Heart Rhythm O2is the newest online-only, open access publication of the Heart Rhythm Society and is one of two open access companion titles to the respected HeartRhythm. With a focus on cardiac arrhythmias and electrophysiology, Heart Rhythm O2 publishes original clinical and experimental research, review articles, points-of-view, images and short reports focusing on new technologies, commentaries and letters to the editor. All articles will be peer reviewed. As an open access journal, Heart Rhythm O2 serves as a major venue for sharing the latest research and technologies for electrophysiologists and allied health professionals from around the world.
Case reports, illustrations, and educational vignettes can be submitted to the journal?s companion title, HeartRhythm Case Reports.
Heart Rhythm O2 is the newest online-only, gold open access publication of the Heart Rhythm Society. With a focus on cardiac arrhythmias and electrophysiology, Heart Rhythm O2 publishes original Clinical and Experimental Research, Design Papers, Topics in Review, Brief Reports, Editorial Commentaries, Letters to the Editor, and Perspectives in Contrast. All articles will be peer reviewed. As an open access journal, Heart Rhythm O2 serves as a major venue for sharing the latest research and technologies for electrophysiologists, physicians, and allied health professionals who care for patients with rhythm disorders.
Manuscripts must be submitted online at https://www.editorialmanager.com/hroo/default.aspx
Ethics in publishing
Please see our information pages on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication.
All manuscripts must include a statement stating that the research reported has adhered to the relevant ethical guidelines ("The research reported in this paper adhered to X guidelines.") Examples of relevant guidelines are:
- Clinical trials: CONSORT guidelines - http://www.consort-statement.org/
- Animal studies: ARRIVE guidelines - https://www.nc3rs.org.uk/arrive-guidelines
- Genomic data: MIAME guidelines - http://fged.org/projects/miame/
Conflict of interest
All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. If there are no conflicts of interest then please state this: 'Conflicts of interest: none'. See also https://www.elsevier.com/conflictsofinterest. Further information can be found at: https://service.elsevier.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/286/supporthub/publishing.
The corresponding author must upload a signed Heart Rhythm O2 conflict of interest form and include the conflicts of all authors on the title page of the article. The Heart Rhythm O2 conflict form can be found at the following link: https://www.elsevier.com/__data/promis_misc/HRO2_COI_Form.docx
Submission declaration and verification
Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract, a published lecture or academic thesis, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service Crossref Similarity Check.
Please confirm in the cover letter with your submission that the manuscript is original and that all authors are responsible for the contents and have read and approved the manuscript for submission to Heart Rhythm O2.
Use of inclusive language
Inclusive language acknowledges diversity, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and promotes equal opportunities. Content should make no assumptions about the beliefs or commitments of any reader; contain nothing which might imply that one individual is superior to another on the grounds of age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition; and use inclusive language throughout. Authors should ensure that writing is free from bias, stereotypes, slang, reference to dominant culture and/or cultural assumptions. We advise to seek gender neutrality by using plural nouns ("clinicians, patients/clients") as default/wherever possible to avoid using "he, she," or "he/she." We recommend avoiding the use of descriptors that refer to personal attributes such as age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition unless they are relevant and valid. These guidelines are meant as a point of reference to help identify appropriate language but are by no means exhaustive or definitive.
All authors should have made substantial contributions to all of the following: (1) the conception and design of the study, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data, (2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content, (3) final approval of the version to be submitted.
Changes to authorship
This policy concerns the addition, deletion, or rearrangement of author names:
Before an article is accepted for publication: If an author is removed, the corresponding author must upload with the resubmission a letter explaining (a) the reason the person is being removed and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, fax, letter) from all authors that they agree with the removal or rearrangement. In the case of removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being removed. All documentation should be collated into a single file (preferably PDF) and uploaded via the submission site as an "Author Change Documentation" submission item.
After acceptance, but before the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Requests to add or remove an author, or to rearrange the author names, must be sent to the Managing Editor (HROpen@HRSonline.org) from the corresponding author and include the same information as above. Requests that are not sent by the corresponding author will be forwarded by the Managing Editor to the corresponding author. Note that: (1) Managing Editors will inform the Journal Editors of any such requests and (2) publication of the accepted manuscript in an online issue is suspended until authorship has been agreed.
After the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Any requests to add, delete, or rearrange author names in an article published in an online issue must be sent to the Journal Manager and follow the same policies as noted above; changes will result in a corrigendum.
Clinical trial results
In line with the position of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, the journal will not consider results posted in the same clinical trials registry in which primary registration resides to be prior publication if the results posted are presented in the form of a brief structured (less than 500 words) abstract or table. However, divulging results in other circumstances (e.g. investor's meetings) is discouraged and may jeopardize consideration of the manuscript. Authors should fully disclose all posting in registries of results of the same or closely related work.
Registration of clinical trials
Registration in a public trials registry is a condition for publication of clinical trials in this journal in accordance with International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE, http://www.icmje.org) recommendations. Trials must register at or before the onset of patient enrolment. The clinical trial registration number should be included at the end of the abstract of the article. A clinical trial is defined as any research study that prospectively assigns human participants or groups of humans to one or more health-related interventions to evaluate the effects of health outcomes. Health-related interventions include any intervention used to modify a biomedical or health-related outcome (for example drugs, surgical procedures, devices, behavioral treatments, dietary interventions, and process-of-care changes). Health outcomes include any biomedical or health-related measures obtained in patients or participants, including pharmacokinetic measures and adverse events. Purely observational studies (those in which the assignment of the medical intervention is not at the discretion of the investigator) will not require registration.
Article transfer service
This journal is part of our Article Transfer Service. This means that if the Editor feels your article is more suitable in one of our other participating journals, then you may be asked to consider transferring the article to one of those. If you agree, your article will be transferred automatically on your behalf with no need to reformat. Please note that your article will be reviewed again by the new journal. More information.
Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an 'Exclusive License Agreement' (more information). Permitted third party reuse of gold open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license
Elsevier supports responsible sharing
Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.
Authors may share preprints of their work at any time.
Role of the funding source
You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.
Please visit our Open Access page for more information.
Language (usage and editing services)
Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's Author Services.
Informed consent and patient details
Studies on patients or volunteers require Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval, which must be documented in the Methods section of the paper. Appropriate consents, permissions and releases must be obtained where an author wishes to include case details or other personal information or images of patients and any other individuals in an Elsevier publication and this must be documented in the paper. Written consents must be retained by the author and copies of the consents or evidence that such consents have been obtained must be provided to Elsevier on request. For more information, please review the Elsevier Policy on the Use of Images or Personal Information of Patients or other Individuals, https://www.elsevier.com/patient-consent-policy. Unless you have written permission from the patient (or, where applicable, the next of kin), the personal details of any patient included in any part of the article and in any supplementary materials (including all illustrations and videos) must be removed before submission.
Animal Studies must conform to the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. Authors must include a statement in the Methods section confirming that the study conforms to these guidelines and was approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) at the authors' institution.
Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files (e.g., Word) are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.
Revised manuscripts must be received within 6 months of notification of a decision. If more time is needed, please notify the journal office at HROpen@HRSonline.org.
Authors should review and adhere to the following guidelines for reporting of research results and case reports.
- Reporting of research results, especially regarding methods: https://www.nih.gov/research-training/rigor-reproducibility/principles-guidelines-reporting-preclinical-research
- Care Guidelines for Case Reports: http://www.care-statement.org/resources/checklist
5000 words; 8 figure/table (total); the abstract (250 words or fewer) is required and should be divided into the following 5 subsections: Background, Objective, Methods, Results, and Conclusion.Additional words and figures will be considered at the Editors' discretion.
Design papers should be ≤5000 words; the combined figure/table limit is 8. The abstract (250 words or fewer) is required and should be divided into the following 5 subsections: Background, Objective, Methods, Results, and Conclusion.
A design paper should provide the reader with a description of the knowledge gap the trial is intended to address, and what the results of this study will add to the currently available information. The paper should be written in a way that engages readers to consider the impact of the trial, describes the methodology clearly, and if less common statistical analysis is to be used, the reason for this approach. The discussion should not repeat the introductory material but rather set the stage for the impact that the authors believe the results will have for all possible outcomes.
Topics in Review Articles (Solicited and Unsolicited)
Review articles should include a brief abstract and ≤8000 words; the combined figure/table limit is 8.
Perspectives in Contrast
This submission is focused on providing contrasting opinions, perspectives, clinical value, scientific value and future adoption of new therapy or approach to patient management. Two authors are selected by invitation only to provide the contrasting perspectives. Each author should provide a strong summary of their position regarding the topic. Each author is limited to 2000 words.
Submissions to this section are for articles that contain untested or unproven new ideas with limited supporting evidence but must have compelling rationale. The idea should be one that is difficult or impossible to test definitively or would take a long time or significant resources to do so. Additional articles that can be considered are those with novel or incremental value, but are of small sample size, represent preliminary data, or are of limited content, both in methodology and results. Articles must be <1500 total words, including references and tables, and a combined total of 4 figures and/or tables. No abstract should be included. Please note that the standard Open Access Fees will be applied to these submissions.
Letters to the Editor
Letters should not exceed 400 words. Letters may refer to papers published in an issue within 6 months. Letters regarding articles posted outside this time frame will not be eligible for consideration. Letters will be reviewed and are subject to editing. They should not contain original data or figures. If accepted for publication, a copy of the letter will be sent to the author(s) of the original article, if applicable. The author(s) will have an opportunity to respond with new material that will be considered for publication with the letter.
All articles by invitation only.
All articles by invitation only. Limited to 1500 words or fewer, including references.
On the submission form, authors will be asked to select (up to 5) areas of research from the below subsections.
- Ablation - general
- Ablation - atrial fibrillation
- Ablation - techniques or technology
- Ablation - ventricular tachycardia, premature ventricular beats
- Arrhythmias in adult congenital heart disease
- Arrhythmias in children
- Arrhythmias in heart failure - evaluation, therapy, risk prediction
- Atrial fibrillation - epidemiology, evaluation and management
- Autonomic nervous system and arrhythmias
- Basic research - translational
- Behavioral science - prevention or interventional
- Bioengineering and biotechnology
- Cardiac implantable electronic devices (pacemakers, defibrators, arrhythmia monitoring)
- Clinical syndromes in electrophysiology
- Epidemiology, outcomes, research, population science
- Genetics; Omics
- Health systems and health delivery
- Heritable disorders of sudden cardiac arrest
- Monitoring arrhythmias with implantable or wearable cardiac devices
- New technologies
- Prevention of sudden cardiac death
- Sudden death, resuscitation
- Supraventricular tachyarrhythmias
- Ventricular tachycardia
This journal operates a single blind review process. All contributions will be initially assessed by the editor for suitability for the journal. Papers deemed suitable are then sent to a minimum of two independent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper, frequently under the direction of a section editor with expertise in the manuscript topic. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor's decision is final. For more information on the types of peer review, please visit:https://www.elsevier.com/reviewers/peer-review
Use of word processing software
It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier). Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork.
To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.
Original Clinical and Experimental articles should be divided into the following sections: Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, and Conclusions, with appropriate subheadings to make the sections easily understood. A section on Clinical Implications for Experimental articles may be worthwhile.
State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results.
Provide sufficient detail to allow the work to be reproduced. Methods already published should be indicated by a reference: only relevant modifications should be described. If the article is an original study describing human or animal studies, a statement regarding local ethics committee or IRB approval must be included in the Methods section.
Results should be clear and concise.
This should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature.
The main conclusions of the study should be presented in a short Conclusion.
Authors of revised articles will be asked to provide a list of the Key Findings from the article. The Key Findings should be brief bullets (each bullet may be up to 2-3 sentences). The Key Findings should be submitted in MS Word format as a separate file, rather than embedded in the main manuscript document. Include a minimum of 3 Key Findings.
If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq. (A.1), Eq. (A.2), etc.; in a subsequent appendix, Eq. (B.1) and so on. Similarly for tables and figures: Table A.1; Fig. A.1, etc.
Essential title page information
• Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible. Do not include trade names in titles.
• Short title. Include a short title of 50 or fewer characters.
•Author names, academic degrees, and affiliations. Please include academic degrees after each author’s name. Fellows of the Heart Rhythm Society (FHRS) should be identified by including FHRS after the degree. Where the family name may be ambiguous (e.g., a double name), please indicate this clearly. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
• Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that the e-mail address and the complete postal address is included. Contact details must be kept up to date by the corresponding author.
•Conflict of interest statement.The conflicts of all authors must be included on the title page. If there are no conflicts, please state on the title page that the authors have no conflicts to disclose
• Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.
Clinical and Experimental articles should include a structured abstract (without references) of fewer than 250 words. Divide the abstract into sections: Background, Objective, Methods, Results, and Conclusion that state the importance and potential implications of the observations. Review articles should have an unstructured abstract.
Authors are encouraged to submit a graphical abstract, as it draws more attention to the online article. Graphical abstracts are optional and should not be identical to any figures from the article or supplemental data. The graphical abstract should summarize the contents of the article in a concise, pictorial form designed to capture the attention of a wide readership. Graphical abstracts should be submitted as a separate file in the online submission system. Image size: Please provide an image with a minimum of 531 × 1328 pixels (h × w) or proportionally more. The image should be readable at a size of 5 × 13 cm using a regular screen resolution of 96 dpi. Preferred file types: TIFF, EPS, PDF or MS Office files. See https://www.elsevier.com/graphicalabstracts for examples.
Authors can make use of Elsevier's Illustration and Enhancement service to ensure the best presentation of their images and in accordance with all technical requirements: Illustration Service.
Immediately after the abstract, provide 5-10 keywords, using American spelling and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, 'and', 'of'). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.
Avoid ALL abbreviations other than standard units of measurement and common abbreviations, such as RV, LV, etc. Such abbreviations that are unavoidable should be spelled out at first mention in both the abstract and the text. Ensure consistency of abbreviations throughout the article.
Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.).
Formatting of funding sources
List funding sources in this standard way to facilitate compliance to funder's requirements:
Funding: This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health [grant numbers xxxx, yyyy]; the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, WA [grant number zzzz]; and the United States Institutes of Peace [grant number aaaa].It is not necessary to include detailed descriptions on the program or type of grants and awards. When funding is from a block grant or other resources available to a university, college, or other research institution, submit the name of the institute or organization that provided the funding.
If no funding has been provided for the research, please include the following sentence:This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
Follow internationally accepted rules and conventions: use the international system of units (SI). If other units are mentioned, please give their equivalent in SI.
Please submit math equations as editable text and not as images. Present simple formulae in line with normal text where possible and use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line for small fractional terms, e.g., X/Y. In principle, variables are to be presented in italics. Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp. Number consecutively any equations that have to be displayed separately from the text (if referred to explicitly in the text).
Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article. Many word processors build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Should this not be the case, indicate the position of footnotes in the text and present the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article. Do not include footnotes in the Reference list.
For the ease of reviewers, please include figures and legends at the end of the main manuscript MS Word file. Each legend should appear on the same page as the figure it describes. For revised submissions, please also upload each figure as a separate, high resolution figure file. Acceptable file formats are noted below.
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Embed the fonts used if the application provides that option.
• Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
• Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the published version.
• Submit each illustration as a separate file.
A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available on our website:
You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format.
Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black and white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.
Please do not:
• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
• Supply files that are too low in resolution;
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.
Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF), or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. For further information on the preparation of electronic artwork, please see https://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions.
Ensure that each illustration has a caption. A caption should comprise a brief title and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used. Figure captions must be included in the manuscript file; the text of the caption should be editable.
Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text. Each table should be included on a separate page and designed for economy of space and readability. Notes designated in the tables and all abbreviations should be defined in a footnote. Abbreviations should be identified in alphabetical order. Footnotes should be used in the following order: †, ‡, §, ¶, #. Avoid vertical rules. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in tables do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article.
Citations in text
Please ensure that every reference cited in text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list but may be mentioned in the text in parentheses. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.
Increased discoverability of research and high high-quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, CrossRef and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the DOI is highly encouraged.
As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.
This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in your published article.
References in a special issue
Please ensure that the words 'this issue' are added to any references in the list (and any citations in the text) to other articles in the same Special Issue.
Reference management software
Most Elsevier journals have their reference template available in many of the most popular reference management software products. These include all products that support Citation Style Language styles, such as Mendeley. Using citation plug-ins from these products, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article, after which citations and bibliographies will be automatically formatted in the journal's style. If no template is yet available for this journal, please follow the format of the sample references and citations as shown in this Guide. If you use reference management software, please ensure that you remove all field codes before submitting the electronic manuscript. More information on how to remove field codes from different reference management software.
Users of Mendeley Desktop can easily install the reference style for this journal by clicking the following link:
When preparing your manuscript, you will then be able to select this style using the Mendeley plug-ins for Microsoft Word or LibreOffice.
Text: Indicate references by (consecutive) superscript Arabic numerals in the order in which they appear in the text. The numerals are to be used outside periods and commas, inside colons and semicolons.
List: Number the references in the list in the order in which they appear in the text. Please list the first 6 authors in each reference. If there are more than 6 authors, list the first 3 followed by et al. The references should be double spaced and use the same font size as the remainder of the manuscript.
1. Kim YG, Shim J, Oh S, Lee K, Choi J, Kim Y. Electrical isolation of the left atrial appendage increases the risk of ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack regardless of postisolation flow velocity. Heart Rhythm 2018;15:1746-1753.
2. Calkins H, Kuck KH, Cappato R, et al. 2012 HRS/EHRA/ECAS expert consensus statement on catheter and surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation: Recommendations for patient selection, procedural techniques, patient management and follow-up, definitions, endpoints, and research trial design. Heart Rhythm 2012;9:632-696.
Reference to a book:
3. Strunk W Jr, White EB. The Elements of Style. 4th ed. New York, NY: Longman; 2000.
4. Mettam GR, Adams LB. How to prepare an electronic version of your article. In: Jones BS, Smith RZ, eds. Introduction to the Electronic Age. New York, NY: E-Publishing Inc; 2009:281-304.
Abbreviations for periodicals cited in the references should follow the style of Index Medicus and can also be accessed at http://www.nlm.nih.gov.
Include interactive data visualizations in your publication and let your readers interact and engage more closely with your research. Follow the instructions here to find out about available data visualization options and how to include them with your article.
Elsevier accepts electronic supplementary material to support and enhance your scientific research. Supplementary files offer the author additional possibilities to publish supporting applications, high-resolution images, background datasets, sound clips and more. Supplementary files supplied will be published online alongside the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: http://www.sciencedirect.com. In order to ensure that your submitted material is directly usable, please provide the data in one of our recommended file formats. Authors should submit the material in electronic format together with the article and supply a concise and descriptive caption for each file. Supplemental material should be referred to in the main text in sequential order. For more detailed instructions please visit our artwork instruction pages at https://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions.
Supplementary material is scientific evidence and assumed to be original. If published previously the source must be cited with permission exactly as required for previously published material and should not include logos, symbolic landmarks, or any other identification of the origin.
This journal encourages and enables you to share data that supports your research publication where appropriate, and enables you to interlink the data with your published articles. Research data refers to the results of observations or experimentation that validate research findings. To facilitate reproducibility and data reuse, this journal also encourages you to share your software, code, models, algorithms, protocols, methods and other useful materials related to the project.
If you have made your research data available in a data repository, you can link your article directly to the dataset. Elsevier collaborates with a number of repositories to link articles on ScienceDirect with relevant repositories, giving readers access to underlying data that gives them a better understanding of the research described.
For supported data repositories a repository banner will automatically appear next to your published article on ScienceDirect.In addition, you can link to relevant data or entities through identifiers within the text of your manuscript, using the following format: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN).
This journal supports Mendeley Data, enabling you to deposit any research data (including raw and processed data, video, code, software, algorithms, protocols, and methods) associated with your manuscript in a free-to-use, open access repository. During the submission process, after uploading your manuscript, you will have the opportunity to upload your relevant datasets directly to Mendeley Data. The datasets will be listed and directly accessible to readers next to your published article online.
To foster transparency, we encourage you to state the availability of your data in your submission. This may be a requirement of your funding body or institution. If your data is unavailable to access or unsuitable to post, you will have the opportunity to indicate why during the submission process, for example by stating that the research data is confidential. The statement will appear with your published article on ScienceDirect. For more information, visit the Data Statement page.
The following list will be useful during the final checking of an article prior to sending it to the journal for review. Please consult this Guide for Authors for further details of any item.
Ensure that the following items are present:
Cover letter confirming:
• The article is original, with no portion under simultaneous consideration for publication elsewhere or previously published, except for an abstract of fewer than 400 words
• All authors have read and approve the submission
• One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
• E-mail address
• Full postal address
All necessary files have been uploaded, and:
• Conflicts of all authors are listed on the title page.
• Total word count is noted on the title page
• Keywords (5-10)
• Each figure caption is included on the same page as the figure it describes
• All tables (including title, description, footnotes)
• Manuscript has been 'spell-checked' and 'grammar-checked'
• Manuscript includes continuous line numbering
• Manuscript is double-spaced, single columned, and pages are numbered
• References are in the correct format for this journal
• All references mentioned in the Reference list are cited in the text, and vice versa
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