Guide for Authors

All journal information and instructions compiled in one document (PDF) in just one mouse-click Author information pack

• Your Paper Your Way
• Aim and scope
• Types of articles
• Contact details for submission
• Charges to author
• Review process and policies
• Submission checklist
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
• Ethics in publishing
• Human and animal rights
• Conflict of interest policy
• Submission declaration and verification
• Authorship
• Changes to authorship
• Copyright
• Role of the funding source
• Open access
• Informed consent and patient details
• Submission
• Reviewers
• Statement of Authorship
• Manuscript length
PREPARATION
• NEW SUBMISSIONS
• REVISED SUBMISSIONS
• Article structure
• Essential title page information
• Abstract
• Acknowledgments
• Artwork
• Tables
• References
• Video
• Supplementary material
• AudioSlides
• Virtual Microscope
• Style guidelines
AFTER ACCEPTANCE
• Proofs
• Offprints
AUTHOR INQUIRIES
• Editorial office

Your Paper Your Way

We now differentiate between the requirements for new and revised submissions. You may choose to submit your manuscript as a single Word or PDF file to be used in the refereeing process. Only when your paper is at the revision stage, will you be requested to put your paper in to a 'correct format' for acceptance and provide the items required for the publication of your article.
To find out more, please visit the Preparation section below.

Aim and scope

Experimental Hematology publishes original research reports (regular and fast-track submissions), reviews, perspectives, letters to the editor, and abstracts of the annual meeting of ISEH - International Society for Experimental Hematology. We welcome manuscripts describing basic in vitro and in vivo research centered on normal and malignant hematopoiesis as well as non-malignant hematologic diseases. Submissions focused on non-hematopoietic stem cells (e.g. mesenchymal stem cells, embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stems) with potential relevance to hematopoiesis are also welcome, as are studies involving experimental or early phase clinical cell transplantation. Studies employing genomic and systems biology approaches to the study of normal and malignant hematopoiesis are strongly encouraged, as are those employing model organisms.

Types of articles

Research articles will be published under the following scientific categories: Stem Cells (hematopoietic, mesenchymal, embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells); Experimental Stem Cell Transplantation; Normal Hematopoiesis (myelopoiesis, erythropoiesis, lymphopoiesis, megakaryocytopoiesis); Malignant Hematopoiesis; Microenvironment and Niche; Systems Biology; Genomics/Proteomics of Hematopoiesis; Immunobiology and Immunotherapy; Gene Therapy; Clinical Investigations (stem cell or other cell transplant related therapies); New Techniques and Technologies.

Regular Submissions: These are full-length reports of original research. We welcome articles on a range of topics with particular interest in those covering regulation and development of normal hematopoietic stem cells, stem cell expansion and self-renewal; novel sources of hematopoietic cells including embryonic stem cells and reprogrammed induced pluripotent stem cells; hematopoietic progenitors and differentiation control; growth factors/receptors and signal transduction; genomics, transcription factors and epigenetics; mechanisms of hematopoietic transformation; properties of leukemic stem cells and novel therapeutic targets; the hematopoietic niche/microenvironment; homing and engraftment of hematopoietic stem cell; immunotherapy of hematologic malignancy; non-malignant hematopoietic disease; application of model organisms to the study of hematopoiesis, and new techniques/methods and technology for hematopoiesis investigation. Studies centered on cell transplantation, both at the pre-clinical/experimental and early clinical stage are also of high priority.

Brief communications: We also welcome articles on the same range of topics as outlined for regular submissions, but that can be reported in a shorter format. Brief communications are intended to allow publication of highly significant findings reported concisely, and not of incomplete or preliminary data. As with regular submissions, brief communications are expected to provide mechanistic insights, elucidate novel disease biology or approaches to therapy.

Brief communications should contain a maximum of 1,500 words exclusive of the abstract, figure legends and references. Format can be as for regular submissions, but a combined Results and Discussion section is encouraged. Only 3 figures/tables and 30 references are allowed.

Fast-Track Submission: Expedited review will be offered, on request, for research articles falling within the scope of the topics suitable for Experimental Hematology that have been previously considered by other top ranked journals and for which the previous reviewers' comments and the appropriate responses can be provided. Decisions will be made by the Editor-in-Chief in consultation by one or more members of the Editorial Board within 7-10 days of submission.

Reviews and Perspectives: Review Articles are summaries of a topic of interest to Experimental Hematology's broad readership. Perspectives are articles discussing significant topics and controversies relevant to the field of hematology and stem cells, generally from a more personal or opinion-based standpoint than a Review Article. Review Articles and Perspectives are welcomed by the journal and are generally solicited by the Editor-in-Chief; however, authors wishing to submit an unsolicited Review Article or Perspectives are invited to contact the editorial office prior to submission.

Letters to the Editor: They may relate to material published in the journal, to ISEH business, editorial policy, or anything else pertinent to the field of experimental hematology and/or stem cells. A letter that addresses an article published in this journal should be submitted as soon as possible, no later than two calendar months after publication. Such a letter will be sent to the authors of that paper for a possible reply. All letters and their replies are published at the editor's discretion and are subject to peer-review. Letters should not exceed 1,000 words, must have no title page, no abstract, no headings throughout the text, and no Materials and Methods section. One black and white figure or one table can be included, and no more than 10 references may be used.

Contact details for submission

Journal Manager:
Shanna Sever
Graphic World, Inc.
11687 Adie Road
St. Louis, MO 63043
Phone: (314) 255-1437
Fax: (314)567-7178
E-mail: exphem@elsevier.com

Charges to author

Authors pay the following charges:

  1. Experimental Hematology requires a submission fee of US $50 to process Regular Submissions (not applicable for Letters to the Editor or Invited Review articles). Current members of ISEH are not required to pay the submission fee when they are the corresponding author of the submission. You may pay by check or credit card. If paying by check, please make checks payable to the ISEH and mail to the Editorial Office address listed at the end of this document. To pay the submission fee by credit card please click on the manuscript submission fee link on the EES homepage ( http://ees.elsevier.com/exphem/). Please note that we cannot release the editorial decision if we have not received the submission fee.
  2. Page charges for manuscripts (as of the June 2003 issue) US $50 per page for the first eight published pages or portions thereof, and US $160 for each additional page over eight or portion thereof, plus tax (except for employees of nonprofit institutions who provide tax-exempt numbers at time of payment). Current members of ISEH are not required to pay the page charges when they are the corresponding author of the submission.
  3. Expense for color reproduction of figures: US $650 for the first figure and US $100 for each additional figure, plus tax (except for employees of nonprofit institutions who provide tax-exempt numbers at time of payment). If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color on the Web (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. For color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article. Please indicate your preference for color: in print or on the Web only. For further information on the preparation of electronic artwork, please see http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions.
  4. Expense for offprints. The publisher will send the corresponding author the price quotation with the page proofs.

Review process and policies

Each submitted manuscript will normally undergo peer review by at least two editorial board members or other experts designated by the editor-in-chief or associate editor in charge of the manuscript's review. Authors' names will be seen by reviewers, but reviewers' names will not be disclosed to the authors. A paper can be rejected without undergoing the peer review process if the editor determines that the content is inappropriate for the journal. Authors usually receive the editorial decision within 4 to 6 weeks of their manuscript's arrival at the editorial office.
The editorial office assigns a manuscript number and acknowledges receipt of submission within 3 days of receipt. Papers submitted by editors or editorial board members are subjected to the same rigorous standards as other manuscripts. An editor who submits a manuscript for consideration does not have access to the reviewers' identities or their confidential remarks for that submission.

Submission checklist

You can use this list to carry out a final check of your submission before you send it to the journal for review. Please check the relevant section in this Guide for Authors for more details.

Ensure that the following items are present:

One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
• E-mail address
• Full postal address

All necessary files have been uploaded:
Manuscript:
• Include keywords
• All figures (include relevant captions)
• All tables (including titles, description, footnotes)
• Ensure all figure and table citations in the text match the files provided
• Indicate clearly if color should be used for any figures in print
Graphical Abstracts / Highlights files (where applicable)
Supplemental files (where applicable)

Further considerations
• Manuscript has been 'spell checked' and 'grammar checked'
• All references mentioned in the Reference List are cited in the text, and vice versa
• Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Internet)
• Relevant declarations of interest have been made
• Journal policies detailed in this guide have been reviewed
• Referee suggestions and contact details provided, based on journal requirements

For further information, visit our Support Center.

Ethics in publishing

Please see our information pages on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication.

Human and animal rights

If the work involves the use of human subjects, the author should ensure that the work described has been carried out in accordance with The Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association (Declaration of Helsinki) for experiments involving humans; Uniform Requirements for manuscripts submitted to Biomedical journals. Authors should include a statement in the manuscript that informed consent was obtained for experimentation with human subjects. The privacy rights of human subjects must always be observed.

All animal experiments should comply with the ARRIVE guidelines and should be carried out in accordance with the U.K. Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act, 1986 and associated guidelines, EU Directive 2010/63/EU for animal experiments, or the National Institutes of Health guide for the care and use of Laboratory animals (NIH Publications No. 8023, revised 1978) and the authors should clearly indicate in the manuscript that such guidelines have been followed.

Conflict of interest policy

A conflict of interest exists when an author, reviewer, or editor has financial or personal relationships with other persons or organizations that may inappropriately influence or bias his or her actions. There is a potential for a conflict of interest whether or not an individual believes that a relationship affects his or her scientific judgment. Conflicts can occur as the result of employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony or opinions, personal and family relationships, or academic competitive pressures. All participants in the peer review and publication process must disclose all relationships that could be viewed as a potential conflict of interest.

Potential Author Conflicts

Authors should disclose at the time of manuscript submission all financial and interpersonal relationships that could be viewed as presenting a potential conflict of interest. These include, but are not limited to, any financial relationship that involves conditions or tests or treatments discussed in the manuscript or alternatives to tests or treatments. Authors should disclose information even when there is a question as to whether a relationship constitutes a conflict. Potential conflicts should be listed for each author on the page following the title page; a summary of relevant information will be published with the manuscript.

Authorship of editorials and reviews requires interpretation of the literature and therefore is inherently subject to bias, thus authors of such manuscripts should not have a significant financial interest in the subject matter of the manuscript.

Submission declaration and verification

Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' section of our ethics policy for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service CrossCheck.

Authorship

All authors should have made substantial contributions to all of the following: (1) the conception and design of the study, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data, (2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content, (3) final approval of the version to be submitted.

Changes to authorship

Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the journal Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed.
Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted. While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the Editor will result in a corrigendum.

Copyright

Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (see more information on this). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.

Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations. If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases.

Author rights
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. More information.

All material that is accepted for publication becomes the sole property of the ISEH. Authors must sign a copyright transfer form upon acceptance of any material for publication. The ISEH does, however, grant the authors the right to reproduce tables and figures from their articles published by the ISEH in the author's future publications.

Elsevier supports responsible sharing
Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.

Role of the funding source

List all sources of support for research (from funding agencies or industry) and disclose any potential financial conflicts of interest (relevant consulting fees, stock options, employment, etc) for each author. If no financial conflict of interest is identified, 'none' should be written next to the author name.
Note: If the manuscript is accepted for publication, a summary of the relevant information will be transferred to the Acknowledgements section.

Funding body agreements and policies
Elsevier has established a number of agreements with funding bodies which allow authors to comply with their funder's open access policies. Some funding bodies will reimburse the author for the Open Access Publication Fee. Details of existing agreements are available online.
After acceptance, open access papers will be published under a noncommercial license. For authors requiring a commercial CC BY license, you can apply after your manuscript is accepted for publication.

Open access

This journal offers authors a choice in publishing their research:

Open access
• Articles are freely available to both subscribers and the wider public with permitted reuse.
• An open access publication fee is payable by authors or on their behalf, e.g. by their research funder or institution.
Subscription
• Articles are made available to subscribers as well as developing countries and patient groups through our universal access programs.
• No open access publication fee payable by authors.

Regardless of how you choose to publish your article, the journal will apply the same peer review criteria and acceptance standards.

For open access articles, permitted third party (re)use is defined by the following Creative Commons user licenses:

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND)
For non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.

• Articles are freely available to both subscribers and the wider public with permitted reuse
• An open access publication fee is payable by authors or their research funder

Subscription
•Articles are made available to subscribers as well as developing countries and patient groups through our access programs (http://www.elsevier.com/access)

All articles published open access will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download. Permitted reuse is defined by the following Creative Commons user license: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND): for non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.

Elsevier has established agreements with funding bodies, http://www.elsevier.com/fundingbodies. This ensures authors can comply with funding body open access requirements, including specific user licenses, such as CC BY. Some authors may also be reimbursed for associated publication fees. If you need to comply with your funding body policy, you can apply for the CC BY license after your manuscript is accepted for publication.

To provide open access, this journal has a publication fee which needs to be met by the authors or their research funders for each article published open access. Your publication choice will have no effect on the peer review process or acceptance of submitted articles.

The open access publication fee for this journal is USD 2650, excluding taxes. There is a 10% discount off the open access publication fee for members of the International Society for Experimental Hematology. Learn more about Elsevier's pricing policy: http://www.elsevier.com/openaccesspricing.

Green open access
Authors can share their research in a variety of different ways and Elsevier has a number of green open access options available. We recommend authors see our green open access page for further information. Authors can also self-archive their manuscripts immediately and enable public access from their institution's repository after an embargo period. This is the version that has been accepted for publication and which typically includes author-incorporated changes suggested during submission, peer review and in editor-author communications. Embargo period: For subscription articles, an appropriate amount of time is needed for journals to deliver value to subscribing customers before an article becomes freely available to the public. This is the embargo period and it begins from the date the article is formally published online in its final and fully citable form. Find out more.

This journal has an embargo period of 12 months.

Language (usage and editing services)
Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop.

Informed consent and patient details

Studies on patients or volunteers require ethics committee approval and informed consent, which should be documented in the paper. Appropriate consents, permissions and releases must be obtained where an author wishes to include case details or other personal information or images of patients and any other individuals in an Elsevier publication. Written consents must be retained by the author and copies of the consents or evidence that such consents have been obtained must be provided to Elsevier on request. For more information, please review the Elsevier Policy on the Use of Images or Personal Information of Patients or other Individuals. Unless you have written permission from the patient (or, where applicable, the next of kin), the personal details of any patient included in any part of the article and in any supplementary materials (including all illustrations and videos) must be removed before submission.

Submission

Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files (e.g., Word, LaTeX) are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.

Submit your article
Please submit your article via http://ees.elsevier.com/exphem.

Reviewers

Authors are encouraged to suggest several potential reviewers without conflicts of interest, including at least one member of the journal's editorial board. When submitting your manuscript electronically through EES, both suggested and opposed reviewers can be identified as part of the submission process.

Statement of Authorship

Authors are also required to fill out an Authorship Statement form. The statement must include the names and signatures of ALL authors who have contributed significantly to the research described in the paper and have read and approved the final manuscript. The Authorship Statement form is available on the EES homepage( http://ees.elsevier.com/exphem/). It may be included in the EES submission, or submitted off-line by either email (exphem@elsevier.com) or fax (314-567-7178) to the journal manager.

Manuscript length

Write succinctly. Authors are urged to keep the word count of their papers (excluding references, figure legends, and tables) to less than 3,600 words. Longer papers of scientific merit will not be excluded from publication, but should still be as concise as possible.

NEW SUBMISSIONS

Submission to this journal proceeds totally online and you will be guided stepwise through the creation and uploading of your files. The system automatically converts your files to a single PDF file, which is used in the peer-review process.
As part of the Your Paper Your Way service, you may choose to submit your manuscript as a single file to be used in the refereeing process. This can be a PDF file or a Word document, in any format or lay-out that can be used by referees to evaluate your manuscript. It should contain high enough quality figures for refereeing. If you prefer to do so, you may still provide all or some of the source files at the initial submission. Please note that individual figure files larger than 10 MB must be uploaded separately.

References
There are no strict requirements on reference formatting at submission. References can be in any style or format as long as the style is consistent. Where applicable, author(s) name(s), journal title/book title, chapter title/article title, year of publication, volume number/book chapter and the pagination must be present. Use of DOI is highly encouraged. The reference style used by the journal will be applied to the accepted article by Elsevier at the proof stage. Note that missing data will be highlighted at proof stage for the author to correct.

Formatting requirements
There are no strict formatting requirements but all manuscripts must contain the essential elements needed to convey your manuscript, for example Abstract, Keywords, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Conclusions, Artwork and Tables with Captions.
If your article includes any Videos and/or other Supplementary material, this should be included in your initial submission for peer review purposes.
Divide the article into clearly defined sections.

Figures and tables embedded in text
Please ensure the figures and the tables included in the single file are placed next to the relevant text in the manuscript, rather than at the bottom or the top of the file.

REVISED SUBMISSIONS

Use of word processing software
Regardless of the file format of the original submission, at revision you must provide us with an editable file of the entire article. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier). See also the section on Electronic artwork.
To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.

Article structure

Subdivision - unnumbered sections
Divide your article into clearly defined sections. Each subsection is given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line. Subsections should be used as much as possible when cross-referencing text: refer to the subsection by heading as opposed to simply 'the text'.

Introduction
State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results.

Material and methods
Provide sufficient detail to allow the work to be reproduced. Methods already published should be indicated by a reference: only relevant modifications should be described.

Results
Results should be clear and concise.

Discussion
This should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. A combined Results and Discussion section is often appropriate. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature.

Appendices
If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq. (A.1), Eq. (A.2), etc.; in a subsequent appendix, Eq. (B.1) and so on. Similarly for tables and figures: Table A.1; Fig. A.1, etc.

Essential title page information

Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible. The title should accurately reflect the manuscript's content. If the main species used in the study is not human, the species should be included in the title.
Author names and affiliations. Where the family name may be ambiguous (e.g., a double name), please indicate this clearly. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Provide the corresponding author's courtesy title (Prof. or Dr.), full name, and credentials (MD, Phd). Ensure that phone numbers (with country and area code) are provided in addition to the e-mail address and the complete postal address. Contact details must be kept up to date by the corresponding author. Provide contact information for offprints if different from that of the corresponding author.
Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.
Category for the Table of Contents. Provide the category that best describes the manuscript's topic: Stem Cells (hematopoietic, mesenchymal, embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells); Normal Hematopoiesis (myelopoiesis, erythropoiesis, lymphopoiesis, megakaryocytopoiesis); Malignant Hematopoiesis; Microenvironment and Niche; Systems Biology; Genomics/Proteomics of Hematopoiesis; Immunobiology and Immunotherapy; Gene Therapy; Clinical Investigations (stem cell or other cell transplant related therapies); New Techniques and Technologies.
Word count. Supply the paper's word count excluding references, figure legends, and tables.

For manuscripts about clinical studies, use the category of "Clinical Investigation." If your manuscript's topic does not fit within one of these categories, it may not be within the journal's scope. Contact the editorial office for confirmation before submitting the manuscript.

Abstract

A concise and factual abstract is required. The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results and major conclusions. An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. For this reason, References should be avoided, but if essential, then cite the author(s) and year(s). Also, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself.

The abstract should be a continuous narrative (not broken into subheadings) and consist of no more than 250 words. Please include a short list of key words. Where possible, consider using MESH terms. For a list of MESH terms please visit http://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/.

Graphical abstract
Although a graphical abstract is optional, its use is encouraged as it draws more attention to the online article. The graphical abstract should summarize the contents of the article in a concise, pictorial form designed to capture the attention of a wide readership. Graphical abstracts should be submitted as a separate file in the online submission system. Image size: Please provide an image with a minimum of 531 × 1328 pixels (h × w) or proportionally more. The image should be readable at a size of 5 × 13 cm using a regular screen resolution of 96 dpi. Preferred file types: TIFF, EPS, PDF or MS Office files. You can view Example Graphical Abstracts on our information site.
Authors can make use of Elsevier's Illustration and Enhancement service to ensure the best presentation of their images and in accordance with all technical requirements: Illustration Service.

Highlights
Highlights are mandatory for this journal. They consist of a short collection of bullet points that convey the core findings of the article and should be submitted in a separate editable file in the online submission system. Please use 'Highlights' in the file name and include 3 to 5 bullet points (maximum 85 characters, including spaces, per bullet point). You can view example Highlights on our information site.

Acknowledgments

If authors wish to express thanks or acknowledge substantive contributions or assistance of individuals who are not authors, this should be included in the Acknowledgments section after the manuscript text and before the reference list. Authors are responsible for informing all named individuals/parties that they are being mentioned in their submitted manuscript and obtaining their approval prior to publication.

Units
Follow internationally accepted rules and conventions: use the international system of units (SI). If other units are mentioned, please give their equivalent in SI.

Math formulae
Please submit math equations as editable text and not as images. Present simple formulae in line with normal text where possible and use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line for small fractional terms, e.g., X/Y. In principle, variables are to be presented in italics. Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp. Number consecutively any equations that have to be displayed separately from the text (if referred to explicitly in the text).

Footnotes
Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article. Many word processors build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Should this not be the case, indicate the position of footnotes in the text and present the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article.

Artwork

Figures that are grouped together must match in size, particularly in height, and be uniform in style and size of lettering. Supply a scale bar with photomicrographs.

Proofread all text in the figures and ensure that all figure components are clearly distinguishable from each other (e.g., bar graph hatchings). Ensure that the body of the paper does not repeat data reported in figures.

Electronic artwork
General points
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Preferred fonts: Arial (or Helvetica), Times New Roman (or Times), Symbol, Courier.
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
• Indicate per figure if it is a single, 1.5 or 2-column fitting image.
• For Word submissions only, you may still provide figures and their captions, and tables within a single file at the revision stage.
• Please note that individual figure files larger than 10 MB must be provided in separate source files.
A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available.
You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
Formats
Regardless of the application used, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings. Embed the font or save the text as 'graphics'.
TIFF (or JPG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones): always use a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF (or JPG): Bitmapped line drawings: use a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF (or JPG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale): a minimum of 500 dpi is required.
Please do not:
• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); the resolution is too low.
• Supply files that are too low in resolution.
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

Color artwork
Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF), or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color online (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. For color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article. Please indicate your preference for color: in print or online only. Further information on the preparation of electronic artwork.

Illustration services
Elsevier's WebShop offers Illustration Services to authors preparing to submit a manuscript but concerned about the quality of the images accompanying their article. Elsevier's expert illustrators can produce scientific, technical and medical-style images, as well as a full range of charts, tables and graphs. Image 'polishing' is also available, where our illustrators take your image(s) and improve them to a professional standard. Please visit the website to find out more.

Figure captions
Ensure that each illustration has a caption. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.

Tables

Begin each table on a separate page. Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text. Place footnotes to tables below the table body and indicate them with symbols in this order: . Avoid vertical rules. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in tables do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article.

References

Citation in text
Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.

Reference links
Increased discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, CrossRef and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the DOI is encouraged.

A DOI can be used to cite and link to electronic articles where an article is in-press and full citation details are not yet known, but the article is available online. A DOI is guaranteed never to change, so you can use it as a permanent link to any electronic article. An example of a citation using DOI for an article not yet in an issue is: VanDecar J.C., Russo R.M., James D.E., Ambeh W.B., Franke M. (2003). Aseismic continuation of the Lesser Antilles slab beneath northeastern Venezuela. Journal of Geophysical Research, http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2001JB000884i. Please note the format of such citations should be in the same style as all other references in the paper.

Web references
As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.

References in a special issue
Please ensure that the words 'this issue' are added to any references in the list (and any citations in the text) to other articles in the same Special Issue.

Reference formatting
There are no strict requirements on reference formatting at submission. References can be in any style or format as long as the style is consistent. Where applicable, author(s) name(s), journal title/book title, chapter title/article title, year of publication, volume number/book chapter and the pagination must be present. Use of DOI is highly encouraged. The reference style used by the journal will be applied to the accepted article by Elsevier at the proof stage. Note that missing data will be highlighted at proof stage for the author to correct. If you do wish to format the references yourself they should be arranged according to the following examples:

Reference style
Include only published materials or those accepted for publication (in press) in the reference list. Cite references in numerical order according to first mention in the text. Verify all entries against original sources, especially journal titles, publication dates, accents, diacritical marks, and spelling in languages other than English. All listed references must be cited in the text.

Journal titles should be abbreviated according to titles listed in Index Medicus. Cite abstracts only if they are the sole source. References should include complete page ranges. Follow these models when organizing references:

  1. For a journal article with up to 6 authors, list all authors:
    Fraser ST, Ogawa M, Yu RT, Nishikawa S, Yoder MC, Nishikawa S-I. Definitive hematopoietic commitment within the embryonic vascular endothelial-caderin+ population. Exp Hematol. 2002;30:1061-1069.
  2. For a journal article with more than 6 authors, list the first 3 authors, followed by et al.:
    Berries VM, Dooner GJ, Nowakowski G, et al. The molecular basis for the cytokine-induced defect in homing and engraftment of hematopoietic stem cells. Exp Hematol. 2001;29:1326-1335.
  3. For a journal article in press:
    Riley RL, Knowles J, King AM. Levels of E2A protein expression in B cell precursors are stage-dependent and inhibited by stem cell factor (c-kit ligand). Exp Hematol. In press.
  4. For a chapter in a book:
    Munshi NC, Tricot G, Barlogie B. Plasma cell neoplasms. In: DeVita Jr. VT, Hellman S, Rosenberg SA, eds. Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 6th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2001. p. 2491-2493.
  5. For an abstract or letter:
    Roberts A, Croker B, Handman E, Williams D, Tarlinton D. Rac2 Regulates T and B Lymphocyte Chemotaxis, Distribution and Function [abstract]. Exp Hematol. 2002;30(suppl 1):143. Abstract 427.

For other formats, please follow the recommendations of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors at http://www.icmje.org/ . (this will help those individuals utilizing referencing software.)

Unpublished observations and personal communications cannot be included in the References section, although they may be cited in the text as "(unpublished data, year)." Papers that rely on such citations for details that are essential for critical review of the manuscript may be rejected. For personal communications, the permission of the individual who communicated the data is required.

Video

Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the files in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 150 MB. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect. Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages. Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.

Supplementary material

Supplementary material can support and enhance your scientific research. Supplementary files offer the author additional possibilities to publish supporting applications, high-resolution images, background datasets, sound clips and more. Please note that such items are published online exactly as they are submitted; there is no typesetting involved (supplementary data supplied as an Excel file or as a PowerPoint slide will appear as such online). Please submit the material together with the article and supply a concise and descriptive caption for each file. If you wish to make any changes to supplementary data during any stage of the process, then please make sure to provide an updated file, and do not annotate any corrections on a previous version. Please also make sure to switch off the 'Track Changes' option in any Microsoft Office files as these will appear in the published supplementary file(s). For more detailed instructions please visit our artwork instruction pages.

AudioSlides

The journal encourages authors to create an AudioSlides presentation with their published article. AudioSlides are brief, webinar-style presentations that are shown next to the online article on ScienceDirect. This gives authors the opportunity to summarize their research in their own words and to help readers understand what the paper is about. More information and examples are available. Authors of this journal will automatically receive an invitation e-mail to create an AudioSlides presentation after acceptance of their paper.

Virtual Microscope

The journal encourages authors to supplement in-article microscopic images with corresponding high resolution versions for use with the Virtual Microscope viewer. The Virtual Microscope is a web based viewer that enables users to view microscopic images at the highest level of detail and provides features such as zoom and pan. This feature for the first time gives authors the opportunity to share true high resolution microscopic images with their readers. More information and examples. Authors of this journal will receive an invitation e-mail to create microscope images for use with the Virtual Microscope when their manuscript is first reviewed. If you opt to use the feature, please contact virtualmicroscope@elsevier.com for instructions on how to prepare and upload the required high resolution images.

Style guidelines

Abbreviations: All abbreviations must be defined the first time that they are used in the text.

Distribution of reagents: By publishing in this journal, authors imply that they will make freely available to other academic researchers any easily provided materials (e.g., cells, clones of cells, antibodies, DNA probes, nucleic acid sequences, or genetic strains of animals) that were used in the research reported and that are not available from commercial suppliers.

Drugs: Trade names, spelled exactly as trademarked and with the initial letter capitalized, may be used after a drug has been identified once by its generic name or by its systematic chemical name. Unfamiliar compounds other than drugs must also be designated, when first issued, by their correct systematic names. Systematic chemical names should conform to the usage given in the indexes of Chemical Abstracts.

Human Experimentation: In experimental studies with human subjects, details of age, race, and sex of the subject must be included. There must also be a statement that informed consent was obtained from the subjects and that the investigations had been approved by an institutional Human Research Committee. In addition, safeguards for protection of the rights of minors and mentally impaired subjects should be stated. In all material, patients must be identified by number or serial letter and not by initials or names. If the manuscript requires photographs of faces or other identifiable body parts or detailed case descriptions, authors must obtain written consent from the identifiable subject and provide a copy of the permission with the manuscript upon submission.

Manufacturers: Include the name of the pharmaceutical or equipment company, as well as the city, state or province, and country, in parentheses after the first mention of every material used.

Mathematical Notation: Use typewritten letters, numbers, and symbols whenever possible. Identify boldface, script letters, etc., at their first occurrence. Distinguish between one and the letter "I" and zero and the letter "O" whenever confusion might result.

Any data previously published in any form (except abstracts) must be clearly identified as such.

Measurements: Use chapter 11.12 of AMA Manual of Style, 9th ed. Use metric system and Celsius degrees; use L for liter.

Nomenclature and Symbols: Follow the recommendations of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) and the International Union of Biochemistry (IUB). In respect to molecular regulators of hemopoiesis that are either essential for proliferation and differentiation of a given cell line or potentiate the action of a specific regulator, sufficient information should be given in respect to its molecular weight, chemical characteristics, stability, resistance to enzymatic digestion, method of assay, etc., so that others can appreciate the basic properties. When a regulatory molecule has been purified to homogeneity, sequenced, cloned, and produced as a pure entity, the name then given to the humoral regulator should be used. When there are numerous synonyms, these should be listed once. Until there is a consensus in respect to nomenclature, authors may use the names they prefer.

Statistical Analyses: In respect to bioassay or radioimmunoassay, potency estimates should be accompanied by a measure of the precision of these estimates. Both bioassays and radioimmunoassays should be precision-related to within-assay variability and to the variability measurements or subsequent independent assays. When data are insufficient to determine whether the data conform to a normal or other distribution, it is more appropriate to use nonparametric tests of significance. Manuscripts must describe novel methods, models, and approaches to statistical analysis concisely, but in sufficient detail to allow evaluation of the results reported.

Recombinant DNA: With the use of "recombinant" material in research, particularly with recombinant viral vectors that may infect human cells, investigators must include a statement regarding the containment category of genetically engineered organisms. Procedures and safeguards must be specified for the construction and handling of recombinant DNA molecules and organisms and viruses containing recombinant DNA.

Proofs

One set of page proofs (as PDF files) will be sent by e-mail to the corresponding author (if we do not have an e-mail address then paper proofs will be sent by post) or, a link will be provided in the e-mail so that authors can download the files themselves. Elsevier now provides authors with PDF proofs which can be annotated; for this you will need to download the free Adobe Reader, version 9 (or higher). Instructions on how to annotate PDF files will accompany the proofs (also given online). The exact system requirements are given at the Adobe site.
If you do not wish to use the PDF annotations function, you may list the corrections (including replies to the Query Form) and return them to Elsevier in an e-mail. Please list your corrections quoting line number. If, for any reason, this is not possible, then mark the corrections and any other comments (including replies to the Query Form) on a printout of your proof and scan the pages and return via e-mail. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication: please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.

Offprints

The corresponding author will, at no cost, receive a customized Share Link providing 50 days free access to the final published version of the article on ScienceDirect. The Share Link can be used for sharing the article via any communication channel, including email and social media. For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's Webshop. Corresponding authors who have published their article open access do not receive a Share Link as their final published version of the article is available open access on ScienceDirect and can be shared through the article DOI link.



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Editorial office

Editor-in-Chief:
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British Columbia Cancer Agency and
University of British Columbia
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