Guide for Authors

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Your Paper Your Way

We now differentiate between the requirements for new and revised submissions. You may choose to submit your manuscript as a single Word or PDF file to be used in the refereeing process. Only when your paper is at the revision stage, will you be requested to put your paper in to a 'correct format' for acceptance and provide the items required for the publication of your article.
To find out more, please visit the Preparation section below.

Aims and Scope of General Hospital Psychiatry

General Hospital Psychiatry explores the many linkages among psychiatry, medicine, and primary care. The journal provides a forum for professionals with clinical, academic, and research interests in psychiatry's role in the mainstream of medicine. The journal expands on traditional models of consultation-liaison, inpatient, and outpatient services in the general hospital to address all aspects of ambulatory, inpatient, emergency, and community care. Examination of novel assessment methods or intervention techniques, and reports from intervention trials that are related to the interface between medicine and psychiatry, are especially relevant to the journal's objectives, as are examinations of these phenomena on cost, cost-effectiveness, and public policy.

General Hospital Psychiatry will publish original research articles, topical reviews (especially systematic reviews and meta-analyses), and brief communications on: (1) biopsychosocial approaches to medicine, including models of collaborative and integrated care, (2) inpatient and outpatient consultation-liaison psychiatry, (3) psychosomatic medicine (including research on somatic symptoms, assessment methods in general medical settings, and assessment and treatment in persons with specific medical conditions), (4) inpatient, emergency, and crisis psychiatry, (5) the relationship of psychiatric services to general medical systems (e.g., primary care clinics, hospitals, local/national policy), (6) new directions in medical education that stress psychiatry's role in primary care, family practice, and continuing education, and (7) health psychology.

The journal will not accept case report submissions as of December 2015, but can consider for publication articles that include discussion of one or more cases as part of a comprehensive topical review (typically 50-75+ references).

Ethics in publishing

Please see our information on Ethics in publishing.


Following the Acknowledgements section, provide a summary of disclosures/conflicts of interest related to the manuscript. All authors must disclose any financial and/or personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. If there are no conflicts of interest then please state this: 'Conflicts of interest: none'. See also Further information and an example of a Conflict of Interest form can be found at:

Submissions Declaration and Verification

Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see, that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service CrossCheck

Number pages consecutively, starting with the title page. Begin each section on a new page in this order: Title, Abstract, Text (per article type), Acknowledgements, Disclosures, References, Tables, Legends for Figures, Figures, Supplementary Materials. Do not use footnotes, and do not use headers or footers other than page numbers.

Use of inclusive language

Inclusive language acknowledges diversity, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and promotes equal opportunities. Content should make no assumptions about the beliefs or commitments of any reader; contain nothing which might imply that one individual is superior to another on the grounds of age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition; and use inclusive language throughout. Authors should ensure that writing is free from bias, stereotypes, slang, reference to dominant culture and/or cultural assumptions. We advise to seek gender neutrality by using plural nouns ("clinicians, patients/clients") as default/wherever possible to avoid using "he, she," or "he/she." We recommend avoiding the use of descriptors that refer to personal attributes such as age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition unless they are relevant and valid. These guidelines are meant as a point of reference to help identify appropriate language but are by no means exhaustive or definitive.

Author contributions

For transparency, we encourage authors to submit an author statement file outlining their individual contributions to the paper using the relevant CRediT roles: Conceptualization; Data curation; Formal analysis; Funding acquisition; Investigation; Methodology; Project administration; Resources; Software; Supervision; Validation; Visualization; Roles/Writing - original draft; Writing - review & editing. Authorship statements should be formatted with the names of authors first and CRediT role(s) following. More details and an example

Changes to authorship

Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the journal Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed.
Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted. While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the Editor will result in a corrigendum.

Permissions and Rights

Previously published illustrations, tables, and text must be fully identified as to author and source. For all borrowed illustrations, tables, and verbatim quotations of 200 words or more, authors must obtain written permission from both the previous publisher and the author and forward such permission with the manuscript. The author is responsible for fees associated with reprinting previously published materials.


Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (see more information on this). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.

Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations. If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases.

For gold open access articles: Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'License Agreement' (more information). Permitted third party reuse of gold open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license.

Author rights
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. More information.

Elsevier supports responsible sharing
Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.

Role of the funding source

You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.

Open access

Please visit our Open Access page for more information.

Elsevier Researcher Academy
Researcher Academy is a free e-learning platform designed to support early and mid-career researchers throughout their research journey. The "Learn" environment at Researcher Academy offers several interactive modules, webinars, downloadable guides and resources to guide you through the process of writing for research and going through peer review. Feel free to use these free resources to improve your submission and navigate the publication process with ease.

Language (usage and editing services)
Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's Author Services.


Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files (e.g., Word, LaTeX) are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.

Submitting articles via Elsevier’s Online Submission System

All manuscripts must be submitted to General Hospital Psychiatry online at We regret we cannot consider manuscripts submitted outside of this system.

All manuscripts considered suitable for the journal are strictly refereed. Articles are accepted with the understanding that they are original contributions submitted solely to General Hospital Psychiatry

Regular articles (including clinical reports, research papers and review articles), brief communications (including relevant preliminary research reports) and letters to the editor may be submitted.

Types of Articles Published in General Hospital Psychiatry

Regular article (including Reviews): 4000 word limit (excluding cover letter, abstract, acknowledgements, references, tables, and figures), Maximum of 4 tables and/or figures (combined)
Brief Communication: 1000 word limit, Maximum of 2 tables and/or figures
Letter to the Editor: 750 word limit, maximum of 10 references, maximum 1 table, Subject to editing according to space limitations
Editorial: By invitation or editor pre-approval.

Original Research Article

Original research reports have a limit of 4000 words (from Introduction through Conclusion, not including abstract, references, tables, or figure legends), with a maximum of a total of 4 tables and figures (additional tables/figures can be included as supplementary, online only materials). These reports should be accompanied by structured Abstract of up to 200 words (see below for structure of abstract).

Reports from randomized trials should include registration information from an accepted clinical trials registry (e.g., within the Methods section of the paper, and should follow the CONSORT approach to trial reporting. GHP requires a completed CONSORT 2010 checklist (as a supplementary file; flow diagram (as a figure) when reporting the results of a randomized trial. Templates for these can be found on the CONSORT website [], which also describes several CONSORT checklist extensions beyond two group parallel trials. Meeting these basic reporting requirements will greatly improve the value of your trial report and may enhance its chances for eventual publication. All studies must also have had ethical board approval prior to initiation of study procedures and should report this within the Methods section.

In original research reports, the primary objective of the research should be clearly stated, with a clear a priori primary outcome measure. Methods (including setting, inclusion/exclusion criteria, recruitment/enrollment procedures, study outcome measures, and data analysis) should be clearly delineated. The Results should clearly follow from the methods, and outcomes (typically with measures of effect and variance; see below for statistical guidelines) should be clearly presented. The Discussion should not simply restate the Results, but should place findings in context, discuss clinical implications, and provide specific information about the limitations of the study. All results reported in the Abstract must also be reported in the main body of the text, or in tables or figures.

Statistical guidelines. All articles with quantitative data (e.g., original research reports, meta-analyses, brief communications when relevant) should follow the below guidelines whenever possible and should justify deviations from these guidelines.

  • Basic issues. In each report, a primary outcome measure and primary method of analysis should be clearly outlined. All statistical tests should be two-tailed, and an alpha of .05 used (unless further corrections are needed) in most cases. Primary analyses should use continuous versions of variables whenever possible unless the variable is solely or preferentially a categorical variable (e.g., mortality, rehospitalization, remission). Categorization of continuous variables (e.g., at median split, ordinal categories, etc.) may be appropriate for secondary analyses.
  • Reporting. In the text of the Results section (or Tables), the primary measure of effect (e.g., between-group difference, regression coefficient, odds ratio) should be listed, along with confidence interval; effect sizes should also be listed when relevant. p values should be reported to 2 significant figures, with p values <.001 reported as such.
  • Covariates. It is vital to control for relevant covariates, especially in observational studies. However, in regression and related multivariable models, covariates should ideally be identified a priori based on prior literature and/or clinical factors. Selection of covariates from a large pool, post hoc, using univariate tests is less desirable although it may be warranted in preliminary or exploratory analyses. Automated stepwise selection procedures (forward or backward) for covariates are discouraged. In addition, authors should avoid overfitting of statistical models and use rules of thumb for ratios of covariates to observations (e.g., 10 observations for each variable in a regression model).
  • " Multiple comparisons. Control for multiple comparisons is a complex and controversial issue, yet should always be addressed and discussed when appropriate. For example, using P < .05 as a threshold for significance is appropriate regarding a pre-specified primary outcome but is often insufficiently conservative when multiple comparisons are reported.

Reviews and meta-analyses

These articles also have a 4000 word limit, though on occasion particularly complex or comprehensive reviews may be longer with editorial permission. Preference is given to systematic reviews and meta-analyses, though other clinically relevant reviews on topics of interest to the journal's readership will be considered.

Systematic reviews and meta-analyses should follow PRISMA guidelines and should include a completed PRISMA checklist ( and flowsheet as a supplementary file. Additional information is present at: Meta-analyses should address issues of publication bias and heterogeneity, as well as clinical and research implications of the observed effects.

Non-systematic (narrative) reviews should utilize a balanced review of available evidence. These may or may not include illustrative cases at the outset of the review, and should at least briefly describe the methods for identifying articles reported in the manuscript. Narrative reviews are most appropriate when the topic is too broad, or when there is too little available evidence, for a systematic review. Otherwise, GHP prefers systematic reviews.


In the electronic submission system, please submit the names and institutional e-mail addresses of three potential independent referees with expertise in the topic with whom neither the primary nor senior author has previously published. Note that the editor retains the sole right to decide whether or not the suggested reviewers are used.


Submission to this journal proceeds totally online and you will be guided stepwise through the creation and uploading of your files. The system automatically converts your files to a single PDF file, which is used in the peer-review process.
As part of the Your Paper Your Way service, you may choose to submit your manuscript as a single file to be used in the refereeing process. This can be a PDF file or a Word document, in any format or lay-out that can be used by referees to evaluate your manuscript. It should contain high enough quality figures for refereeing. If you prefer to do so, you may still provide all or some of the source files at the initial submission. Please note that individual figure files larger than 10 MB must be uploaded separately.

There are no strict requirements on reference formatting at submission. References can be in any style or format as long as the style is consistent. Where applicable, author(s) name(s), journal title/book title, chapter title/article title, year of publication, volume number/book chapter and the article number or pagination must be present. Use of DOI is highly encouraged. The reference style used by the journal will be applied to the accepted article by Elsevier at the proof stage. Note that missing data will be highlighted at proof stage for the author to correct.

Formatting requirements
There are no strict formatting requirements but all manuscripts must contain the essential elements needed to convey your manuscript, for example Abstract, Keywords, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Conclusions, Artwork and Tables with Captions.
If your article includes any Videos and/or other Supplementary material, this should be included in your initial submission for peer review purposes.
Divide the article into clearly defined sections.

Figures and tables embedded in text
Please ensure the figures and the tables included in the single file are placed next to the relevant text in the manuscript, rather than at the bottom or the top of the file. The corresponding caption should be placed directly below the figure or table.

Peer review

This journal operates a double anonymized review process. All contributions will be initially assessed by the editor for suitability for the journal. Papers deemed suitable are then typically sent to a minimum of two independent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor's decision is final. Editors are not involved in decisions about papers which they have written themselves or have been written by family members or colleagues or which relate to products or services in which the editor has an interest. Any such submission is subject to all of the journal's usual procedures, with peer review handled independently of the relevant editor and their research groups. More information on types of peer review.

Double anonymized review

This journal uses double anonymized review, which means the identities of the authors are concealed from the reviewers, and vice versa. More information is available on our website. To facilitate this, please include the following separately:
Title page (with author details): This should include the title, authors' names, affiliations, acknowledgements and any Declaration of Interest statement, and a complete address for the corresponding author including an e-mail address.
Anonymized manuscript (no author details): The main body of the paper (including the references, figures, tables and any acknowledgements) should not include any identifying information, such as the authors' names or affiliations.


Use of word processing software
Regardless of the file format of the original submission, at revision you must provide us with an editable file of the entire article. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier). See also the section on Electronic artwork.
To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.

Article structure

Manuscript preparation

The submission will include a cover letter, the overall manuscript (which will include a title page, abstract [with keywords], manuscript text, acknowledgements, disclosures, references, tables, and figure legends), figures, and supplementary material (which may include additional tables/figures, checklists for the relevant article type (e.g., PRISMA), previously published material with potential overlap, and other non-essential information of interest for readers).

Electronic manuscripts should be formatted so text is double-spaced (except tables) on 8 1/2"x 11" paper size.

Cover Letter
The journal's editorial staff aims to send a smaller proportion of submitted manuscripts for review to prevent articles of insufficient priority from being maintained in the peer review process for several weeks or more. The cover letter will assist in the editorial triage process. Please submit a cover letter addressed to the Editor with each manuscript, independent of article type. The letter should begin with the title of the manuscript, the article type, and study design. The letter should provide a very brief overview of the manuscript in 1-2 paragraphs, including a description of the main findings. The letter should then explicitly state the relevance of the manuscript to the readership of GHP (see 7 major topic areas above under Aims and Scope). The letter should then contain a statement that all authors have contributed sufficiently to the manuscript and that all authors have approved the final manuscript. In addition, a statement should be included that clarifies that the manuscript has not been published previously (except in abstract form). If some or all manuscript content was previously published, the authors should provide details and areas of overlap with the submitted work; copies of these materials should be submitted as supplementary files. Finally, authors should list funding (including grant numbers) and conflict of interest information for all authors.


Highlights are optional yet highly encouraged for this journal, as they increase the discoverability of your article via search engines. They consist of a short collection of bullet points that capture the novel results of your research as well as new methods that were used during the study (if any). Please have a look at the examples here: example Highlights.

Highlights should be submitted in a separate editable file in the online submission system. Please use 'Highlights' in the file name and include 3 to 5 bullet points (maximum 85 characters, including spaces, per bullet point).

Title Page

The title page should contain the following:

  1. Title. Should be concise and informative. Avoid abbreviations whenever possible.
  2. Author names and affiliations. Please clearly indicate the given name(s) and family name(s) of each author and check that all names are accurately spelled. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
  3. Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that the e-mail address is given and that contact details are kept up to date by the corresponding author.
  4. Running title. Please provide a running title of 75 characters or less.
  5. Article data. Include number of tables, figures, and supplemental appendices (e.g., supplementary tables) along with word length for the article's text (not including title page, abstract, references, tables, figures, or appendices). Please also provide the word length of the abstract. If a clinical trial, please report the trial registry (e.g., and number here and in the Methods of the paper.

Format for Abstracts

A structured abstract, by means of appropriate headings, should provide the context or background for the research and should state its purpose, basic procedures (selection of study subjects or laboratory animals, observational and analytical methods), main findings (giving specific effect sizes and their statistical significance, if possible), and principal conclusions. It should emphasize new and important aspects of the study or observations.

Abstracts should not be more than 200 words and should be written in the following format:

Objective: The abstract should begin with a clear statement of the precise objective or question addressed in the paper. If a hypothesis was tested, it should be stated.

Method: The basic design of the study and its duration should be described. The methods used should be stated and the statistical data/methods provided.

Results: The main results of the study should be given in narrative form. Any measurements or other information that may require explanation should be defined. Any important information not included in the presentation of results should be declared. Levels of statistical significance should be indicated, as well as any other factors crucial to the outcome of the study.

Conclusion(s) of the study that are directly supported by the evidence reported should be given along with the clinical application, and speculation.

Main Text
Divide the main text of the article into clearly defined and numbered sections. Subsections should be numbered 1.1 (then 1.1.1, 1.1.2, ...), 1.2, etc. (the abstract is not included in section numbering). Use this numbering also for internal cross-referencing: do not just refer to 'the text'. Any subsection may be given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line. All full-length articles should at minimum contain the following sections:

  1. Introduction. Provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results. State clearly the objectives of the work.
  2. Methods. Provide sufficient detail to allow the work to be reproduced. Methods already published should be indicated by a reference: only relevant modifications should be described. Document ethics/Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval, if human subjects are involved, and a clinical trial registry number as appropriate. If study is exempt from IRB approval, please include documentation of exempt status.
  3. Results. Results should be clear and concise. They should be presented in the same order as outlined in the analysis section of Methods. Quantitative data should be presented (in text or Tables) with point estimates, variance, and statistical significance; effect sizes should be included as appropriate.
  4. Discussion. This should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. This section should include a distinct section on limitations of the analysis and relevant study or studies, and end with conclusions, typically regarding clinical implications and/or future research directions. Include important related literature to provide context, but avoid extensive citations and broad discussion of published literature.


Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 6 keywords, using American spelling and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, 'and', 'of'). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.


Define abbreviations at their first occurrence in the article: in the abstract and also in the main text after it. Ensure consistency of abbreviations throughout the article. Standard medical abbreviations can be used without being defined if commonly used, such as EKG. It is also not necessary to define standard statistical abbreviations such as N, SD (standard deviation), CI (confidence interval), and OR (odds ratio). Units should be expressed in the international system of units (SI); other units may also be included in parentheses.


Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.).

Formatting of funding sources
List funding sources in this standard way to facilitate compliance to funder's requirements:

Funding: This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health [grant numbers xxxx, yyyy]; the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, WA [grant number zzzz]; and the United States Institutes of Peace [grant number aaaa].

It is not necessary to include detailed descriptions on the program or type of grants and awards. When funding is from a block grant or other resources available to a university, college, or other research institution, submit the name of the institute or organization that provided the funding.

If no funding has been provided for the research, please include the following sentence:

This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.


Units should be expressed in the international system of units (SI); other units may also be included in parentheses

Math formulae

Present mathematical formulae in line with normal text where possible and use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line for small fractional terms.

It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible.

Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article. Many word processors build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Should this not be the case, indicate the position of footnotes in the text and present the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article.

Tables and Figures

Original Research Articles and Reviews should have a maximum of 4 tables and figures (combined). Tables should follow the References. Please submit tables as editable text and not as images. Tables and table legends may be single spaced with the font size no smaller than 10-point. Tables should be formatted in portrait orientation unless the manuscript is a systematic review. Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text and place any table notes below the table body. Ensure that the data presented in them do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article. Please avoid using vertical rules. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns.Tables should be numbered with Arabic numerals and have a short title that describes its contents. All tables must be cited in the text.

Numbers and percentages should be presented in the same cell. Similarly, measures of variability (SD, 95% CI) should be in the same cell as their corresponding statistic. When presenting percentages, include the numbers from which they were calculated. For example, the number of subjects (denominator) can be included in a header - e.g., Control (N=130) - while the numerator and percentage can be displayed in the cell, e.g.: 83 (64). Include variability where applicable (e.g., mean [SD] or median [interquartile range]).

For Figures, put the title in the legend only and not on the figure itself. Figures with few data should add some visual value; otherwise, include the data in the manuscript text or table instead. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used. For all line and bar charts, the lower bound for each scale should be either zero (preferable) or the lowest possible physiologic value. Do not truncate values in order to accentuate differences between groups. The Editors reserve the right to move to an online appendix any tables, figures, etc. not essential to the understanding of the text.


Please format references correctly per journal style prior to submission.

Citation in text
Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.

Reference links
Increased discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, CrossRef and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the DOI is encouraged.

Web References
As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.

References in a special issue
Please ensure that the words 'this issue' are added to any references in the list (and any citations in the text) to other articles in the same Special Issue.

Reference management software
Most Elsevier journals have their reference template available in many of the most popular reference management software products. These include all products that support Citation Style Language styles (, such as Mendeley ( and Zotero (, as well as EndNote ( Using the word processor plug-ins from these products, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article, after which citations and bibliographies will be automatically formatted in the journal's style. If no template is yet available for this journal, please follow the format of the sample references and citations as shown in this Guide.

Reference style
Text: Indicate references by number(s) in square brackets in line with the text. The actual authors can be referred to, but the reference number(s) must always be given.
List: Number the references (numbers in square brackets) in the list in the order in which they appear in the text.
Reference to a journal publication:
[1] Van der Geer J, Hanraads JAJ, Lupton RA. The art of writing a scientific article. J Sci Commun 2010;163:51–9.
Reference to a book:
[2] Strunk Jr W, White EB. The elements of style. 4th ed. New York: Longman; 2000.
Reference to a chapter in an edited book:
[3] Mettam GR, Adams LB. How to prepare an electronic version of your article. In: Jones BS, Smith RZ, editors. Introduction to the electronic age, New York: E-Publishing Inc; 2009, p. 281–304.
[dataset] [5] Oguro M, Imahiro S, Saito S, Nakashizuka T. Mortality data for Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions, Mendeley Data, v1; 2015.
Note shortened form for last page number. e.g., 51–9, and that for more than 6 authors the first 6 should be listed followed by 'et al.' For further details you are referred to 'Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts submitted to Biomedical Journals' (J Am Med Assoc 1997;277:927–34) (see also Data references This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. This identifier will not appear in your published article.


Electronic artwork
General points
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Preferred fonts: Arial (or Helvetica), Times New Roman (or Times), Symbol, Courier.
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
• Indicate per figure if it is a single, 1.5 or 2-column fitting image.
• For Word submissions only, you may still provide figures and their captions, and tables within a single file at the revision stage.
• Please note that individual figure files larger than 10 MB must be provided in separate source files.

A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available.
You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
Regardless of the application used, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings. Embed the font or save the text as 'graphics'.
TIFF (or JPG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones): always use a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF (or JPG): Bitmapped line drawings: use a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF (or JPG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale): a minimum of 500 dpi is required.
Please do not:
• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); the resolution is too low.
• Supply files that are too low in resolution.
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

Color artwork
Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF), or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color online (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. For color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article. Please indicate your preference for color: in print or online only. Further information on the preparation of electronic artwork.

Please note: Because of technical complications that can arise by converting color figures to 'gray scale' (for the printed version should you not opt for color in print) please submit in addition usable black and white versions of all the color illustrations.

Figure captions
Ensure that each illustration has a caption. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.

Data references
This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in your published article.

Users of Mendeley Desktop can easily install the reference style for this journal by clicking the following link:
When preparing your manuscript, you will then be able to select this style using the Mendeley plug-ins for Microsoft Word or LibreOffice.

Reference formatting
There are no strict requirements on reference formatting at submission. References can be in any style or format as long as the style is consistent. Where applicable, author(s) name(s), journal title/book title, chapter title/article title, year of publication, volume number/book chapter and the article number or pagination must be present. Use of DOI is highly encouraged. The reference style used by the journal will be applied to the accepted article by Elsevier at the proof stage. Note that missing data will be highlighted at proof stage for the author to correct. If you do wish to format the references yourself they should be arranged according to the following examples:


Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the file in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 150 MB per file, 1 GB in total. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect. Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages. Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.

Data visualization

Include interactive data visualizations in your publication and let your readers interact and engage more closely with your research. Follow the instructions here to find out about available data visualization options and how to include them with your article.

Supplementary Materials (online only)

Online-only materials may include additional Supplementary Tables and Figures, treatment or procedural manuals (which should be labeled as Supplementary Appendices), and other relevant documents that are not central to primary analyses and not instrumental for peer review consideration. Articles should be able to stand alone without the supplementary information.

Elsevier accepts electronic supplementary material to support and enhance your scientific research. Supplementary files offer the author additional possibilities to publish supporting applications, high-resolution images, background datasets, sound clips and more. Supplementary files supplied will be published online alongside the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: In order to ensure that your submitted material is directly usable, please provide the data in one of our recommended file formats. Authors should submit the material in electronic format together with the article and supply a concise and descriptive caption for each file. For more detailed instructions please visit our artwork instruction pages at

Research data

This journal encourages and enables you to share data that supports your research publication where appropriate, and enables you to interlink the data with your published articles. Research data refers to the results of observations or experimentation that validate research findings. To facilitate reproducibility and data reuse, this journal also encourages you to share your software, code, models, algorithms, protocols, methods and other useful materials related to the project.

Below are a number of ways in which you can associate data with your article or make a statement about the availability of your data when submitting your manuscript. If you are sharing data in one of these ways, you are encouraged to cite the data in your manuscript and reference list. Please refer to the "References" section for more information about data citation. For more information on depositing, sharing and using research data and other relevant research materials, visit the research data page.

Data linking
If you have made your research data available in a data repository, you can link your article directly to the dataset. Elsevier collaborates with a number of repositories to link articles on ScienceDirect with relevant repositories, giving readers access to underlying data that gives them a better understanding of the research described.

There are different ways to link your datasets to your article. When available, you can directly link your dataset to your article by providing the relevant information in the submission system. For more information, visit the database linking page.

For supported data repositories a repository banner will automatically appear next to your published article on ScienceDirect.

In addition, you can link to relevant data or entities through identifiers within the text of your manuscript, using the following format: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN).

Mendeley Data
This journal supports Mendeley Data, enabling you to deposit any research data (including raw and processed data, video, code, software, algorithms, protocols, and methods) associated with your manuscript in a free-to-use, open access repository. During the submission process, after uploading your manuscript, you will have the opportunity to upload your relevant datasets directly to Mendeley Data. The datasets will be listed and directly accessible to readers next to your published article online.

For more information, visit the Mendeley Data for journals page.

Data statement
To foster transparency, we encourage you to state the availability of your data in your submission. This may be a requirement of your funding body or institution. If your data is unavailable to access or unsuitable to post, you will have the opportunity to indicate why during the submission process, for example by stating that the research data is confidential. The statement will appear with your published article on ScienceDirect. For more information, visit the Data Statement page.

Submission checklist:

The following list will be useful during the final checking of an article prior to sending it to the journal for review. Please consult this Guide for Authors for further details of any item.
Ensure that the following items are present:
A cover letter that includes: (1) total manuscript words (excluding cover letter, abstract, tables, and references), (2) a statement that authors have sufficiently contributed to and approved the final version of the manuscript and that it has not been previously published, and (3) a listing of one author who has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
• E-mail address
• Full postal address
All necessary files have been uploaded, and contain:
• Abstract
• Keywords
• All figure captions
• Disclosures and acknowledgments (including lists of contributors, funders, and prior presentations)
• All tables (including title, description, footnotes)
Further considerations
• Optional supplementary materials: (information that supports and enhances the manuscript but that is not essential for understanding the manuscript). Supplementary information could include CONSORT/PRISMA checklists, additional tables and figures, treatment or procedural manuals, or other relevant documents)
• All references mentioned in the Reference list are cited in the text, and vice versa
• Manuscript is written in clear English, and follows the journal's guidelines including statistical guidelines and inclusion of checklists as appropriate
• Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Internet)
Printed version of figures (if applicable) in color or black-and-white
• Indicate clearly whether or not color or black-and-white in print is required.
For any further information please visit our customer support site at

Online proof correction

To ensure a fast publication process of the article, we kindly ask authors to provide us with their proof corrections within two days. Corresponding authors will receive an e-mail with a link to our online proofing system, allowing annotation and correction of proofs online. The environment is similar to MS Word: in addition to editing text, you can also comment on figures/tables and answer questions from the Copy Editor. Web-based proofing provides a faster and less error-prone process by allowing you to directly type your corrections, eliminating the potential introduction of errors.
If preferred, you can still choose to annotate and upload your edits on the PDF version. All instructions for proofing will be given in the e-mail we send to authors, including alternative methods to the online version and PDF.
We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication. Please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.


The corresponding author, at no cost, will be provided with a PDF file of the article via e-mail (the PDF file is a watermarked version of the published article and includes a cover sheet with the journal cover image and a disclaimer outlining the terms and conditions of use). For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's Author Services.


Authors may send queries concerning the submission process, manuscript status, or journal procedures to the GHP Editorial Office ( All correspondence, including the editor's decision and request for revisions, will be made via e-mail.

Visit the Elsevier Support Center to find the answers you need. Here you will find everything from Frequently Asked Questions to ways to get in touch.
You can also check the status of your submitted article or find out when your accepted article will be published.