submission to HeartRhythm Case Reports.

Authorship

All authors should have made substantial contributions to all of the following: (1) the conception and design of the study, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data, (2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content, (3) final approval of the version to be submitted.

More than 6 authors must be justified.

Changes to authorship

Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the journal Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed.
Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted. While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the Editor will result in a corrigendum.

Copyright

Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (see more information on this). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.

Author rights
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. More information.

Elsevier supports responsible sharing
Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.

Role of the funding source

You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.

Funding body agreements and policies
Elsevier has established a number of agreements with funding bodies which allow authors to comply with their funder's open access policies. Some funding bodies will reimburse the author for the Open Access Publication Fee. Details of existing agreements are available online.
After acceptance, open access papers will be published under a noncommercial license. For authors requiring a commercial CC BY license, you can apply after your manuscript is accepted for publication.

Open access

This is an open access journal: all articles will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download. To provide open access, this journal has an open access fee (also known as an article publishing charge APC) which needs to be paid by the authors or on their behalf e.g. by their research funder or institution. Permitted third party (re)use is defined by the following Creative Commons user licenses:

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND)
For non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.

Open access fee

The open access publication fee for this journal is USD 850, excluding taxes. The open access publication fee is USD 600 if the corresponding author listed on the title page is a member of the Heart Rhythm Society. Learn more about Elsevier's pricing policy: http://www.elsevier.com/openaccesspricing.

Language (usage and editing services)
Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop.

Informed consent and patient details

Appropriate consents, permissions and releases must be obtained where an author wishes to include case details or other personal information or images of patients and any other individuals in an Elsevier publication. Written consents must be retained by the author and copies of the consents or evidence that such consents have been obtained must be provided to Elsevier on request. For more information, please review the Elsevier Policy on the Use of Images or Personal Information of Patients or other Individuals, http://www.elsevier.com/patient-consent-policy. Unless you have written permission from the patient (or, where applicable, the next of kin), the personal details of any patient included in any part of the article and in any supplementary materials (including all illustrations and videos) must be removed before submission.

Submission

Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files (e.g., Word, LaTeX) are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.

Submit your article
Please submit your article via http://ees.elsevier.com/hrcr/

Revision policy

Revisions should be submitted to the Journal within 2 months of notification of a decision. If more time is needed, please notify the journal office at CRJournal@HRSonline.org.

Manuscript categories

Case Reports
Submissions are limited to 6 authors and 2500 words, including text, references (15), figure legends, and 3 figures. No abstract should be included. All case reports will be considered. Selection priority will be based upon the reporting of a novel finding or a first of its kind report, a rare presentation of a common condition, a common condition with a rare presentation, a case that demonstrates a series of core educational concepts of electrophysiology.

Clinical Problem Solving (Solicited and Unsolicited)
Submissions are limited to 4-6 authors and 3500 words, including text, references (25), figure legends, and up to 3 figures. No abstract should be included. These manuscripts should include a step-by-step process of clinical decision making. The patient should be presented in stepwise stages allowing commentary as additional information or understanding is obtained.

Images
Submissions to "Electrophysiology Images and Movies" are limited to 4 authors, 1500 words, and no more than 2 figures. No abstract should be included. Figure legends are permitted but should be concise. Up to 5 reference citations are permitted. Images that have educational value for teaching section of the journal will also require that the author submit a pertinent question regarding the educational image and then provide an answer. Authors can also include a single electronic movie (e.g. QuickTime or MPEG1 formats) file or computer animation (e.g. as Power Point file) that expands or enhances the message of the images. Animations or movies must provide novel or especially useful means of conveying known principles (e.g. Animations or movies that effectively teach/portray an electrophysiological mechanism or process). If an electronic movie or animation is submitted, the authors must also provide 1 or 2 frames of images that convey the essence of the movie's content. A movie legend must be submitted as supplemental material.

Electrocardiogram Unknowns
Manuscripts are limited to 1500 words, ≤3 illustrations, ≤4 authors, and ≤5 references. No abstarct should be included. The intracardiac electrograms or electrocardiogram should be presented as an unknown. The figures must contain enough information for the reader to make the correct diagnosis. The figure legends should not reveal the correct diagnosis. The cases will be judged based on degree of difficulty, novelty, and teaching value.

Letters to the Editor
Letters should be double-spaced, not exceeding 400 words, including references. Letters will be reviewed and are subject to editing. They should not contain original data or figures. Commentary regarding prior cases or clinical problem-solving manuscripts is encouraged, particularly if it further enhances education.

Allied Professional Section
A separate section of the journal will be dedicated towards Allied Professionals. Allied professionals are encouraged to submit Case Reports, Images, or Clinical Problem Solving manuscripts under the same conditions as described above but to this section. Novelty is not required. The case report, image, or clinical problem should illustrate differential diagnosis and key educational points that are particularly relevant for allied professionals.

My Most Challenging Case
All articles by invitation only.

My Most Difficult Complication
All articles by invitation only.

Use of word processing software
It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier). Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork.
To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.

Article structure

Subdivision - unnumbered sections
Divide your article into clearly defined sections. Each subsection is given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line. Subsections should be used as much as possible when cross-referencing text: refer to the subsection by heading as opposed to simply 'the text'.

Introduction
A brief Introduction section is required for all cases and image submissions. State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey.

Case Report
Describe the details of the case.

Discussion
This should explore the significance of the case. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature.

Conclusions
The main conclusions of the case may be presented in a short Conclusions section, which may stand alone or form a subsection of a Discussion section.

Key Teaching Points
Provide a list of the Key Teaching Points from your article. The Key Teaching Points should be brief bullets (each bullet may be up to 2-3 sentences). The Key Teaching Points should be submitted in MS Word format as a separate file, rather than embedded in the main manuscript document. Include a minimum of 3 Key Teaching Points.

Appendices
If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq. (A.1), Eq. (A.2), etc.; in a subsequent appendix, Eq. (B.1) and so on. Similarly for tables and figures: Table A.1; Fig. A.1, etc.

Essential title page information

Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible. Do not include trade names in titles.
Short title. Include a short title of 50 or fewer characters.
Author names, academic degrees, and affiliations. Please include academic degrees after each author’s name. Fellows of the Heart Rhythm Society (FHRS) should be identified by including FHRS after the degree. Where the family name may be ambiguous (e.g., a double name), please indicate this clearly. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that phone numbers (with country and area code) are provided in addition to the e-mail address and the complete postal address. Contact details must be kept up to date by the corresponding author.
Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.
Word count.The total word count should be included on the title page.

Keywords

Immediately after the title page, provide 5-10 keywords, using American spelling and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, 'and', 'of'). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.

Abbreviations

Avoid ALL abbreviations other than standard units of measurement and common abbreviations, such as RV, LV, etc. Such abbreviations that are unavoidable should be spelled out at first mention in both the abstract and the text. Ensure consistency of abbreviations throughout the article.

Acknowledgements
Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.).

Formatting of funding sources
List funding sources in this standard way to facilitate compliance to funder's requirements:

Funding: This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health [grant numbers xxxx, yyyy]; the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, WA [grant number zzzz]; and the United States Institutes of Peace [grant number aaaa].

It is not necessary to include detailed descriptions on the program or type of grants and awards. When funding is from a block grant or other resources available to a university, college, or other research institution, submit the name of the institute or organization that provided the funding.

If no funding has been provided for the research, please include the following sentence:

This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Units
Follow internationally accepted rules and conventions: use the international system of units (SI). If other units are mentioned, please give their equivalent in SI.

Math formulae
Please submit math equations as editable text and not as images. Present simple formulae in line with normal text where possible and use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line for small fractional terms, e.g., X/Y. In principle, variables are to be presented in italics. Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp. Number consecutively any equations that have to be displayed separately from the text (if referred to explicitly in the text).

Footnotes
Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article. Many wordprocessors build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Should this not be the case, indicate the position of footnotes in the text and present the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article. Do not include footnotes in the Reference list.

Artwork

New: For the ease of reviewers, please include figures and legends at the end of the main manuscript MS Word file. Each legend should appear on the same page as the figure it describes. For revised submissions, please also upload each figure as a separate, high resolution figure file. Acceptable file formats are noted below.
General points
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.
• Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
• Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the final, composited version.
• Submit each illustration as a separate file.
A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available on our website:
http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions
You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
Formats
If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format.
Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.
Please do not:
• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
• Supply files that are too low in resolution;
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

Color Artwork
Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF), or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution.

Figure captions
Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.

Tables

Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text. Each table should be included on a separate page and designed for economy of space and readability. Notes designated in the tables and all abbreviations should be defined in a footnote. Abbreviations should be identified in alphabetical order. Footnotes should be used in the following order: †, ‡, §, ¶, #. Avoid vertical rules. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in tables do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article.

References

Citation in text
Please ensure that every reference cited in text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text in parentheses. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.

Reference links
Increased discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, CrossRef and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the DOI is encouraged.

A DOI can be used to cite and link to electronic articles where an article is in-press and full citation details are not yet known, but the article is available online. A DOI is guaranteed never to change, so you can use it as a permanent link to any electronic article. An example of a citation using DOI for an article not yet in an issue is: VanDecar J.C., Russo R.M., James D.E., Ambeh W.B., Franke M. (2003). Aseismic continuation of the Lesser Antilles slab beneath northeastern Venezuela. Journal of Geophysical Research, https://doi.org/10.1029/2001JB000884. Please note the format of such citations should be in the same style as all other references in the paper.

Web references
As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.

Data references
This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in your published article.

References in a special issue
Please ensure that the words 'this issue' are added to any references in the list (and any citations in the text) to other articles in the same Special Issue.

Reference style
Text: Indicate references by (consecutive) superscript Arabic numerals in the order in which they appear in the text. The numerals are to be used outside periods and commas, inside colons and semicolons. For further detail and examples you are referred to the AMA Manual of Style, A Guide for Authors and Editors, Tenth Edition, ISBN 0-978-0-19-517633-9 (see http://www.amanualofstyle.com/)
List: Number the references in the list in the order in which they appear in the text. Please list the first 12 authors in each reference. If there are more than 12 authors, list the first 3 followed by et al.
Examples:

Reference to a journal publication:

  • 1. Veltmann C, Papavassiliu T, Konrad T, Doesch C, Kuschyk J, Streitner F, Haghi D, Michaely HJ, Schoenberg SO, Borggrefe M, Wolpert C, Schimpf R. Insights into the location of type I ECG in patients with Brugada syndrome: correlation of ECG and cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging. Heart Rhythm 2012;9:414-421.
  • 2. Calkins H, Kuck KH, Cappato R, et al. 2012 HRS/EHRA/ECAS expert consensus statement on catheter and surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation: Recommendations for patient selection, procedural techniques, patient management and follow-up, definitions, endpoints, and research trial design. Heart Rhythm 2012;9:632-696.
  • Reference to a book:

  • 3. Strunk W Jr, White EB. The Elements of Style. 4th ed. New York, NY: Longman; 2000.
  • Reference to a chapter in an edited book:

  • 4. Mettam GR, Adams LB. How to prepare an electronic version of your article. In: Jones BS, Smith RZ, eds. Introduction to the Electronic Age. New York, NY: E-Publishing Inc; 2009:281-304.


  • Abbreviations for periodicals cited in the references should follow the style of Index Medicus and can also be accessed at http://www.nlm.nih.gov.

    Supplementary material

    Supplementary material such as applications, images and sound clips, can be published with your article to enhance it. Submitted supplementary items are published exactly as they are received (Excel or PowerPoint files will appear as such online). Please submit your material together with the article and supply a concise, descriptive caption for each supplementary file. If you wish to make changes to supplementary material during any stage of the process, please make sure to provide an updated file. Do not annotate any corrections on a previous version. Please switch off the 'Track Changes' option in Microsoft Office files as these will appear in the published version.

    Supplementary material is scientific evidence and assumed to be original. If published previously, the source must be cited with permission exactly as required for previously published material and should not include logos, symbolic landmarks, or any other identification of the origin.

    RESEARCH DATA

    This journal encourages and enables you to share data that supports your research publication where appropriate, and enables you to interlink the data with your published articles. Research data refers to the results of observations or experimentation that validate research findings. To facilitate reproducibility and data reuse, this journal also encourages you to share your software, code, models, algorithms, protocols, methods and other useful materials related to the project.

    Below are a number of ways in which you can associate data with your article or make a statement about the availability of your data when submitting your manuscript. If you are sharing data in one of these ways, you are encouraged to cite the data in your manuscript and reference list. Please refer to the "References" section for more information about data citation. For more information on depositing, sharing and using research data and other relevant research materials, visit the research data page.

    Data linking
    If you have made your research data available in a data repository, you can link your article directly to the dataset. Elsevier collaborates with a number of repositories to link articles on ScienceDirect with relevant repositories, giving readers access to underlying data that gives them a better understanding of the research described.

    There are different ways to link your datasets to your article. When available, you can directly link your dataset to your article by providing the relevant information in the submission system. For more information, visit the database linking page.

    For supported data repositories a repository banner will automatically appear next to your published article on ScienceDirect.

    In addition, you can link to relevant data or entities through identifiers within the text of your manuscript, using the following format: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN).

    Mendeley Data
    This journal supports Mendeley Data, enabling you to deposit any research data (including raw and processed data, video, code, software, algorithms, protocols, and methods) associated with your manuscript in a free-to-use, open access repository. Before submitting your article, you can deposit the relevant datasets to Mendeley Data. Please include the DOI of the deposited dataset(s) in your main manuscript file. The datasets will be listed and directly accessible to readers next to your published article online.

    For more information, visit the Mendeley Data for journals page.

    Data statement
    To foster transparency, we encourage you to state the availability of your data in your submission. This may be a requirement of your funding body or institution. If your data is unavailable to access or unsuitable to post, you will have the opportunity to indicate why during the submission process, for example by stating that the research data is confidential. The statement will appear with your published article on ScienceDirect. For more information, visit the Data Statement page.

    Virtual Microscope

    The journal encourages authors to supplement in-article microscopic images with corresponding high resolution versions for use with the Virtual Microscope viewer. The Virtual Microscope is a web based viewer that enables users to view microscopic images at the highest level of detail and provides features such as zoom and pan. This feature for the first time gives authors the opportunity to share true high resolution microscopic images with their readers. More information and examples. Authors of this journal will receive an invitation e-mail to create microscope images for use with the Virtual Microscope when their manuscript is first reviewed. If you opt to use the feature, please contact virtualmicroscope@elsevier.com for instructions on how to prepare and upload the required high resolution images.

    Submission checklist

    The following list will be useful during the final checking of an article prior to sending it to the journal for review. Please consult this Guide for Authors for further details of any item.
    Ensure that the following items are present:
    Cover letter confirming:
    • The article is original, with no portion under simultaneous consideration for publication elsewhere or previously published, except for an abstract of fewer than 400 words.
    • All authors have read and approve the submission
    • One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
    • E-mail address
    • Full postal address
    • Phone numbers
    All necessary files have been uploaded, and contain:
    • Keywords
    • Each figure caption is included on the same page as the figure it describes
    • All tables (including title, description, footnotes)
    Further considerations
    • Manuscript has been 'spell-checked' and 'grammar-checked'
    • Manuscript is double-spaced, single columned, and pages are numbered.
    • Manuscript includes continuous line numbering
    •References are in the correct format for this journal
    • All references mentioned in the Reference list are cited in the text, and vice versa
    • Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Web)
    For any further information please visit our customer support site at http://support.elsevier.com.

    Open access license and payment

    Shortly after acceptance, the corresponding author listed on the title page will be contacted regarding license options, funding information, and payment of the Open Access fee. Once the necessary forms and payment have been received, the article will be posted on the journal website in its accepted form and sent for composition.

    Proofs

    One set of page proofs (as PDF files) will be sent by e-mail to the corresponding author (if we do not have an e-mail address then paper proofs will be sent by post) or, a link will be provided in the e-mail so that authors can download the files themselves. Elsevier now provides authors with PDF proofs which can be annotated; for this you will need to download the free Adobe Reader, version 9 (or higher). Instructions on how to annotate PDF files will accompany the proofs (also given online). The exact system requirements are given at the Adobe site.
    If you do not wish to use the PDF annotations function, you may list the corrections (including replies to the Query Form) and return them to Elsevier in an e-mail. Please list your corrections quoting line number. If, for any reason, this is not possible, then mark the corrections and any other comments (including replies to the Query Form) on a printout of your proof and scan the pages and return via e-mail. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication: please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.



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