Fungal Biology publishes original contributions in all fields of basic and applied research involving fungi and fungus-like organisms (including oomycetes and slime moulds). Areas of investigation include biodeterioration, biotechnology, cell and developmental biology, ecology, evolution, genetics, geomycology, medical mycology, mutualistic interactions (including lichens and mycorrhizas), physiology, plant pathology, secondary metabolites, and taxonomy and systematics. Submissions on experimental methods are also welcomed. Priority is given to contributions likely to be of interest to a wide international audience.
Fungal Biology is the international research journal of the British Mycological Society.
Fungal Biology is the international research journal of the British Mycological Society. It publishes original contributions in all fields of basic and applied research involving fungi and fungus-like organisms (including filamentous fungi, yeasts, lichens, oomycetes, and slime moulds). These fields include biochemistry, biodeterioration, biotechnology, cell biology, developmental biology, disease control, ecology, environment, evolution, fungal physiology, genetics, genomics, geomycology, insect pathology, medical mycology, molecular genetics, mutualistic interactions, physiology, plant pathology, secondary metabolites, taxonomy and systematics, and techniques
Types of paper
Fungal Biology publishes papers reporting original research which makes a significant contribution to mycology. Review articles on themes of topical interest are welcome.
Non-members of the Society are encouraged to submit manuscripts for publication.
You can use this list to carry out a final check of your submission before you send it to the journal for review. Please check the relevant section in this Guide for Authors for more details.
Ensure that the following items are present:One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
• E-mail address
• Full postal address
All necessary files have been uploaded:
• Include keywords
• All figures (include relevant captions)
• All tables (including titles, description, footnotes)
• Ensure all figure and table citations in the text match the files provided
• Indicate clearly if color should be used for any figures in print
Graphical Abstracts / Highlights files (where applicable)
Supplemental files (where applicable)
• Manuscript has been 'spell checked' and 'grammar checked'
• All references mentioned in the Reference List are cited in the text, and vice versa
• Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Internet)
• A competing interests statement is provided, even if the authors have no competing interests to declare
• Journal policies detailed in this guide have been reviewed
• Referee suggestions and contact details provided, based on journal requirements
For further information, visit our Support Center.
Declaration of interest
All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential competing interests include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. Authors must disclose any interests in two places: 1. A summary declaration of interest statement in the title page file (if double-blind) or the manuscript file (if single-blind). If there are no interests to declare then please state this: 'Declarations of interest: none'. This summary statement will be ultimately published if the article is accepted. 2. Detailed disclosures as part of a separate Declaration of Interest form, which forms part of the journal's official records. It is important for potential interests to be declared in both places and that the information matches. More information.
Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract, a published lecture or academic thesis, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder.
Use of inclusive language
Inclusive language acknowledges diversity, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and promotes equal opportunities. Content should make no assumptions about the beliefs or commitments of any reader; contain nothing which might imply that one individual is superior to another on the grounds of age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition; and use inclusive language throughout. Authors should ensure that writing is free from bias, stereotypes, slang, reference to dominant culture and/or cultural assumptions. We advise to seek gender neutrality by using plural nouns ("clinicians, patients/clients") as default/wherever possible to avoid using "he, she," or "he/she." We recommend avoiding the use of descriptors that refer to personal attributes such as age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition unless they are relevant and valid. These guidelines are meant as a point of reference to help identify appropriate language but are by no means exhaustive or definitive.
Changes to authorship
Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the journal Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed.
Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted. While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the Editor will result in a corrigendum.
Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (see more information on this). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.
Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations. If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases.For gold open access articles: Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an 'Exclusive License Agreement' (more information). Permitted third party reuse of gold open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license.
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. More information.
Role of the funding source
You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.
Please visit our Open Access page for more information.
Language (usage and editing services)
Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's Author Services.
Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files (e.g., Word, LaTeX) are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.
Please write your text in good English. English spellings are required, and should follow The Concise Oxford Dictionary (Oxford: Clarendon Press). Words of non-English origin, like bona fide, prima facie, in vitro, in situ, should be in italic type.
State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results.
Material and methods
Provide sufficient detail to allow the work to be reproduced. Methods already published should be indicated by a reference: only relevant modifications should be described. All materials must be available to others. This means that commercial sources must be identified, proprietary materials must be patented prior to publication (so that they can be released), and all cultures, strains or varieties on which the work is based must be deposited in an identified culture collection from which they can be obtained by others.
Results should be clear and concise. Numerical data which lack statistical analysis are valueless and will not be published. Data from a sufficient number of independent experiments should be reported to permit evaluation of the reproducibility and significance of results. When any significance is claimed, the test of significance used should be stated and an estimate of the probability given. If you use complex statistical transformations a few lines of explanation in plain English of the purpose and the outcome of the test should be provided.
This should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them.
The main conclusions of the study may be presented in a short Conclusions section, which may stand alone or form a subsection of a Discussion or Results and Discussion section.
If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq. (A.1), Eq. (A.2), etc.; in a subsequent appendix, Eq. (B.1) and so on. Similarly for tables and figures: Table A.1; Fig. A.1, etc.
Essential title page information
• Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
• Author names and affiliations. Please clearly indicate the given name(s) and family name(s) of each author and check that all names are accurately spelled. You can add your name between parentheses in your own script behind the English transliteration. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
• Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. This responsibility includes answering any future queries about Methodology and Materials. Ensure that the e-mail address is given and that contact details are kept up to date by the corresponding author.
• Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.
Highlights are mandatory for this journal as they help increase the discoverability of your article via search engines. They consist of a short collection of bullet points that capture the novel results of your research as well as new methods that were used during the study (if any). Please have a look at the examples here: example Highlights.
A concise and factual abstract is required. The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results and major conclusions. An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. For this reason, References should be avoided, but if essential, then cite the author(s) and year(s). Also, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself.
Although a graphical abstract is optional, its use is encouraged as it draws more attention to the online article. The graphical abstract should summarize the contents of the article in a concise, pictorial form designed to capture the attention of a wide readership. Graphical abstracts should be submitted as a separate file in the online submission system. Image size: Please provide an image with a minimum of 531 × 1328 pixels (h × w) or proportionally more. The image should be readable at a size of 5 × 13 cm using a regular screen resolution of 96 dpi. Preferred file types: TIFF, EPS, PDF or MS Office files. You can view Example Graphical Abstracts on our information site.
Authors can make use of Elsevier's Illustration Services to ensure the best presentation of their images and in accordance with all technical requirements.
Keywords. Immediately after the abstract, provide 5 keywords, using British spelling and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, " and" , " of" ). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. Please ensure the keywords different from any used in the title, was these will be used for indexing purposes.
Define abbreviations that are not standard in this field in a footnote to be placed on the first page of the article. Such abbreviations that are unavoidable in the abstract must be defined at their first mention there, as well as in the footnote. Ensure consistency of abbreviations throughout the article.
Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.).
Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article. Many word processors can build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Otherwise, please indicate the position of footnotes in the text and list the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article. Do not include footnotes in the Reference list.
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.
• Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
• Provide captions to illustrations separately.
• Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the published version.
• Submit each illustration as a separate file.
• Ensure that color images are accessible to all, including those with impaired color vision.
A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available.
You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format.
Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.
Please do not:
• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
• Supply files that are too low in resolution;
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.
- Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
- Save text in illustrations as "graphics" or enclose the font.
- Only use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times, Symbol.
- Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
- Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
- Provide captions to illustrations separately.
- Produce images near to the desired size of the printed version.
- Submit each figure as a separate file.
A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available on our website: https://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions
You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
Regardless of the application used, when your electronic artwork is finalised, please "save as" or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS: Vector drawings. Embed the font or save the text as "graphics".
TIFF: color or grayscale photographs (halftones): always use a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF: Bitmapped line drawings: use a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF: Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale): a minimum of 500 dpi is required.
DOC, XLS or PPT: If your electronic artwork is created in any of these Microsoft Office applications please supply "as is".
Please do not:
- Supply embedded graphics in your wordprocessor (spreadsheet, presentation) document;
- Supply files that are optimised for screen use (like GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); the resolution is too low;
- Supply files that are too low in resolution;
- Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.
Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF), or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color online (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. For color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article. Please indicate your preference for color: in print or online only. Further information on the preparation of electronic artwork.
Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.
Please submit tables as editable text and not as images. Tables can be placed either next to the relevant text in the article, or on separate page(s) at the end. Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text and place any table notes below the table body. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in them do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article. Please avoid using vertical rules and shading in table cells.
Citation in text
Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.
Text: All citations in the text should refer to:
- Single Author: the Author's name (without initials, unless there is ambiguity) and the year of publication;
- Two Authors: both Authors' names and the year of publication;
- Three or more Authors: first Author's name followed by " et al." and the year of publication.
Citations may be made directly (or parenthetically). Groups of references should be listed first alphabetically, then chronologically.
List: References should be arranged first alphabetically and then further sorted chronologically if necessary. More than one reference from the same Author(s) in the same year must be identified by the letters " a" , " b" , " c" , etc., placed after the year of publication.
Reference to a journal publication:
Reference to a book:
Reference to a chapter in an edited book:
Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the file in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 150 MB per file, 1 GB in total. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect. Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages. Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.
Supplementary material such as applications, images and sound clips, can be published with your article to enhance it. Submitted supplementary items are published exactly as they are received (Excel or PowerPoint files will appear as such online). Please submit your material together with the article and supply a concise, descriptive caption for each supplementary file. If you wish to make changes to supplementary material during any stage of the process, please make sure to provide an updated file. Do not annotate any corrections on a previous version. Please switch off the 'Track Changes' option in Microsoft Office files as these will appear in the published version.
If you have made your research data available in a data repository, you can link your article directly to the dataset. Elsevier collaborates with a number of repositories to link articles on ScienceDirect with relevant repositories, giving readers access to underlying data that gives them a better understanding of the research described.
For supported data repositories a repository banner will automatically appear next to your published article on ScienceDirect.In addition, you can link to relevant data or entities through identifiers within the text of your manuscript, using the following format: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN).
Data in Brief
You have the option of converting any or all parts of your supplementary or additional raw data into a data article published in Data in Brief. A data article is a new kind of article that ensures that your data are actively reviewed, curated, formatted, indexed, given a DOI and made publicly available to all upon publication (watch this video describing the benefits of publishing your data in Data in Brief). You are encouraged to submit your data article for Data in Brief as an additional item directly alongside the revised version of your manuscript. If your research article is accepted, your data article will automatically be transferred over to Data in Brief where it will be editorially reviewed, published open access and linked to your research article on ScienceDirect. Please note an open access fee is payable for publication in Data in Brief. Full details can be found on the Data in Brief website. Please use this template to write your Data in Brief data article.
Any formal taxonomic material should be placed in a separate section, preceding the Discussion. This includes the introduction of new scientific names, diagnoses and descriptions, typifications, keys, nomenclatural discussions, and lists of specimens or cultures examined. See below for further information on the presentation of specialist taxonomic information.
In accordance with the changes made in the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature at the St Louis Congress in 1999, author citations of scientific names are not used in Fungal Biology unless the papers are taxonomic or nomenclatural. Further, in those cases author citations are only used where either the date of publication of the name, or the full bibliographic reference to the place of original publication is given. Where only the year is given, it is not placed in parenthesis and the reference is not given in full in the list of References (details can be located through the Index Fungorum database if required).
Scientific names of all ranks are placed in italic type (e.g. Ascomycota, Boletales, Fungi, Glomaceae), as in the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature. For consistency, this practice is followed for all groups of organisms in Fungal Biology, including those covered by the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. Names not used as formal scientific ones are placed in regular type and do not start with a capital letter (e.g. ascomycetes, basidiomycetes, fungi, penicillia, pyrenomycetes). Names of cultivars (cultivated varieties) of cultivated plants are no placed in italic type but prefixed by 'cv.' without single inverted commas (e.g. Triticum aestivale cv. Golden Ear). Names of hybrids are indicated by a multiplication sign in Roman type immediately in front of the hybrid genus or specific name, with no space (e.g. Melampsoraxcolumbiana).When first used in the paper, and at the start of each new section, the genus name is to be given in full. Where the name is repeated, the genus name is abbreviated to its initial letter (e.g. Chaetomium globosum to C. globosum) except at the start of a new sentence.
Common names of fungi and hosts should not be capitalised or placed in quotation marks, and where available follow standard lists of common names or ones used in quarantine or conservation legislation (e.g. British Society for Plant Pathology, 1984; Stace, New Flora of the British Isles, 1991; Holden, Recommended English Names for Fungi in the UK, 2003).
In order for the researchers to verify results reported in the journal, voucher material must be both permanently preserved and accessible. Dried reference specimens, slides, and (or) living cultures should be deposited in a public institution, for example ones recognised in the Index Herborum or the World Directory of Collections of Cultures of Microorganisms. Where a large number of collections was used, the deposit of a representative selection of strains is acceptable. Deposited materials should be indicated by the accepted acronym for the collection, followed by the accession number allocated to the strain (e.g. CBS116947). In the case of living cultures, where technically feasible these should be cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen or lyophilized.
Information as to the country of origin, state or province, locality, substrate or associated organism (e.g. insect host), date, and the name of the isolator/collector should be provided as a minimum requirement.
Fungal Biology discourages then inclusion of extensive sets of sequence data or alignments, but requires that newly generated sequences and alignments are deposited in publicly available databases such as GenBank or TreeBASE prior to publication. The accession numbers allocated to sequences and alignments by such databases must be included in contributions, but may be added at the final revision stage. However, many referees wish to check sequence data and alignments during the review process, so if those generated in the paper are not already publicly available, authors should include these as supplementary material when making their submission. Many terms and methods used in molecular studies are now so well established and familiar that they need not be spelled out in full even at first mention, but referred to by abbreviations or acronyms (Table 1)
New scientific names
Following the acceptance of a paper with new scientific names, authors must register the names in MycoBank and obtain MycoBank numbers for each new name (see http://www.MycoBank.org). These are to be given immediately below the name, and the actual numbers can be added in proof if not already secured. This registration became a condition of publication of all new scientific names in the journal on 1 January 2007.Note that in the spirit of the current International Code of Botanical Nomenclature, it is not the policy of Fungal Biology to publish papers introducing new formal names for the anamorphs of already described teleomorphic fungi. Further, authors are expected to use the full provisions of the Code, as revised in Vienna in 2005, to avoid the unnecessary creation of new names in pleomorphic fungi.
The derivation of new scientific names is to be given before the diagnosis description in 1-2 lines starting with 'Etym.:'. Latin diagnoses should be brief and concentrate on the characters differentiating the new taxon from others. Latin descriptions that are merely translations of the English description included are not acceptable.The use of paragraphs starting with italicised topic heads such as 'Anamorph:', 'Host range:', 'Distribution:', 'Nomenclature:', or 'Observations:' is encouraged.
BasionymsThe basionyms of new combinations are indicated below the formal transfer after the line with the MycoBank number, and on a new line starting with 'Basionym'; this must include the full bibliographic details of the place of publication of the basionym (Fig. 1B).
'≡' and '=' are not to be used in presentations of lists of synoyms.The place of publication of scientific names given in the body of the paper must be abbreviated, following Stafelu & Cowans's Taxonomic Literature (for books), and any of Botanico Periodicum Huntianum or The World List of Scientific Periodicals or the Catalogue if Scientific Periodicals in the British Museum (Natural History) for journals.
Contrary to the general practice in the journal, abbreviations of authors' names are always to be cited after scientific names in formal presentations of synonymy. Abbreviations must follow the system used in the Index Fungorum database (available free on the internet). If an author's name is not in the database, the surname should be given in full, and also full initials if there is a different person with the surname already in the system (in some cases forenames are spelled out in full to avoid confusion).The use of ':' to indicate the sanctioned status of a name in author citations is not recommended, but should always be employed after the full bibliographic reference to the place of publication of a name. The ':' is only correctly used before a 'Fr.' Or 'Pers.' and has a space either side (i.e. 'Bolt. : Fr.' not 'Bolt.: Fr.') as shown in Fig. 1A. Note that in some cases 'ex' may also be correct in the same position where the name was not validly published by the first indicated author.
Where epitypes, neotypes or lectotypes are being designated for the first time, the phrase 'lectotypus hic designatus' (or with a different prefix depending on the kind of type) should appear in bold italic type after the citation of the name or specimen being selected as the nomenclatural type. This is not necessary where taxa are being described for the first time and a holotype (and any isotypes) is being designated.
Keys are presented at full-page width and must be strictly dichotomous. The characters in each half of a couplet must match, though supplementary information may also be added where a taxon keys out. The number of the couplet from which a particular point was reached is indicated in parenthesis, turn-overs are indented, and there is a line space between each couplet. Taxon names are printed in bold Roman where they key out, and without the generic name if the key relates only to species in the same genus. An example of an extract from a key is shown in Fig. 2.Specimen citations
Details of specimens and cultures examined are grouped at the end of species accounts and printed in smaller type. The information should be organized in the following way: Specimen examined: United Kingdom: South Devon (V.C. 3): Slapton, Slapton Ley National Nature Reserve, 'The Causeway', 20(SX)/821442, alt. 10 m, on thallus of Parmelia sulcata on Salix sp., 25 Jun. 1974, D. L. Hawksworth 3762 (IMI 186831 - holotype of Cornutispora lichenicola). Material from different countries is arranged alphabetically by country, with a separating bold 'd' between records from different countries. Different states or counties within a country are separated by a '.', and material from the same state or county is separated by a ';'. Citations of holotype collections of newly described species are to be arranged in the same way, but are placed immediately after the Latin diagnosis.
Online proof correction
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