Guide for Authors

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Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta (GCA) publishes research papers in a wide range of subjects in terrestrial geochemistry, meteoritics, and planetary geochemistry. GCA aims to present studies of fundamental significance and broad relevance for understanding geochemical systems, mechanisms, and processes, and of interest to a broad and diverse audience of geochemists. The scope of the journal includes:
1. Physical chemistry of gases, aqueous solutions, glasses, and crystalline solids
2. Igneous and metamorphic petrology
3. Chemical processes in the atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and lithosphere of the Earth
4. Organic geochemistry
5. Isotope geochemistry
6. Meteoritics and meteorite impacts
7. Lunar science; and
8. Planetary geochemistry.
If you would like more information about the Geochemical Society and Meteoritical Society, visit their Home Pages at and

Types of papers
Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta publishes original research articles, comments and replies on papers previously published in the journal, review articles (by invitation), book reviews (by invitation), and speeches or lectures (by invitation).

Comment and Reply
Comment and Reply submissions to GCA should be short (not exceeding 2000 words), concise discussions of major, substantive aspects of the original article. Comments will only be entertained for publication if they significantly impact the interpretation of the original article by exposing serious flaws in reasoning, deficiencies in experimental design, or other factors that significantly impact the original article's wider usage by the GCA readership. Discussion of minor errors or omissions, or presentation of alternative points of view, are not suitable for Comments. New or unpublished data or results are not to be presented as either Comments or Replies but should be submitted as research articles. The paper to which the Comment is directed should have been published in GCA within the previous 12 months. Comments and Replies should contain no more than 1 figure and 10 references; excessive use of multi-part figures is not permitted and the Executive Editor will make a decision on the suitability of such figures. Authors who are considering the submission of a Comment to GCA are encouraged to contact the editorial office ( for additional information.

Contact details for submission
All papers should be submitted online by the corresponding author at . For any further information please visit our Support Center. The Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta editorial office may be reached at

Ethics in publishing

Please see our information on Ethics in publishing.

Declaration of competing interest

All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. Authors should complete the declaration of competing interest statement using this template and upload to the submission system at the Attach/Upload Files step. Note: Please do not convert the .docx template to another file type. Author signatures are not required. If there are no interests to declare, please choose the first option in the template. More information.

Submission declaration and verification

Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract, a published lecture or academic thesis, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service Crossref Similarity Check.

Please note that preprints can be shared anywhere at any time, in line with Elsevier's sharing policy. Sharing your preprints e.g. on a preprint server will not count as prior publication (see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' for more information).

Use of inclusive language

Inclusive language acknowledges diversity, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and promotes equal opportunities. Content should make no assumptions about the beliefs or commitments of any reader; contain nothing which might imply that one individual is superior to another on the grounds of age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition; and use inclusive language throughout. Authors should ensure that writing is free from bias, stereotypes, slang, reference to dominant culture and/or cultural assumptions. We advise to seek gender neutrality by using plural nouns ("clinicians, patients/clients") as default/wherever possible to avoid using "he, she," or "he/she." We recommend avoiding the use of descriptors that refer to personal attributes such as age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition unless they are relevant and valid. These guidelines are meant as a point of reference to help identify appropriate language but are by no means exhaustive or definitive.

Changes to authorship

Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the journal Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed.
Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted. While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the Editor will result in a corrigendum.

Article transfer service
This journal is part of our Article Transfer Service. This means that if the Editor feels your article is more suitable in one of our other participating journals, then you may be asked to consider transferring the article to one of those. If you agree, your article will be transferred automatically on your behalf with no need to reformat. Please note that your article will be reviewed again by the new journal. More information.


Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (see more information on this). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.

Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations. If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases.

For gold open access articles: Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'License Agreement' (more information). Permitted third party reuse of gold open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license.

Author rights
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. More information.

Elsevier supports responsible sharing
Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.

Role of the funding source

You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.

Open access

Please visit our Open Access page for more information.

Elsevier Researcher Academy
Researcher Academy is a free e-learning platform designed to support early and mid-career researchers throughout their research journey. The "Learn" environment at Researcher Academy offers several interactive modules, webinars, downloadable guides and resources to guide you through the process of writing for research and going through peer review. Feel free to use these free resources to improve your submission and navigate the publication process with ease.

Language (usage and editing services)
Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's Author Services.


Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files (e.g., Word, LaTeX) are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.

Cover Letter
All manuscripts must be accompanied by a Cover Letter. This document should briefly explain how the manuscript addresses the specific aim of the journal: to present studies of fundamental significance and broad relevance for understanding geochemical systems, mechanisms, and processes, and of interest to a broad and diverse audience of geochemists. The letter should also address any potential conflicts of interest that the editors should be aware of as they consider the submission. Authors may include requests that specific individuals be avoided as editors or reviewers, although at GCA such requests are considered purely advisory in nature and are not binding. Finally, authors are also required to provide in the Cover Letter the names of three Associate Editors who may have the requisite expertise to manage the assessment of the manuscript. Note that lack of availability and conflicts of interest may require that a different Associate Editor handle the manuscript. The list of currently active Associate Editors can be found at:

Suggested Reviewers
During the submission process authors are requested to provide the name, affiliation, and contact information for five potential reviewers. These scientists should be knowledgeable is key aspects of the manuscript topic. Suggestions for scientists at all career stages and from diverse backgrounds are welcome and encouraged. GCA seeks to have reviewers that reflect the diversity, broadly defined, of our authors and readers.

Conflicts of Interest among Editors and Reviewers
GCA considers editors and reviewers to have a conflict of interest with a manuscript if they have collaborated with any of the authors within the last three years. There are cases where such associations do not pose a conflict, such as when two scientists are part of a large, multi-institutional team but otherwise do not collaborate extensively. Such exceptions are evaluated by the editors. Colleagues at the same institution and recent advisors or advisees are also considered to have a conflict of interest. Other scientists working on the same research topic are not considered to be conflicted unless they have previously displayed bias.

Submit your article
Please submit your article via

Peer review

This journal operates a single blind review process. All contributions will be initially assessed by the editor for suitability for the journal. Papers deemed suitable are then typically sent to a minimum of two independent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor's decision is final. More information on types of peer review.

Manuscript Preparation and Layout

Use of word processing software
It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier). Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork.
To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.

Line Numbers
Line numbers should be added to your file, numbered continuously throughout the main text.

Subdivision - numbered sections
Divide your article into clearly defined and numbered sections. Subsections should be numbered 1.1 (then 1.1.1, 1.1.2, ...), 1.2, etc. (the abstract is not included in section numbering). Use this numbering also for internal cross-referencing: do not just refer to 'the text'. Any subsection may be given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line.

If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq. (A.1), Eq. (A.2), etc.; in a subsequent appendix, Eq. (B.1) and so on. Similarly for tables and figures: Table A.1; Fig. A.1, etc.

Essential title page information

Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
Author names and affiliations. Please clearly indicate the given name(s) and family name(s) of each author and check that all names are accurately spelled. You can add your name between parentheses in your own script behind the English transliteration. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. This responsibility includes answering any future queries about Methodology and Materials. Ensure that the e-mail address is given and that contact details are kept up to date by the corresponding author.
Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.

Manuscript Components

Highlights are optional yet highly encouraged for this journal, as they increase the discoverability of your article via search engines. They consist of a short collection of bullet points that capture the novel results of your research as well as new methods that were used during the study (if any). Please have a look at the examples here: example Highlights.

Highlights should be submitted in a separate editable file in the online submission system. Please use 'Highlights' in the file name and include 3 to 5 bullet points (maximum 85 characters, including spaces, per bullet point).

A concise and factual abstract is required. The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results and major conclusions. An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. For this reason, References should be avoided, but if essential, then cite the author(s) and year(s). Also, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself. NOTE: The abstract should be limited to 500 words; 200-300 words is preferred.

Results and Discussion
Results should be clearly distinguished from Discussion, and should written as separately numbered sections in the manuscript. The Results should provide a concise description of the data or outcomes of the measurements and experiments presented in the manuscript, with adequate reference to tables and figures. Information provided as Results should form the observational basis for the Discussion and Conclusions. The Discussion should critically analyse and evaluate the Results in relation to the problem, hypotheses, and approach that provide the justification and demonstrate the significance of the study as presented in the manuscript

Define abbreviations that are not standard in this field in a footnote to be placed on the first page of the article. Such abbreviations that are unavoidable in the abstract must be defined at their first mention there, as well as in the footnote. Ensure consistency of abbreviations throughout the article.

Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.).

Formatting of funding sources
List funding sources in this standard way to facilitate compliance to funder's requirements:

Funding: This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health [grant numbers xxxx, yyyy]; the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, WA [grant number zzzz]; and the United States Institutes of Peace [grant number aaaa].

It is not necessary to include detailed descriptions on the program or type of grants and awards. When funding is from a block grant or other resources available to a university, college, or other research institution, submit the name of the institute or organization that provided the funding.

If no funding has been provided for the research, please include the following sentence:

This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Meteorite nomenclature
New meteorite names must be approved by the Meteorite Nomenclature Committee of the Meteoritical Society before submission of the manuscript to the journal ( All meteorite discoveries should in the first instance be submitted for consideration by the Meteorite Nomenclature Committee (at the Committee's website, You may direct inquiries to the Meteorite Bulletin Editor ( Discovery papers may subsequently be submitted to Meteoritics and Planetary Science.

Existing meteorite names should conform to those in the Meteoritical Bulletin Database ( The full (unabbreviated) names of meteorites should be used in titles, headings and at first mention in the text. Abbreviations, including those published in the Antarctic Meteorite Newsletter and the Meteoritical Bulletin Database, may be used in tables and elsewhere. Note that the abbreviated form of numbered meteorites, including Antarctic and many Saharan specimens, should have a blank space between the abbreviated place name and the number (e.g., MacAlpine Hills 88105 is abbreviated MAC 88105), except that some Antarctic meteorites recovered prior to 1981 may have an "A" instead of the blank space (e.g., Elephant Moraine A79001 is abbreviated EETA79001). A list of standard abbreviations and examples of their proper usage can be found at the Meteoritical Society website page maintained for this purpose ( Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta will normally not consider publication of manuscripts purporting to describe the discovery of new meteorites.

When applicable, any available collection numbers for meteorite samples should be provided with the corresponding dataset, and acknowledgements of meteorite loan sources are encouraged. Such additional information may be used to track samples and data sources, to ensure that research on meteorites is reproducible and to prevent confusion in the literature. The article "Best practices for the use of meteorite names in publications" by Heck et al. (2019) (Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 54, 7, 1397-1400) details such requirements for the publication of meteorite research.

Please submit equations as editable text and not as images. Present simple formulae in-line with normal text where possible and use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line for small fractional terms, e.g., X/Y. In principle, variables are to be presented in italics. Number consecutively any equations that have to be displayed separately from the text (if referred to explicitly in the text). During submission in Editorial Manager, please carefully check all equations in the final PDF document to verify that they have been rendered correctly. If problems occur, then do not submit the manuscript and instead contact the GCA Editorial Office at for assistance.

Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article. Many word processors can build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Otherwise, please indicate the position of footnotes in the text and list the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article. Do not include footnotes in the Reference list.


Electronic artwork
General points
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.
• Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
• Provide captions to illustrations separately.
• Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the published version.
• Submit each illustration as a separate file.
• Ensure that color images are accessible to all, including those with impaired color vision.

A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available.
You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format.
Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.
Please do not:
• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
• Supply files that are too low in resolution;
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

Color artwork
Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF), or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color online (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. For color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article. Please indicate your preference for color: in print or online only. Further information on the preparation of electronic artwork.

Figure captions
Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.


Please submit tables as editable text and not as images. Tables can be placed either next to the relevant text in the article, or on separate page(s) at the end. Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text and place any table notes below the table body. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in them do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article. Please avoid using vertical rules and shading in table cells.

References and Citations

Reference requirements
GCA does not allow citation of unpublished work, including citations presented as "in preparation," "unpublished data," "personal communication," "in/under review," etc. Authors must either publish cited data within the submitted manuscript including a full accounting of the Methods or cite a published paper. Alternatively, the reference and any material supported by the citation must be removed. Abstracts have not been peer-reviewed and are also considered unpublished works, and are thus not citable in the journal. Exceptions are made in cases of abstracts widely cited by the community for which no peer-reviewed source is available. Authors should justify each abstract citation in their cover letter at the time of submission.

Reference style
Each citation in text, tables, or figure captions must be entered in the References section, showing all authors, year, title and source (e.g., journal, book, thesis, etc.) with inclusive page or article numbers. In cases where no page or article numbers are available, these may be replaced by the digital object identifier (DOI). DOIs should not be in the format of a web address, they should only contain the actual DOI.

Each reference must be a hanging-indent paragraph. Author names should be given surname first, followed by initials (without intervening commas). Names of journals and of books should be in italics; names of journals should be abbreviated following standard conventions. Journal and serial volume numbers, if applicable, should be in bold font. The following examples show formats for various types of sources.

Petrophilas D. C. (2012) Rocks I have known and loved. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 78, 123-321.

Bells J. D. and Whistles H. P. (2017) Asperity-limited tectonic lithofacies juxtaposition in the northeastern South-Central Mountains, West Virginia. J. Geophys. Res. 447, 7767-7776.

Huang R. (2016) Rocks and Minerals Containing Iron. CRC Press, Boca Raton.

Butcher N. D., Baker R. B., Waxwright C. M., Tinker, Jr., D. R. C.and Taylor G. J. (1998) Sm-Nd, Rb-Sr, U-Th-Pb, Re-Os and K-Ar isotope systematics in 762 subangular pebbles from the bed of Oompa-Loompa Creek, Glacier National Park. In Mesozoic Volcanic Activity in North America (eds. P. M.Thieux and F. T. Frough). Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge. pp. 417-496.

Gibbs J. W. and Helmholtz H. L. (2001) Thermodynamic properties of triskadeka-biphenyl complexes of Fe++ and Zn++ in the range 80o-85oC at pH 4.5 in aqueous solution from the ice in which ALH 84001 was recovered. Lunar Planet. Sci. XXVIII. Lunar Planet. Inst., Houston. #7654(abstr.).

Stanford L. (1874) Investigations on why the ground in California is so rocky. Ph. D. thesis, Univ. of California.

The references should be listed alphabetically by the surname of the first author. References from multiple authors with the same surname should be sorted by the initials of their first names. For multiple references by the same first author, first list chronologically all single-author works (e.g., Black (1988), Black (1989a), Black (1989b)), then two-author papers alphabetically (Black and Brown (1991), Black and Brown (1992), Black and Greene (1987)), then three or more authors chronologically (Black, Brown and Blue (1989), Black, Blue and Brown (1991)). Please consult a recent issue of GCA for additional examples of the reference style.

Citation format
Reference citations in the manuscript take the form of (Brown, 2011), (Brown and Black, 2012), and (Brown et al., 2013). Citation of multiple references involves placing all citations within parentheses, with the citations appearing in order of increasing year and each separated by a semi-colon. Multiple citations having the same authorship information are sorted by the earliest year, with all years groups together, e.g., (Li et al., 1996; Brown et al. 2001, 2008a,b, 2013; Stone and Smith, 2004). Authors should take care that all literature citations, in figure captions and tables as well as main text, have accompanying entries in the References, and also that there are no superfluous entries. Please consult a recent issue of GCA for additional examples of the citation format.

Data references
This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript. These should be cited in the text and included in the References. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier, such as a DOI. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so it can be properly identified as a data reference during article production. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in the published article.

Reference management software
Reference templates in the GCA format are available in many of the most popular reference management software products. These include all products that support Citation Style Language styles, such as Mendeley. Using citation plug-ins from these products, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article, after which citations and bibliographies will be automatically formatted in the journal's style. If no template is yet available for this journal, please follow the format of the sample references and citations as shown in this Guide. If you use reference management software, please ensure that you remove all field codes before submitting the electronic manuscript. More information on how to remove field codes from different reference management software.

Data visualization

Include interactive data visualizations in your publication and let your readers interact and engage more closely with your research. Follow the instructions here to find out about available data visualization options and how to include them with your article.

Supplementary data
Elsevier accepts electronic supplementary material to support and enhance your scientific research. Supplementary files offer the author additional possibilities to publish supporting applications, high-resolution images, background datasets, sound clips and more. Supplementary files supplied will be published online alongside the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: In order to ensure that your submitted material is directly usable, please provide the data in one of our recommended file formats. Authors should submit the material in electronic format together with the article and supply a concise and descriptive caption for each file. For more detailed instructions please visit our artwork instruction pages at

NOTE: Supplementary files published online only in GCA are referred to as Electronic Annexes. Use of an Electronic Annex is required for extensive supplementary materials such as large data tables, sample descriptions, multiple figures, etc that would otherwise occupy a large amount of printed space. GCA strongly encourages authors to include their manuscript title within their Electronic Annex files.

Research Data

This journal requires you to share the data that supports your research publication where appropriate. Research data refers to the results of observations or experimentation that validate research findings. This requirement includes providing access in a numerical, text-based format to all data that appear solely in figures along with relevant metadata. To facilitate reproducibility and data reuse, the journal also encourages you to share your software, code, models, algorithms, protocols, methods and other useful materials related to the project.

During submission, you will be given the choice between attaching your data to the submission file as an Electronic Annex or by providing a DOI link to a repository location hosting the data in your manuscript.

If you choose to include the data as an Electronic Annex, then this must be contained in a single file, which may be a text, spreadsheet, or document file or a data packaged assembled into a single ZIP file. In addition, you must indicate in the file description during submission that this Electronic Annex is specific the Research Data associated with your manuscript.

If you decide to submit the data via a repository, please ensure that you include a separate section in your manuscript file with the heading "Research Data" that is inserted immediately before your reference section. Under this heading, enter text that reads "Research Data associated with this article can be accessed at", where "XXXX" is replaced with the actual DOI. It is requested that authors also indicate the repository used, either by modifying the above sentence or adding an additional sentence to this section. Note that it is expected that these data can be accessed during the review process and your linked repository file should thus be made public prior to submission. The journal accepts data from all major repositories and other locations provided that they are open access, permanently available, and provide a DOI link. Posting data on a university or institutional website is not allowed except in cases where the university or institution hosts a DOI-linked open-access repository. Please note that Mendeley Data provides an open access repository available to all authors. For more information, visit the Mendeley Data for journals page.

Data statement
To foster transparency, we require you to state the availability of your data in your submission if your data is unavailable to access or unsuitable to post. This may also be a requirement of your funding body or institution. You will have the opportunity to provide a data statement during the submission process. The statement will appear with your published article on ScienceDirect. For more information, visit the Data Statement page..

Availability of accepted article
This journal makes articles available online as soon as possible after acceptance. This concerns the Journal Pre-proofs (both in HTML and PDF format), which have undergone enhancements after acceptance, such as the addition of a cover page and metadata, and formatting for readability, but are not yet the definitive versions of record. A Digital Object Identifier (DOI) is allocated, thereby making it fully citable and searchable by title, author name(s) and the full text. The article's PDF also carries a disclaimer stating that it is an unedited article. Subsequent production stages will simply replace this version.

Online proof correction

To ensure a fast publication process of the article, we kindly ask authors to provide us with their proof corrections within two days. Corresponding authors will receive an e-mail with a link to our online proofing system, allowing annotation and correction of proofs online. The environment is similar to MS Word: in addition to editing text, you can also comment on figures/tables and answer questions from the Copy Editor. Web-based proofing provides a faster and less error-prone process by allowing you to directly type your corrections, eliminating the potential introduction of errors.
If preferred, you can still choose to annotate and upload your edits on the PDF version. All instructions for proofing will be given in the e-mail we send to authors, including alternative methods to the online version and PDF.
We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication. Please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.


The corresponding author will, at no cost, receive a customized Share Link providing 50 days free access to the final published version of the article on ScienceDirect. The Share Link can be used for sharing the article via any communication channel, including email and social media. For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's Author Services. Corresponding authors who have published their article gold open access do not receive a Share Link as their final published version of the article is available open access on ScienceDirect and can be shared through the article DOI link.

Visit the Elsevier Support Center to find the answers you need. Here you will find everything from Frequently Asked Questions to ways to get in touch.
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