Guide for Authors

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• Ethics in publishing
• Declaration of interest
• Use of inclusive language
• Changes to authorship
• Copyright
• Role of the funding source
• Open access
• Submission
• Review process
• Peer review
• Manuscript preparation and submission Guideline
• Highlights
• Artwork
• References
• Video
• Data visualization
• Supplementary material
• Research data
• Online proof correction
• Offprints

Food Bioscience is a peer-reviewed academic journal publishing original research articles, reviews, and commentaries concerning the latest development in multidisciplinary areas in food science, with an emphasis on the mechanistic studies of food quality and stability at the molecular and cellular levels. Manuscripts with innovative ideas and/or approaches that bring together different fields will receive special priority. In addition, we also address up-to-date research highlights, news and views, and commentaries covering research policies and funding trends. All research and review articles are subject to strict peer review organized by the journal, and final acceptance or rejection decision resides with the Editor-in-Chief of Food Bioscience.

Aims and scope
Food Bioscience is a peer-reviewed journal that aims to provide a forum for recent developments in the field of bio-related food research. The journal focuses on both fundamental and applied research worldwide, with special attention to ethnic and cultural aspects of food bioresearch. Topics covered in the journal include but are not limited to:
(1) Biochemical, biophysical and biological properties of foods, ingredients, and components
(2) Mechanism of functional foods and ingredients including both novel and traditional fermented foods
(3) Genetic, and cellular and molecular biology germane to food production and processing
(4) Foodomics: comprehensive studies involving genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, nutrigenomics and chemogenomics of foods and their interactions with humans
(5) Biomaterials for food-related systems such as food packaging, food analysis, and delivery of nutraceuticals an d functional food additives
(6) Application of novel technology to foods. Articles relating only to structural identification and characterization of bioactive compounds without biofunctional data will not be published in Food Bioscience.

Articles reporting the following will not be published in Food Bioscience:
o Structural identification and characterization of bioactive compounds without biofunctional data
o Direct medical claims and/or clinical studies: therapeutic application of food compounds/isolates for treatment, cure or prevention of human diseases
o Processing/engineering without any chemistry
o Pharmaceutical, herbal, and traditional or folk medicines that are not consumed as foods
o Survey/surveillance data.

Article types
Submissions of the following types of articles are invited: short communications, mini-reviews, reviews (after discussion with the editors), and research articles. In addition, the journal will also present up-to-date research highlights, news and views, and commentaries covering food research and policy.

(1) Research Articles are a contribution describing original research, including theoretical expositions, extensive data and in-depth critical evaluation, and are peer reviewed. The total length of a manuscript excluding the abstract, acknowledgements, figures, tables and references must not exceed 6000 words.

(2) Review Articles and Mini-reviews are encouraged for giving an in-depth overview of a specific topic. The format and length of review papers are more flexible than for a full paper. There is a 6,000 word limit for Mini-reviews and a 10,000 word limit for Review Articles under normal circumstances. Authors may make a case to the editor if they believe there is justification for a longer length for these submissions. All review papers will be fully peer reviewed.

(3) Short Communications are for concise, but independent reports representing a significant contribution to food science and engineering, not as mechanism to publish preliminary results. Only if these results are of exceptional interest and are particularly topical and relevant will they be considered for publication. A Short Communication should be no more than 3000 words, and could include up to 4 figures or tables. It should have at least 8 references. Short communications will be fully peer reviewed.

Submission checklist
You can use this list to carry out a final check of your submission before you send it to the journal for review. Please check the relevant section in this Guide for Authors for more details.

Ensure that the following items are present:

One author has been designated as the working corresponding author with contact details (please see the discussion of the title page):
• E-mail address
• Full postal address; Phone and fax

All necessary files have been uploaded:
• Include keywords
• All figures (include relevant captions)
• All tables (including titles, description, footnotes)
• Ensure all figure and table citations in the text match the files provided
• Indicate clearly if color should be used for any figures in print
Graphical Abstracts / Highlights files (where applicable)
Supplemental files (where applicable)

Further considerations
• Manuscript has been 'spell checked' and 'grammar checked'
• All references mentioned in the Reference List are cited in the text, and vice versa
• Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Internet)
• A conflict of interests statement is provided in the manuscript before the acknowledgments, even if the authors have no competing interests to declare
• This summary statement will ultimately be published if the article is accepted. Please see the "Manuscript Preparation and Submission Guideline" for suggested statement and Declaration of Interest for what is covered. Journal policies detailed in this guide have been reviewed
• Referee suggestions and contact details provided, based on journal requirements

For further information, visit our Support Center.

Ethics in publishing

Please see our information pages on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication.

Declaration of interest

All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential competing interests include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. Authors must disclose any interests in two places: 1. A summary declaration of interest statement in the title page file (if double-blind) or the manuscript file (if single-blind). If there are no interests to declare then please state this: 'Declarations of interest: none'. This summary statement will be ultimately published if the article is accepted. 2. Detailed disclosures as part of a separate Declaration of Interest form, which forms part of the journal's official records. It is important for potential interests to be declared in both places and that the information matches. More information.

Submission declaration and verification
Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract, a published lecture or academic thesis, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked for originality using Ithenticate. The program has been set for Food Bioscience to not consider references, quotes, and phrases of less than 5 words. Crossref Similarity Check.

Please note that preprints can be shared anywhere at any time, in line with Elsevier's sharing policy. Sharing your preprints e.g. on a preprint server will not count as prior publication (See 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' for more information).

Use of inclusive language

Inclusive language acknowledges diversity, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and promotes equal opportunities. Articles should make no assumptions about the beliefs or commitments of any reader, should contain nothing which might imply that one individual is superior to another on the grounds of race, sex, culture or any other characteristic, and should use inclusive language throughout. Authors should ensure that writing is free from bias, for instance by using 'he or she', 'his/her' instead of 'he' or 'his', and by making use of job titles that are free of stereotyping (e.g. 'chairperson' instead of 'chairman' and 'flight attendant' instead of 'stewardess').

Changes to authorship

Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the journal Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed.
Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted. While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the Editor will result in a corrigendum.


Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (See more information on this). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.

Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations. If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases.

For gold open access articles: Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an 'Exclusive License Agreement' (See more information). Permitted third party reuse of gold open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license.

Author rights
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. See More information.

Elsevier supports responsible sharing
Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.

Role of the funding source

You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated. This information goes in the acknowledgments.

Funding body agreements and policies
Elsevier has established a number of agreements with funding bodies which allow authors to comply with their funder's open access policies. Some funding bodies will reimburse the author for the gold open access publication fee. Details of existing agreements are available online.

Open access

This journal offers authors a choice in publishing their research:

• Articles are made available to subscribers as well as developing countries and patient groups through our universal access programs.
• No open access publication fee payable by authors.
• The Author is entitled to post the accepted manuscript in their institution's repository and make this public after an embargo period (known as green Open Access). The published journal article cannot be shared publicly, for example on ResearchGate or, to ensure the sustainability of peer-reviewed research in journal publications. The embargo period for this journal can be found below.
Gold open access
• Articles are freely available to both subscribers and the wider public with permitted reuse.
• A gold open access publication fee is payable by authors or on their behalf, e.g. by their research funder or institution.

Regardless of how you choose to publish your article, the journal will apply the same peer review criteria and acceptance standards.

For gold open access articles, permitted third party (re)use is defined by the following Creative Commons user licenses:

Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY)
Lets others distribute and copy the article, create extracts, abstracts, and other revised versions, adaptations or derivative works of or from an article (such as a translation), include in a collective work (such as an anthology), text or data mine the article, even for commercial purposes, as long as they credit the author(s), do not represent the author as endorsing their adaptation of the article, and do not modify the article in such a way as to damage the author's honor or reputation.

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND)
For non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.

The gold open access publication fee for this journal is USD 3000, excluding taxes. Learn more about Elsevier's pricing policy:

Green open access
Authors can share their research in a variety of different ways and Elsevier has a number of green open access options available. We recommend authors see our open access page for further information. Authors can also self-archive their manuscripts immediately and enable public access from their institution's repository after an embargo period. This is the version that has been accepted for publication and which typically includes author-incorporated changes suggested during submission, peer review and in editor-author communications. Embargo period: For subscription articles, an appropriate amount of time is needed for journals to deliver value to subscribing customers before an article becomes freely available to the public. This is the embargo period and it begins from the date the article is formally published online in its final and fully citable form. Find out more.

This journal has an embargo period of 12 months.

Elsevier Researcher Academy
Researcher Academy is a free e-learning platform designed to support early and mid-career researchers throughout their research journey. The "Learn" environment at Researcher Academy offers several interactive modules, webinars, downloadable guides and resources to guide you through the process of writing for research and going through peer review. Feel free to use these free resources to improve your submission and navigate the publication process with ease.

Language (usage and editing services)
Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's Author Services.


Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files (e.g., Word, LaTeX) are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.

Authors must provide and use an email address unique to themselves and not shared with another author registered in EVISE, nor a department.

Please submit the names and institutional e-mail addresses of several potential referees. For more details, visit our Support site. Note that the editor retains the sole right to decide whether or not the suggested reviewers are used.

It is expected that authors who publish in Food Bioscience will be asked to review future manuscripts submitted to the journal.

Review process

A peer review system involving two or three reviewers is used to ensure high quality of manuscripts accepted for publication. The Editor-in-Chief and Editors have the right to decline formal review of the manuscript when it is deemed that the manuscript is 1) on a topic outside the scope of the Journal, 2) lacking technical merit, 3) focused on foods or processes that are of narrow regional scope and significance, 4) fragmentary and provides marginally incremental results, or 5) is poorly written.

Peer review

This journal operates a single blind review process. All contributions will be initially assessed by the editor for suitability for the journal. Papers deemed suitable are then typically sent to a minimum of two independent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor's decision is final. See more information on types of peer review.

Use of word processing software
It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier). Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork.
To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.

Manuscript preparation and submission Guideline

General requirements
Submission of a manuscript implies: that the work described has not been published before; that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere; that its offer for publication has been approved by all co-authors. The author warrants that his/her contribution is original and that he/she has full power to offer the manuscript. The publisher will not be held legally responsible should there be any claims for compensation. The manuscript should be a complete and authoritative accounts of work which have special significance, general interest and which are presented clearly and concisely. The review articles should give not only comprehensive and authoritative descriptions of one specific subject within the journal's scope, but also the specific recommendations for future research directions.

The following components are required for a complete manuscript: Title, Author(s), Author affiliation(s), Corresponding author, Abstract, Keywords, Main text (including Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, and Discussion, Conclusion), References, Conflict of Interest, Acknowledgements, References, Tables, Figure Legend, and Figures. The length of the main text for Short Communication should not exceed 3000 words (as counted by a word processing program), and the total number of tables and figures should be no more than 4. The length of the main text for Original Research Articles and Mini-Reviews should not exceed the equivalent of 6000 words, and there is a 10,000 word limit for Review Articles. Exceptions should be discussed with the editor. See below for "Optional Components."

Contact details for submission
Submission of all types of manuscripts to Food Bioscience proceeds totally online. Via the Elsevier Editorial System (EVISE) website for this journal ( you will be guided step-by-step through the creation and uploading of the various files.

Manuscripts for review articles
Reviews give a general overview of a particular field, providing the reader with an appreciation of the importance of the work, historical context, a summary of recent developments, and a starting point for delving further into the literature. Manuscripts should be divided into appropriate sections, with an extensive list of references. In addition to undergoing the same rigorous level of technical peer-review as Research papers, Review articles will be critiqued based on the general impact of the field being reviewed, the relevance of the field to current interest, preexisting reviews of the field, and acknowledgement of the contributing author as an important scientist in the field, although reviews based on the literature review for an advanced degree will be given consideration. Therefore, it is strongly recommended that authors interested in submitting a Review article correspond with the Editor prior to submission. General formatting of text, illustrations, and references are the same as outlined for research papers.

Manuscripts for research papers
Manuscripts should be prepared using Word. The following components are required for a complete manuscript: Cover letter, Title, Author(s), Author affiliation(s), Abstract, Keywords, Main text (including Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results and Discussion, Conclusion), References, Acknowledgements, Tables, Figure legend and Figures. Include page numbers on the document, beginning with the title page as number 1. Continuous line numbering on the left is also required. Please use the standard 12-point Times New Roman fonts.

Elements of a manuscript
Cover letter.

A cover letter must accompany each submission. It must include the following information:

(1) The brief explanation of the significance of the work presented in the manuscript

(2) The names and contact information for three potential referees

Title page.

The manuscript begins with the Title page as page 1, it should include:

Full title. The title of the paper should be explicit, descriptive and as brief as possible -no more than 20 words in length.

Running title. A short version of the paper title (up to 80 characters including spaces).

Author's names and affiliations. The full name and affiliations of all authors should be given.

Corresponding author. The full name, mailing address, telephone/fax numbers and the e-mail address of the corresponding author should be given on the first page of the manuscript.


The abstract shall be under 250 words (as counted by Word). The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results and major conclusion. An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. Also, abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself.


Up to 6 words separated by commas. These should be selected so that they focus on the unique aspects of the work and are likely to be used by a person looking for this paper.


In this section, provide an adequate background, explain the importance of the research, and state the objectives of the work, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results. The literature reviewed should be DIRECTLY RELEVANT to the work presented.

Materials and methods

Although often thought of as the most boring section of a scientific paper, in many ways this is the most important section. This section is a critical component of science which is that the work is reproducible. So it should be very clear and relatively comprehensive. In this section, provide sufficient detail to allow the work to be reproduced by a relatively new researcher to the field in a country far away. Methods already published should be indicated by a reference and a very brief description. All relevant modifications should be described.

One of the hardest things to do is to describe your raw material. The more information one has about the raw materials, the more chance that one can determine how much the data can be generalized from the specific experiments carried out in the paper. So details on the biological raw materials are particularly important. Please note that biological materials, including animals, have seasonal changes along with age, sex, and nutritional changes. So generalizing from one or two samples in one small geographic area should be done with caution.

In addition, equipment used around the world varies and so this again needs to be specified. E.g., a centrifuge tube's size and angle in addition to the speed (e.g., 3,000 x g is the format to be used and ideally should be 3,000 x g measured at the bottom of the tube) is important. The speed alone does not always define the precipitation rate. So the equipment needs to be identified - including the test tube size and the rotor.

**Note: The format of “x g” is the correct format for this journal.

The proper way to provide information about equipment and materials is to give the item name and any number associated with it, the company name, the city (and in the US the state or Canada the province as place names duplicate in these countries), and the country. After the first time the city/country information is not used. E.g., enzyme X (Regenstein Chemical Co., Ithaca, NY, USA) was used to treat protein Y (Regenstein Chemical Co.) for 5 hr at 30oC.

**Note that both company (Co.) and limited (Ltd.) can be abbreviated. Also for Food Bioscience, the temperature in Celcius appears with a degree sign (a superscripted small “O”) and no space between the number and the degree sign.

For methods that are being cited, a quick summary of the basic process is recommended unless it is a very standard method so that the reader can grasp what was done. Certainly any site specific equipment, catalysts, etc. used should be noted unless it follows the “official” method EXACTLY.


Results should be clear and concise. Show only those experimental results that are relevant to your objectives and conclusions and which you want to discuss. Numbers in the tables and figures should not be repeated unless they are specifically needed to make a point.


It should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. It should integrate your findings in a comprehensive picture and place them in the context of the existing literature. A combined Results and Discussion section can be appropriate. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature.


The conclusion shall be under 250 words. The difference from an abstract is that it does not focus on the quantitative results but is focused on the qualitative results and why these should be of interest to other scientists, governmental agencies, the industry, the press and others who need this information. Future work may also be proposed in this section.


The “Acknowledgement section” is the general term for the list of contributions, credits, and other information included at the end of the text of a manuscript but before the references. Conflicts of interest and financial disclosures must also be listed in this section.


Authors should take notice of the limitations set by the size and layout of the journal. Large tables should be avoided. Reversing columns and rows will often reduce the dimensions of a table. If a large amount of data needs to be presented, an attempt should be made to divide the data over two or more tables.

Table requirements

(1) Supply units of measure at the heads of the columns. Abbreviations that are used only in a table should be defined in the footnotes to that table.

(2) Should always use rows and columns to correlate two variables. Tables should be submitted single-spaced with appropriate open space in Word. Do not embed tables as graphic files, document objects, or pictures.

(3) Tables should have three “major” horizontal lines: one under the legend, one under the column heads, and one below the body. Vertical lines are generally not used.

(4) Label each table at the top with a Roman numeral followed by the table title. Insert explanatory material and footnotes below the table. Designate footnotes using lowercase superscript letters (a, b, c) reading horizontally across the table.

(5) Unless needed, the first letter of words within the tables should be capitalized.

(6) Must be sequentially numbered and referred to at least once in the text.


Graphs should be practically self-explanatory. Readers should be able to understand them at a glance. Dimensional drawings and diagrams should include only the essential details and as little lettering as possible. They should present more of a picture than a working drawing. If there is a need to present a construction drawing, please consult with the editor ahead of time.

Figure requirements

(1) Numbering and title: number all figures (graphs, charts, photographs, and illustrations) in the order of their citation in the text and cited as, e.g. Figure 1 (writing out the word “Figure”). Use (a), (b), (c)... to give titles for subfigures if there are any.

(2) Figure quality: should be sharp, noise-free, and of good contrast. All lettering should be large enough to permit legible reduction.

(3) Color of figures: unless necessary, it is best to use black and white for line-drawings; and a grayscale for images.

Figure legends

The official order of material after the references in the manuscript submitted for publication is tables, figure legends (a page with all the figure legends together in sequence), followed by the figures (without the figure legend but clearly numbered).


Do not use abbreviations in the title or abstract and limit their use in the text. Expand all abbreviations at first mention in the text. The Journal's website will have a list of abbreviations that do NOT require writing out even the first time.

Specific requirements

For time, please use sec, min, hr, and day - these do not have to be defined and can be used from the start.

For volume it is liter (l) and milliliter (ml). Note that the units are NOT capitalized. Grams, milligrams, etc.: All such units have a space after the number, e.g., 10 g or 10 mg.

Temperature: The temperature in Celcius is written as 10oC, with no space between the number and the degree sign.

Percentage is written with no space between the number and the symbol: It was 10% of the...

Molarity and normality are written with no space between the number and the symbol: The solution was 10M NaCl and could also be called 10N NaCl.

Chemical compounds: the chemical symbols can be used without prior definition so NaCl is preferred over salt, and other simple compounds should be listed using their chemical formula.

Significant Figures:

Biological system, given the challenges of sampling, should not have data presented to more than 3 significant figures. Although probably not justified, computer generated statistical data may be presented to 4 significant figures, although 3 are just fine. The “zero” can be ambiguous on the integer side but the use of a decimal point suggests all figures are significant (i.e., 3,550 can be three or four significant figures, but 3.550 suggest four significant figures. Certainly any zero after the decimal point has to be significant).

SI units

There are seven, dimensionally independent, base SI-units and two supplementary units. All other units can be derived from the base ones. Below, you can find the list of the base SI units as well as the list of the derived units.
E.g., 1 revolutions per minute is equal to 0.0167 hertz
Concentration: mol/l

SI base units

meter (metre)mLength
ampereAElectric current
kelvinKThermodynamic temperature
molemolAmount of substance
candelacdLuminous intensity
SI Supplementary Units
radianradPlane angle (2D angle)
steradiansrSolid angle (3D angle)

SI derived units

UnitSymbolIn SI unitsQuantity
pascalPakg m−1 s−2Pressure, Stress
jouleJkg m2 s−2Energy, Work, Heat
wattWkg m2 s−3Power
newtonNkg m s−2Force, Weight
teslaTkg s−2 A−1Magnetic Field
henryHkg m2 s−2 A−2Inductance
coulombCA sElectric Charge
voltVkg m2 s−3 A−1 Voltage
faradFkg−1 m−2 s4 A2Electric Capacitance
siemensSkg−1 m−2 s3 A2 Electrical Conductance
weberWbkg m2 s−2 A−1Magnetic Flux
ohm&OHgr;kg m2 s−3 A−3Electric Resistance
luxlxcd sr m−2Illuminance
lumenlmcd sr Luminous Flux
grayGym2 s−1Absorbed Dose
sievertSvm2 s−1Equivalent Dose
katalkatmol s−1Catalytic Activity

Database linking and Accession numbers
Elsevier aims at connecting online articles with external databases which are useful in their respective research communities. If your article contains relevant unique identifiers or accession numbers (bioinformatics) linking to information on entities (genes, proteins, diseases, etc.) or structures deposited in public databases, then please indicate those entities according to the standard explained below.

Authors should explicitly mention the database abbreviation (as mentioned below) together with the actual database number, bearing in mind that an error in a letter or number can result in a dead link in the online version of the article.

Please use the following format: Database ID: xxxx

Links can be provided in your online article to the following databases (examples of citations are given in parentheses): •GenBank: Genetic sequence database at the National Center for Biotechnical Information (NCBI) (GenBank ID: BA123456) •PDB: Worldwide Protein Data Bank (PDB ID: 1TUP) •CCDC: Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre (CCDC ID: AI631510) •TAIR: The Arabidopsis Information Resource database (TAIR ID: AT1G01020) •NCT: (NCT ID: NCT00222573) •OMIM: Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM ID: 601240) •MINT: Molecular INTeractions database (MINT ID: 6166710) •MI: EMBL-EBI OLS Molecular Interaction Ontology (MI ID: 0218) •UniProt: Universal Protein Resource Knowledgebase (UniProt ID: Q9H0H5)


Highlights are optional yet highly encouraged for this journal, as they increase the discoverability of your article via search engines. They consist of a short collection of bullet points that capture the novel results of your research as well as new methods that were used during the study (if any). Please have a look at the examples here: example Highlights.

Highlights should be submitted in a separate editable file in the online submission system. Please use 'Highlights' in the file name and include 3 to 5 bullet points (maximum 85 characters, including spaces, per bullet point).

Formatting of funding sources
List funding sources in this standard way to facilitate compliance to funder's requirements:

Funding: This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health [grant numbers xxxx, yyyy]; the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, WA [grant number zzzz]; and the United States Institutes of Peace [grant number aaaa].

It is not necessary to include detailed descriptions on the program or type of grants and awards. When funding is from a block grant or other resources available to a university, college, or other research institution, submit the name of the institute or organization that provided the funding.

If no funding has been provided for the research, please include the following sentence:

This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Math formulae
Please submit math equations as editable text and not as images. Present simple formulae in line with normal text where possible and use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line for small fractional terms, e.g., X/Y. In principle, variables are to be presented in italics. Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp. Number consecutively any equations that have to be displayed separately from the text (if referred to explicitly in the text).

Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article. Many word processors can build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Otherwise, please indicate the position of footnotes in the text and list the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article. Do not include footnotes in the Reference list.


Electronic artwork
General points
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.
• Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
• Provide captions to illustrations separately.
• Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the published version.
• Submit each illustration as a separate file.
A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available.
You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format.
Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.
Please do not:
• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
• Supply files that are too low in resolution;
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

Color artwork
Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF), or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color online (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. For color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article. Please indicate your preference for color: in print or online only. Further information on the preparation of electronic artwork.


All publications cited in the text should be presented in a list of references following the text of the manuscript in alphabetical order. The manuscript should be carefully checked to ensure that the spelling of authors' names and dates are exactly the same in the text as in the reference list.

(1) All citations in text should refer to:

Single author: the author's surname and the year of publication.

There should be a comma at the end of the name sequence and the date and both are in parentheses, e.g., (Allen, 1995).

If the authors are included in the sentence, then the date goes alone in parentheses after the name, e.g., Allen (1995).

Two authors: both authors' surnames and the year of publication, e.g., (Allen and Jones, 1996).

Three or more authors: first author's name followed by et al. and the year of publication. The et al. has a period only for the "al." and it would get a comma after it within the parentheses, e.g., (Allen et al., 1997).

Citations may be made directly (or parenthetically). Groups of references should be listed first alphabetically, then chronologically. Examples: "as demonstrated (Allan, 1996a, 1996b, 1999; Allan and Jones, 1995).

(2) The list of references should be arranged alphabetically by authors' names, then further sorted chronologically if necessary. More than once reference from the same author(s) in the same year must be identified by the letters "a", "b", "c" etc., placed directly after the year of publication. References should be given in the following form:

Reference for journals

Kumbhar, B.K., Agarwal, R.S., & Das, K. (1981). Thermal properties of fresh and frozen fish. International Journal of Refrigeration, 4(3), 143-146.

**Notice that for all authors, the last name comes first, then there is a comma, and then the initials with a period are all together without a space. Notice the use of the "&" and that there is a comma at the end of the initials before the &.

**Notice the period after the date, which is in parentheses.

**Notice that the title only has the first word capitalized. Only proper nouns are capitalized elsewhere in the title. Genus and species information should be italicized.

**The name of the journal is written out in full using italics. The volume with an issue number in parentheses (optional) is followed by a comma. If a journal starts its numbers over again with each issue, then the issue number is required. An example of such a journal is Food Technology.

**The pages have a dash between them with no spaces and the reference ends with a period.

ISBN Numbers

Many publications have an ISBN, especially books and some proceedings. These are a unique identifier that assists librarians in filling requests for materials. If a publication has an ISBN, please include it as the last item in any relevant reference, e.g., ISBN: 92-5-101137-0.

Reference for books

Norman I. J., & Redfern S.J. (1996). Mental Health Care for Elderly People. New York: Churchill Livingstone. ISBN: 92-5-101137-0.

**The ISBN number is included as the last item with a colon after ISBN and another period at the end.

**Without the ISBN number, the reference for the book should also end with a period.

Reference for a chapter in a book

Thomson, F. M. (1984). Storage of particulate solids. In M. E. Fayed, L. Otten (Eds.), Handbook of Powder Science and Technology. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. p 365-463.

Reference for a proceedings chapter Machado, M.F., Oliveira, F.A.R., & Gekas, V. (1997). Modelling water uptake and soluble solids losses by puffed breakfast cereal immersed in water or milk. In Proceedings of the Seventh International Congress on Engineering and Food, Brighton, UK, 45-59.

**The document is indicated after the "In" and is in italics. The city and country must be given but the country can be left if it is one of the great cities in the world, e.g., New York, London, or New Delhi. In the United States, cities must also have the state as there is serious duplication within the US. The Ed. or Eds. is in parenthesis after the book authors.

References for Web Citations

As a minimum, the full URL should be given along with the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI (Digital Object Identifier), author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list. (accessed May 2011).

European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) 2005. Aspects of the biology and welfare of animals used for experimental and other scientific purposes. Annex to the EFSA Journal, 292: 1-136. Internet: (accessed December 19, 2008).

**Note the word "Internet" with a colon.

**Note that the accessed date means the last time the authors actually went to the web site to check that it is correct and has the material referenced. (Web sites do change, which is what limits their value.)

Data references
For reference style 5 APA: [dataset] Oguro, M., Imahiro, S., Saito, S., Nakashizuka, T. (2015). Mortality data for Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions. Mendeley Data, v1.

Data references
This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in your published article.

Reference management software
Most Elsevier journals have their reference template available in many of the most popular reference management software products. These include all products that support Citation Style Language styles, such as Mendeley. Using citation plug-ins from these products, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article, after which citations and bibliographies will be automatically formatted in the journal's style. If no template is yet available for this journal, please follow the format of the sample references and citations as shown in this Guide. If you use reference management software, please ensure that you remove all field codes before submitting the electronic manuscript. More information on how to remove field codes from different reference management software.

Users of Mendeley Desktop can easily install the reference style for this journal by clicking the following link:
When preparing your manuscript, you will then be able to select this style using the Mendeley plug-ins for Microsoft Word or LibreOffice.


Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. . In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the file in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 150 MB per file, 1 GB in total. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect. Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages. Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.

Data visualization

Include interactive data visualizations in your publication and let your readers interact and engage more closely with your research. Follow the instructions here to find out about available data visualization options and how to include them with your article.

Supplementary material

Supplementary material such as applications, images and sound clips, can be published with your article to enhance it. Submitted supplementary items are published exactly as they are received (Excel or PowerPoint files will appear as such online). Please submit your material together with the article and supply a concise, descriptive caption for each supplementary file. If you wish to make changes to supplementary material during any stage of the process, please make sure to provide an updated file. Do not annotate any corrections on a previous version. Please switch off the 'Track Changes' option in Microsoft Office files as these will appear in the published version.

Research data

This journal encourages and enables you to share data that supports your research publication where appropriate, and enables you to interlink the data with your published articles. Research data refers to the results of observations or experimentation that validate research findings. To facilitate reproducibility and data reuse, this journal also encourages you to share your software, code, models, algorithms, protocols, methods and other useful materials related to the project.

Below are a number of ways in which you can associate data with your article or make a statement about the availability of your data when submitting your manuscript. If you are sharing data in one of these ways, you are encouraged to cite the data in your manuscript and reference list. Please refer to the "References" section for more information about data citation. For more information on depositing, sharing and using research data and other relevant research materials, visit the research data page.

Data linking
If you have made your research data available in a data repository, you can link your article directly to the dataset. Elsevier collaborates with a number of repositories to link articles on ScienceDirect with relevant repositories, giving readers access to underlying data that gives them a better understanding of the research described.

There are different ways to link your datasets to your article. When available, you can directly link your dataset to your article by providing the relevant information in the submission system. For more information, visit the database linking page.

For supported data repositories a repository banner will automatically appear next to your published article on ScienceDirect.

In addition, you can link to relevant data or entities through identifiers within the text of your manuscript, using the following format: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN).

Mendeley Data
This journal supports Mendeley Data, enabling you to deposit any research data (including raw and processed data, video, code, software, algorithms, protocols, and methods) associated with your manuscript in a free-to-use, open access repository. During the submission process, after uploading your manuscript, you will have the opportunity to upload your relevant datasets directly to Mendeley Data. The datasets will be listed and directly accessible to readers next to your published article online.

For more information, visit the Mendeley Data for journals page.

Data in Brief
You have the option of converting any or all parts of your supplementary or additional raw data into one or multiple data articles, a new kind of article that houses and describes your data. Data articles ensure that your data is actively reviewed, curated, formatted, indexed, given a DOI and publicly available to all upon publication. You are encouraged to submit your article for Data in Brief as an additional item directly alongside the revised version of your manuscript. If your research article is accepted, your data article will automatically be transferred over to Data in Brief where it will be editorially reviewed and published in the open access data journal, Data in Brief. Please note an open access fee of 600 USD is payable for publication in Data in Brief. Full details can be found on the Data in Brief website. Please use this template to write your Data in Brief.

Data statement
To foster transparency, we encourage you to state the availability of your data in your submission. This may be a requirement of your funding body or institution. If your data is unavailable to access or unsuitable to post, you will have the opportunity to indicate why during the submission process, for example by stating that the research data is confidential. The statement will appear with your published article on ScienceDirect. For more information, visit the Data Statement page.

Online proof correction

Corresponding authors will receive an e-mail with a link to our online proofing system, allowing annotation and correction of proofs online. The environment is similar to MS Word: in addition to editing text, you can also comment on figures/tables and answer questions from the Copy Editor. Web-based proofing provides a faster and less error-prone process by allowing you to directly type your corrections, eliminating the potential introduction of errors.
If preferred, you can still choose to annotate and upload your edits on the PDF version. All instructions for proofing will be given in the e-mail we send to authors, including alternative methods to the online version and PDF.
We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication. Please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.


The corresponding author will, at no cost, receive a customized Share Link providing 50 days free access to the final published version of the article on ScienceDirect. The Share Link can be used for sharing the article via any communication channel, including email and social media. For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's Author Services. Corresponding authors who have published their article gold open access do not receive a Share Link as their final published version of the article is available open access on ScienceDirect and can be shared through the article DOI link.

Visit the Elsevier Support Center to find the answers you need. Here you will find everything from Frequently Asked Questions to ways to get in touch.
You can also check the status of your submitted article or find out when your accepted article will be published.