Your Paper Your Way
We now differentiate between the requirements for new and revised submissions. You may choose to submit your manuscript as a single Word or PDF file to be used in the refereeing process. Only when your paper is at the revision stage, will you be requested to put your paper in to a 'correct format' for acceptance and provide the items required for the publication of your article.
To find out more, please visit the Preparation section below.
Free Radical Biology and Medicine is the premier forum for publishing groundbreaking research in the redox biology of both health and disease. We focus on signal transduction and redox signaling; oxidative stress; reductive stress; redox stress; nitrosative stress; aging and age-related diseases; metabolic regulation and metabolic diseases; mitochondrial function and signaling; homeostatic mechanisms and adaptive responses; redox chemistry and mechanisms; materials & nanomaterials; non-thermal plasmas; microorganisms, fungi, plants, insects, animals, and humans; and antioxidant enzymes, pathways, and networks.
We welcome both full-length and short Research Communications, Hypothesis Papers, Reviews, Mini Reviews, Graphical Reviews, and Critical Methods Papers.Free Radical Biology and Medicine also commissions themed Special Issues aimed at highlighting recent advances in both basic and clinical fields, with a particular focus on mechanisms underlying altered metabolism and redox signaling.
Types of paper
Full-length research articles, Short Communications, Review articles, Mini-Review articles, Hypothesis papers, Critical Methods articles.
Short Communications: These concise research articles have a maximum length of 2000 words excluding graphical abstract, highlights, references, abstract and figure legends with a maximum of four figures with no more than 6 panels per figure. Authors are encouraged to either use supplementary data or co-publish a Data in Brief article to provide supportive information where appropriate. The journal editors will fast-track the peer review of this type of paper.Review Articles: “A well-illustrated review article is easier to read and offer greater value where illustrations or infographics can replace many words“.
Reviews (full-length) should provide a comprehensive analysis on topics of broad interest to the journal's readership. Reviews should be thorough, sufficiently critical and accommodate different points of view. They should stand out from other recently published reviews on the same theme. Although Reviews are not of any fixed length, they are usually 16,320 words in length (excluding references and figure legends), include an abstract that is no more than 200 words, normally between 75-250 references (should include titles), and a minimum of three figures/illustrations and summary table(s) of relevant literature.Mini-Review Articles: Mini-reviews are succinct, focused updates of the literature related to a question of current interest in the scientific community (typically from the last 2-3 years). Subjects covered in Mini-reviews are generally narrower, either in scope or depth, than those covered in full-length Reviews. They should highlight/analyze/discuss recent and important findings and include the author's viewpoint on how the subject relates to the current state of the field. Mini-reviews are usually 2000 to 4000 words in length (excluding references and figure legends), include an abstract that is no more than 150 words, up to 50 references (should include titles), and one to three figures/illustrations.
Reviews and Mini-Reviews All Articles should be authoritative, state-of-the-art accounts of the selected research field, be of high interest, balanced and accurate. Beyond summaries of important scientific developments and ideas, authors are encouraged to identify and discuss how the field may be impacted or develop in the future, including insights that may be of significance to the scientific community. All FRBM Review and Mini-Review Articles undergo rigorous and full peer review, in the same way as regular research papers, and publication cannot be guaranteed.
Hypothesis papers: Hypothesis Papers provide a mechanism for authors to advance new ideas, hypotheses, or theories. Such novel concepts are typically based primarily on previously published data, findings, or observations and a strong line of reasoning, rather than on extensive new experiments. Ideally, a way of testing the hypothesis or theory being proposed (along with proper experimental controls) should be developed as part of the submission.
Critical Methods: Both new methods or substantial revisions or updates to existing methods are suitable as 'Critical Methods.' Authors should clearly state the purpose(s) of the method and why it is appropriate for the task. If other methods are flawed, briefly explain the problem with them. The chemical and/or biological basis of the method should be clearly explained. The limitations of the method should be elucidated; for example, many molecular biology measurements provide relative changes rather than absolute values and some methods may only be appropriate with certain kinds of biological samples. All Critical Methods papers must describe reagents, equipment, special techniques, and procedural steps in sufficient detail that they can be accurately reproduced by any competent free radical biologist. A detailed list of every reagent, including source and catalogue number, should be provided and all required instrumentation must be listed. Describe each procedural step in detail, as well as the timing of all steps. Provide representative illustrations of steps where useful. Precautions should also be included for any steps where something can easily go wrong. Describe any post protocol calculations in detail and provide representative results. Describe any caveats that need to be considered. State whether the authors have patents or financial interests in the protocol or instruments.Free Radical Biology and Medicine introduces Graphical Reviews: These reviews will summarize schematically key concepts, established and novel ideas in redox biology which will be accessible to a broad audience and freely downloaded as PowerPoint slides for use in teaching or conference presentations. Example: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.redox.2012.10.001
Unsolicited reviews: Authors of unsolicited reviews should include, in their cover letter, a brief description summarizing the relevance of their submission to the field of Free Radical Biology and Medicine. In addition, if a review article on a similar topic has been published in Free Radical Biology and Medicine within the last two years, authors should provide brief narrative detailing how their article differs in scope, perspective and/ or content. Moreover, authors are required to provide a Researcher ID (such as an ORCID or Scopus ID).
Contact details for submission
Papers should be submitted using the Free Radical Biology & Medicine online submission system, https://www.editorialmanager.com/frbm/default.aspx For questions on the submission or reviewing process, please contact the Editorial Office at firstname.lastname@example.org
Policy and ethics
The work described in your article must have been carried out in accordance with The Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association (Declaration of Helsinki) for experiments involving humans http://www.wma.net/en/30publications/10policies/b3/index.html; Uniform Requirements for manuscripts submitted to Biomedical journals http://www.icmje.org. This must be stated at an appropriate point in the article.
Where animals have been used in a study, the institutional ethical or animal welfare Authority under which the work was conducted must be stated, along with the specific authorisation reference number. Circumstances relating to animal experimentation must meet the International Guiding Principles for Biomedical Research Involving Animals, as issued by the Council for the International Organizations of Medical Sciences. These guidelines are obtainable from: Executive Secretary C.I.O.M.S., c/o WHO, Appia, CH-1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland, or at the following URL: http://www.cioms.ch/frame_1985_texts_of_guidelines.htm, or the EC Directive 86/609/EEC for animal experiments http://ec.europa.eu/environment/chemicals/lab_animals/legislation_en.htm.
Declaration of interest
All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential competing interests include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. Authors must disclose any interests in two places: 1. A summary declaration of interest statement in the title page file (if double-blind) or the manuscript file (if single-blind). If there are no interests to declare then please state this: 'Declarations of interest: none'. This summary statement will be ultimately published if the article is accepted. 2. Detailed disclosures as part of a separate Declaration of Interest form, which forms part of the journal's official records. It is important for potential interests to be declared in both places and that the information matches. More information.
Submission declaration and verification
Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract, a published lecture or academic thesis, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service Crossref Similarity Check.
Please note that preprints can be shared anywhere at any time, in line with Elsevier's sharing policy. Sharing your preprints e.g. on a preprint server will not count as prior publication (see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' for more information).
Use of inclusive language
Inclusive language acknowledges diversity, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and promotes equal opportunities. Content should make no assumptions about the beliefs or commitments of any reader; contain nothing which might imply that one individual is superior to another on the grounds of age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition; and use inclusive language throughout. Authors should ensure that writing is free from bias, stereotypes, slang, reference to dominant culture and/or cultural assumptions. We advise to seek gender neutrality by using plural nouns ("clinicians, patients/clients") as default/wherever possible to avoid using "he, she," or "he/she." We recommend avoiding the use of descriptors that refer to personal attributes such as age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition unless they are relevant and valid. These guidelines are meant as a point of reference to help identify appropriate language but are by no means exhaustive or definitive.
All authors should have made substantial contributions to all of the following: (1) the conception and design of the study, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data, (2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content, (3) final approval of the version to be submitted.
Changes to authorship
Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the journal Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed.
Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted. While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the Editor will result in a corrigendum.
Article transfer service
This journal is part of our Article Transfer Service. This means that if the Editor feels your article is more suitable in one of our other participating journals, then you may be asked to consider transferring the article to one of those. If you agree, your article will be transferred automatically on your behalf with no need to reformat. Please note that your article will be reviewed again by the new journal. More information.
Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (see more information on this). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.
Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations. If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases.For gold open access articles: Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an 'Exclusive License Agreement' (more information). Permitted third party reuse of gold open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license.
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. More information.
Elsevier supports responsible sharing
Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.
Role of the funding source
You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.
Elsevier journals comply with current NIH public access policy.
Please visit our Open Access page for more information.
Language (usage and editing services)
Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's Author Services.
Your Paper-Your Way
As part of the Your Paper-Your Way service, authors may submit a PDF version of their manuscript for use in the refereeing process. This PDF file can be in any format or lay-out that can be used by referees to evaluate your work. It should contain high enough quality figures for refereeing. References can be in any style or format, as long as the full paper title is present. After revision, at acceptance, source files of the paper, figures, tables and figure captions will then be required to produce the final published version - not before.
Submission in the traditional way is also still possible.
Submission to this journal proceeds totally online and you will be guided stepwise through the creation and uploading of your files. The system automatically converts source files to a single PDF file of the article, which is used in the peer-review process (see above). Please note that even though manuscript source files are converted to PDF files at submission for the review process, these source files are needed for further processing after acceptance. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, takes place by e-mail removing the need for a paper trail.
If you are submitting a new version of the manuscript for an earlier rejected manuscript then please submit a point by point response to the reviewer's comments to the earlier rejected paper.
Submit your article
Please submit your article via https://www.editorialmanager.com/frbm/default.aspx
A minimum of four suitable potential reviewers (please provide their name, email addresses, and institutional affiliation) should be provided. When compiling this list of potential reviewers please consider the following important criteria: they must be knowledgeable about the manuscript subject area; must not be from your own institution; at least two of the suggested reviewers should be from another country than the authors'; and they should not have recent (less than four years) joint publications with any of the authors. However, the final choice of reviewers is at the editors' discretion.
Submission to this journal proceeds totally online and you will be guided stepwise through the creation and uploading of your files. The system automatically converts your files to a single PDF file, which is used in the peer-review process.
As part of the Your Paper Your Way service, you may choose to submit your manuscript as a single file to be used in the refereeing process. This can be a PDF file or a Word document, in any format or lay-out that can be used by referees to evaluate your manuscript. It should contain high enough quality figures for refereeing. If you prefer to do so, you may still provide all or some of the source files at the initial submission. Please note that individual figure files larger than 10 MB must be uploaded separately.
There are no strict requirements on reference formatting at submission. References can be in any style or format as long as the style is consistent. Where applicable, author(s) name(s), journal title/book title, chapter title/article title, year of publication, volume number/book chapter and the article number or pagination must be present. Use of DOI is highly encouraged. The reference style used by the journal will be applied to the accepted article by Elsevier at the proof stage. Note that missing data will be highlighted at proof stage for the author to correct.
There are no strict formatting requirements but all manuscripts must contain the essential elements needed to convey your manuscript, for example Abstract, Keywords, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Conclusions, Artwork and Tables with Captions.
If your article includes any Videos and/or other Supplementary material, this should be included in your initial submission for peer review purposes.
Divide the article into clearly defined sections.
Figures and tables embedded in text
Please ensure the figures and the tables included in the single file are placed next to the relevant text in the manuscript, rather than at the bottom or the top of the file. The corresponding caption should be placed directly below the figure or table.
This journal operates a single anonymized review process. All contributions will be initially assessed by the editor for suitability for the journal. Papers deemed suitable are then typically sent to a minimum of two independent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor's decision is final. Editors are not involved in decisions about papers which they have written themselves or have been written by family members or colleagues or which relate to products or services in which the editor has an interest. Any such submission is subject to all of the journal's usual procedures, with peer review handled independently of the relevant editor and their research groups. More information on types of peer review.
Use of word processing software
Regardless of the file format of the original submission, at revision you must provide us with an editable file of the entire article. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier). See also the section on Electronic artwork.
To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.
Subdivision - unnumbered sections
Divide your article into clearly defined sections. Each subsection is given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line. Subsections should be used as much as possible when cross-referencing text: refer to the subsection by heading as opposed to simply 'the text'.
State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results.
Material and methods
Provide sufficient detail to allow the work to be reproduced, with details of supplier and catalogue number when appropriate. Methods already published should be indicated by a reference: only relevant modifications should be described.
Results should be clear and concise.
This should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. A combined Results and Discussion section is often appropriate. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature.
The main conclusions of the study may be presented in a short Conclusions section, which may stand alone or form a subsection of a Discussion or Results and Discussion section.
Essential title page information
• Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
• Author names and affiliations. Please clearly indicate the given name(s) and family name(s) of each author and check that all names are accurately spelled. You can add your name between parentheses in your own script behind the English transliteration. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
• Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. This responsibility includes answering any future queries about Methodology and Materials. Ensure that the e-mail address is given and that contact details are kept up to date by the corresponding author.
• Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.
Highlights are mandatory for this journal as they help increase the discoverability of your article via search engines. They consist of a short collection of bullet points that capture the novel results of your research as well as new methods that were used during the study (if any). Please have a look at the examples here: example Highlights.
Highlights should be submitted in a separate editable file in the online submission system. Please use 'Highlights' in the file name and include 3 to 5 bullet points (maximum 85 characters, including spaces, per bullet point).
A concise and factual abstract is required. The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results and major conclusions. An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. For this reason, References should be avoided, but if essential, then cite the author(s) and year(s). Also, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself.
A graphical abstract is mandatory for this journal. It should summarize the contents of the article in a concise, pictorial form designed to capture the attention of a wide readership online. Authors must provide images that clearly represent the work described in the article. Graphical abstracts should be submitted as a separate file in the online submission system. Image size: please provide an image with a minimum of 531 × 1328 pixels (h × w) or proportionally more. The image should be readable at a size of 5 × 13 cm using a regular screen resolution of 96 dpi. Preferred file types: TIFF, EPS, PDF or MS Office files. You can view Example Graphical Abstracts on our information site.
Authors can make use of Elsevier's Illustration Services to ensure the best presentation of their images also in accordance with all technical requirements.
The Editors suggest that amongst the examples given https://www.elsevier.com/graphicalabstracts, that example 11 and 12 best reflect the sort of graphical abstract most suited to this field and journal.
Following the abstract, list keywords for indexing. These keywords should cover precisely the contents of the submitted paper and should give readers sufficient information as to the relevance of the paper to their particular field.
Define abbreviations that are not standard in this field in a footnote to be placed on the first page of the article. Such abbreviations that are unavoidable in the abstract must be defined at their first mention there, as well as in the footnote. Ensure consistency of abbreviations throughout the article.
Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.).
Formatting of funding sources
List funding sources in this standard way to facilitate compliance to funder's requirements:
It is not necessary to include detailed descriptions on the program or type of grants and awards. When funding is from a block grant or other resources available to a university, college, or other research institution, submit the name of the institute or organization that provided the funding.If no funding has been provided for the research, please include the following sentence:
This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
Nomenclature and abbreviations
Stylistic details must be kept constant. For example, reactive oxygen species is abbreviated as ROS, reactive nitrogen species is abbreviated as RNS, and electron spin resonance is abbreviated either ESR or EPR(for electron paramagnetic resonance). Either can be used, but both should be given and stated as equivalent at the first mention.(This is the recommendation of the International EPR Society.) Formulas for radicals follow IUPAC recommendations and contain a superscripted (not centered) large dot that precedes a charge,if any. Thus, superoxide is represented by O2• −, not O2− •, or some other permutation.
Other examples are HO• or •OH (not OH•), RO•, ROO•/•NO2, •CH2OH, etc. In the text, names of radicals are preferred, rather than using formulas in the middle of sentences. For names of radicals, use alkoxyl, peroxyl, and hydroxyl and not alkoxy, peroxy, etc. (correct nomenclature requires the 'l' on the end of radicals, as in methyl, hydroxyl, etc.). Use tert, not t-, etc., for abbreviations. For example, CORRECT: tert-butoxyl, sec-peroxyl; INCORRECT: t-butoxy, s-peroxy.Wherever possible, nomenclature and abbreviations should be in accordance with internationally agreed rules. When an enzyme or compound is first mentioned in the text, specification by its code number accompanied by its systematic name (as distinct from its trivial name) is requested by the Editors, but not checked for correctness.
Official names of drugs are preferred to trade names.Standard three-letter codes for the common amino acids may be used freely and without definition, but the one-letter codes should be restricted to comparisons of long protein sequences. Similar considerations apply to nucleosides and nucleotides. Standard three-letter codes for carbohydrates and for purine and pyrimidine bases may also be used. All other abbreviations should be defined when they first appear in the text. If an extensive list of abbreviations is used, please provide an alphabetical list with definitions followed by the references at the end of the article.
Temperatures denoted by an unqualified degree symbol are assumed to be Celsius. For solution strengths, percentages should be expressed by the sign %, followed in cases of ambiguity by w/w, w/v, or v/v [e.g., 5% (w/v) means 5 g/100 ml].All non-standard abbreviations should be defined in a footnote.
Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article. Many word processors build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Should this not be the case, indicate the position of footnotes in the text and present the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article.
Whilst it is accepted that authors sometimes need to manipulate images for clarity, manipulation for purposes of deception or fraud will be seen as scientific ethical abuse and will be dealt with accordingly. For graphical images, this journal is applying the following policy: no specific feature within an image may be enhanced, obscured, moved, removed, or introduced. Adjustments of brightness, contrast, or color balance are acceptable if and as long as they do not obscure or eliminate any information present in the original. Nonlinear adjustments (e.g. changes to gamma settings) must be disclosed in the figure legend.
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Preferred fonts: Arial (or Helvetica), Times New Roman (or Times), Symbol, Courier.
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
• Indicate per figure if it is a single, 1.5 or 2-column fitting image.
• For Word submissions only, you may still provide figures and their captions, and tables within a single file at the revision stage.
• Please note that individual figure files larger than 10 MB must be provided in separate source files.
You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
Regardless of the application used, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings. Embed the font or save the text as 'graphics'.
TIFF (or JPG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones): always use a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF (or JPG): Bitmapped line drawings: use a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF (or JPG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale): a minimum of 500 dpi is required.
Please do not:
• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); the resolution is too low.
• Supply files that are too low in resolution.
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.
Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF), or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color online (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. For color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article. Please indicate your preference for color: in print or online only. Further information on the preparation of electronic artwork.
Ensure that each illustration has a caption. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.
Please submit tables as editable text and not as images. Tables can be placed either next to the relevant text in the article, or on separate page(s) at the end. Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text and place any table notes below the table body. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in them do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article. Please avoid using vertical rules and shading in table cells.
Citation in text
Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.
As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.
This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in your published article.
References in a special issue
Please ensure that the words 'this issue' are added to any references in the list (and any citations in the text) to other articles in the same Special Issue.
Reference management software
Most Elsevier journals have their reference template available in many of the most popular reference management software products. These include all products that support Citation Style Language styles, such as Mendeley. Using citation plug-ins from these products, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article, after which citations and bibliographies will be automatically formatted in the journal's style. If no template is yet available for this journal, please follow the format of the sample references and citations as shown in this Guide. If you use reference management software, please ensure that you remove all field codes before submitting the electronic manuscript. More information on how to remove field codes from different reference management software.
Users of Mendeley Desktop can easily install the reference style for this journal by clicking the following link:
When preparing your manuscript, you will then be able to select this style using the Mendeley plug-ins for Microsoft Word or LibreOffice.
There are no strict requirements on reference formatting at submission. References can be in any style or format as long as the style is consistent. Where applicable, author(s) name(s), journal title/book title, chapter title/article title, year of publication, volume number/book chapter and the article number or pagination must be present. Use of DOI is highly encouraged. The reference style used by the journal will be applied to the accepted article by Elsevier at the proof stage. Note that missing data will be highlighted at proof stage for the author to correct. If you do wish to format the references yourself they should be arranged according to the following examples:
Text: Indicate references by number(s) in square brackets in line with the text. The actual authors can be referred to, but the reference number(s) must always be given.
Example: '..... as demonstrated [3,6]. Barnaby and Jones  obtained a different result ....'
List: Number the references (numbers in square brackets) in the list in the order in which they appear in the text.
Reference to a journal publication:
 J. van der Geer, J.A.J. Hanraads, R.A. Lupton, The art of writing a scientific article, J. Sci. Commun. 163 (2010) 51–59. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.Sc.2010.00372.
Reference to a journal publication with an article number:
 J. van der Geer, J.A.J. Hanraads, R.A. Lupton, 2018. The art of writing a scientific article. Heliyon. 19, e00205. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2018.e00205.
Reference to a book:
 W. Strunk Jr., E.B. White, The Elements of Style, fourth ed., Longman, New York, 2000.
Reference to a chapter in an edited book:
 G.R. Mettam, L.B. Adams, How to prepare an electronic version of your article, in: B.S. Jones, R.Z. Smith (Eds.), Introduction to the Electronic Age, E-Publishing Inc., New York, 2009, pp. 281–304.
Reference to a website:
 Cancer Research UK, Cancer statistics reports for the UK. http://www.cancerresearchuk.org/aboutcancer/statistics/cancerstatsreport/, 2003 (accessed 13 March 2003).
Reference to a dataset:
[dataset]  M. Oguro, S. Imahiro, S. Saito, T. Nakashizuka, Mortality data for Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions, Mendeley Data, v1, 2015. https://doi.org/10.17632/xwj98nb39r.1.
Type references double-spaced and number them consecutively in the order in which they are first mentioned in the text, not alphabetically. Cite references in the text, tables, and legends in sequential, numerical order, placing the numbers in square brackets. References cited only in tables or figure legends should be numbered in accordance with a sequence established by the first mention in the text of the particular table or figure. Journal titles are to be abbreviated according to the List of Journals Indexed in Index Medicus published by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Examples of reference style are as follows:
 Muller, F. L.; Lustgarten, M. S.; Jang, Y.; Richardson, A.; Van Remmen, H. Trends in oxidative aging theories. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 43:477-503; 2007.
 Van Faassen, E.; Vanin, A., eds. Radicals For Life: the Various Forms of nitric oxide. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 2007.
Chapter in edited book:
 Zuo, L.; Clanton, T. L. Detection of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in tissues using redox-sensitive fluorescent probes. In: Sen, C. K.; Packer, L., eds. Redox cell biology and genetics, part A. Methods in enzymology, volume 352. San Diego: Academic Press; 2002: 307-325.
 Freeman, B.; Aslan, M. Tissue oxidation and nitration reactions in a mouse model and humans with sickle cell disease (abstract). Free Radic. Biol. Med. 33:S298; 2002.
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 Aguirre, J.; Lambeth, J.D. Nox enzymes from fungus to fly to fish and what they tell us about Nox function in mammals. Free Radic. Biol. Med. In press; 2010.
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