Guide for Authors

General information

European Urology Open Science (EU Open Science) is the open access journal of the European Urology family. It is dedicated to the publication of high quality, innovative research that will benefit patients with urological conditions, in keeping with the mission of the European Urology family. EU Open Science covers all kinds of research in the urological field, including clinical, basic and translational research. EU Open Science reflects the evolving medical publishing model and so all published papers will have unrestricted access and be published online only.

''Accessible for all'' article types in EU Open Science include original articles, review articles, study protocols, case reports, video articles, brief correspondences, European Board of Urology (EBU) Update Series, and EAU-guidelines updates. All articles are peer reviewed and proofread for editing. EU Open Science articles are indexed in the Web of Science and the Science Citation Index.

All articles published open access will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read, download, copy and distribute. Permitted reuse is defined by the following user license: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND): for non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article. If you need to comply with your funding body's policy you can apply for the CC BY license after your manuscript is accepted for publication.

Open Access Publication Fee

As an open access journal with no subscription charges, a fee is payable by the author or research funder to cover the costs associated with publication. This ensures your article will be immediately and permanently free to access by everyone.

The gold open access publication fee for this journal is USD 1800 for Research Articles and Reviews, excluding taxes, and USD 600 for Video Articles, Case Reports and Trial Protocols, excluding taxes. Learn more about Elsevier's pricing policy.

For all the articles submitted before 31 December 2020, there is a 50% off the open access publication fee. On top of that, EAU members get an additional 20% discount. Complete information can be found here.

Manuscript Submission

Submissions of the individual articles should be made through the web site of our online submission system Editorial Manager (https://www.editorialmanager.com/euros).

Editorial Office Contact Information

Questions regarding manuscript submission may be sent to:
EU Open Science Editorial Office
Ms. Cathy Pierce, Managing Editor
E-mail: euros@europeanurology.com

Statements in articles or opinions expressed by any contributor in any article are not the responsibility of the editors or the publisher. The publisher is not responsible for the loss of manuscripts through circumstances beyond its control.

Accepted manuscripts will be copyedited to make sure they conform to the journal's style. The final version of the manuscript following copyediting will be sent back to the author only if specific queries need clarification.

English Language Standard
Authors whose native language is not English are expected to have their manuscripts proofread by a professional copyeditor of their choice before submission. Compuscript is the official copyeditor for European Urology.

Supplementary Files and Data
Information necessary for the article that is in excess of the manuscript restrictions, will be considered for online publication or storage. Examples include extensive methodological descriptions, tables of data that are supplementary to the main article thread, details of reporting standards (such as CONSORT flow charts) and other useful figures. This information is to be submitted with the main manuscript and clearly labeled as Supplementary. It will be reviewed by the editorial office and peer reviewers to ensure that it is well presented in an acceptable format and that the contents are necessary. Please use the European Urology formatting style for references and presentation. There is no specific file name for Supplementary Material tables or figures. These may be uploaded under the file name table, figure or illustration.

European Urology Open Science Author Conduct Code

EU Open Science recognizes the importance of publishing the highest quality manuscripts and making sure that all authors participate fully in each manuscript and do not conduct themselves in a manner that may be misleading or duplicitous. Authors who do not follow the journals authorship responsibility rules will be disciplined accordingly. The following statement outlines each author's responsibilities and the potential penalties that can be applied under warranted circumstances.

The primary methods used for correcting the literature are errata and retractions:

  • Errata. Published changes or emendations to an earlier article, frequently referred to as corrections or corrigenda, are considered by the NLM to be errata, regardless of the nature or origin of the error. The NLM does not differentiate between errors that originated in the publication process and errors of logic or methodology.
  • Retractions. Retractions identify a citation that was previously published and is now retracted through a formal issuance from the author, publisher, or other authorized agent. The NLM does not differentiate between articles that are retracted because of honest error and those that are retracted because of scientific misconduct or plagiarism. If the notification in the journal is labeled as a retraction or withdrawal, NLM will index it as a retraction.
  • Expressions of Concern. This indexing term was introduced by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors and incorporated into the NLM system in 2004. The expression of concern is a label that an editor may use to draw attention to possible problems, but it does not go so far as to retract or correct an article. Examples of this correction format are provided at the end of this section.

Potential author misconduct may arise from both submitted manuscripts and published articles. Definitions of misconduct can be seen as follows:

  • Plagiarism, or attempting to use another's work as one's own
  • Fabrication or falsification of data (including deliberate misrepresentation of results and their implications)
  • Publication of content that corresponds substantially with previously printed or electronically published content without recognition, referencing, and explanation of this overlap and the advances of the current work
  • Failure to reference a contributing author or removing an author without written consent from the author in question and the contributing co-authors
  • Inappropriately giving credit to an author who did not contribute to the drafting, revision, or supervision of the article and therefore does not meet the authorship requirements as stated in the Authorship Responsibility, Financial Disclosure, and Acknowledgment Form. For further information see the Authorship Factsheet
  • Failure to disclose relationships in accordance with the European Urology Open Science Conflict of Interest Policy, as given below in the in the Section on Declaration of Interest and Financial Disclosures

Author misconduct does not include honest errors or differences of opinion, which may be managed through the journals errata processes.

Journal Response to Potential Author Misconduct
Once the Editor and/or the Publisher has been informed of possible author misconduct, a thorough internal investigation will be carried out to determine whether or not and to what degree an author has breached the responsibility contract. If misconduct has been determined, the Editor will contact the author to discuss the concern and explain the determined consequences according to the NLM. If the author refuses to comment or respond to the allegation of misconduct, that same author will assume responsibility with no further discussion. If instead, at any point during the journals investigation, an author admits to misconduct or provides a satisfactory explanation, the journal will conclude its investigation and consider appropriate actions to take.

Penalties
If misconduct is verified or admitted, the journal may apply an appropriate penalty against the author(s) at the discretion of the Editor-in-Chief and the publisher. The level and length of the penalties may vary depending on the severity of the misconduct and whether the manuscript in question was submitted or published. Authors will be notified in writing.

Examples of possible punishment may include but are not limited to:

  • Letter of reprimand to the author(s) of a submitted or published manuscript
  • Notice to the authors institution and/or the institution where the research was conducted
  • Restriction of the author(s) publishing in EU Open Science for a specified period of time
  • EU Open Science reserves the right to reject a submitted manuscript and to retract or publish an erratum or statement of concern about a published article, as appropriate
  • EU Open Science reserves the right to inform Editors and Publishers of peer-reviewed journals publishing in similar or identical fields

EU Open Science adheres to the guidelines on authorship established by the NLM.

EU Open Science also follows ICMJE's Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals: http://www.icmje.org/recommendations/

Authorship Criteria and Contributions and Authorship Form

Completion and inclusion of the Authorship Responsibility, Financial Disclosure and Acknowledgment Form is an obligatory step of the submission process for Original Articles, Review Articles and Surgery in Motion articles. A standard disclosure stating conflicts of interests, if any, can be uploaded for letters to the editor, editorials and case reports.

If the form is not completed as instructed below, the manuscript will not be considered for peer review.

The corresponding author must submit the above mentioned completed form on behalf of all co-authors, if any. Download form here: authorship form

The corresponding author must take responsibility for the integrity of the work as a whole, from inception to published article. Each collaborating author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content. Authorship credit should be based on: substantial contributions to conception and design, acquisition of data, analysis and interpretation of data, drafting of the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content, statistical analysis, obtaining funding, administrative, technical or material support, supervision and any other specifics to be declared at publication. The corresponding author is obliged to indicate the co-authors contribution to the manuscript in the appropriate field in the said form. Each co-author's specific contribution for reports of original data and systematic reviews will be included with the published manuscript. Each field may include more than one author.

Role of the Corresponding Author
The corresponding author will serve on behalf of all co-authors as the primary correspondent with the editorial office during the submission and review process. If the manuscript is accepted, the corresponding author will review an edited typescript and proof and will be identified as the corresponding author in the published article. The corresponding author is responsible for ensuring that all information included in the Authorship Responsibility, Financial Disclosure and Funding Support form and the Acknowledgment section, if any, is complete and has been agreed on by all authors. ''Acknowledgment'' is the general term for the list of contributions, credits, and other information included at the end of the text of a manuscript before the references.

Group Authorship
If authorship is attributed to a group (either solely or in addition to one or more individual authors), all members of the group must meet the full criteria and requirements for authorship as described above. If that is not the case, a group must designate one or more individuals as authors or members of a writing group who meet full authorship criteria and requirements. Other group members who are not authors may be listed in an Acknowledgment.

Declaration of Interest and Financial Disclosures

A conflict of interest may exist when an author (or the author's institution or employer) has financial or personal relationships or affiliations that could influence (or bias) the author's decisions, work, or manuscript.

Authors are expected to provide detailed information about all relevant financial interests and relationships or financial conflicts (e.g., employment/affiliation, grants or funding, consultancies, honoraria, stock ownership or options, expert testimony, royalties, or patents filed, received, or pending), particularly those present at the time the research was conducted and through publication, as well as other financial interests (such as patent applications in preparation), that represent potential future financial gain.

For example, authors of a manuscript about prostate cancer should report all financial relationships they have with all manufacturers of products used in the management of prostate cancer, not only those relationships with companies whose specific products are mentioned in the manuscript.

Although many universities and other institutions have established policies and thresholds for reporting financial interests and other conflicts of interest, EU Open Science requires complete disclosure of all relevant financial relationships and potential financial conflicts of interest, regardless of amount or value. Downloads: authorship form.

Privacy Protection and Informed Patient Consent

Our human participant policy conforms to the Uniform Requirements of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors:

"Patients have a right to privacy that should not be infringed without informed consent. Identifying information should not be published in written descriptions, photographs, and pedigrees unless the information is essential for scientific purposes and the patient (or parent or guardian) gives written informed consent for publication. Informed consent for this purpose requires that the patient be shown the manuscript to be published.

Complete anonymity is difficult to achieve, and informed consent for publication should be obtained if there is any doubt. If data are changed to protect anonymity, authors should provide assurance that alterations of the data do not distort scientific meaning.

When informed consent has been obtained it should be indicated in the published article."

For papers that include information or images which could identify or potentially identify individuals, then authors must provide evidence of a proper consent form which the patient, parent or guardian has signed acknowledging the potential of publication and their awareness of the content. They should be informed about Elsevier's publishing policy, in which images and text will be published online and in print and are available for any lawful purpose. The signed consent form should be filed securely in the patient's case notes and the article submitted to EU Open Science should include this statement indicating that specific consent for publication was obtained: The patients in this manuscript have given written informed consent to publication of their case details. The Editorial office will not store or collect consent forms, but reserves the right to enquire about or audit their presence, through proper and legal means.

All disclosures of any potential conflicts of interest, including specific financial interests and relationships and affiliations (other than those affiliations listed in the title page of the manuscript) relevant to the subject of their manuscript will be disclosed by the corresponding author on behalf of each co-author, if any, as part of the submission process. Likewise, authors without conflicts of interest, will be requested to state so as part of the submission process.

If authors are uncertain about what constitutes a relevant financial interest or relationship, they should contact the editorial office.

Failure to include this information in the manuscript will prohibit commencement of the review process of the manuscript.

For all accepted manuscripts, each author's disclosures of conflicts of interest and relevant financial interests and affiliations and declarations of no such interests will be published.

The policy requesting disclosure of conflicts of interest applies for all manuscript submissions. If an author's disclosure of potential conflicts of interest is determined to be inaccurate or incomplete after publication, a correction will be published to rectify the original published disclosure statement.

Authors are also required to report detailed information regarding all financial and material support for the research and work, including but not limited to grant support, funding sources, and provision of equipment and supplies as part of the submission process. For all accepted manuscripts, each author's source of funding will be published.

Funding/Support and Role of Sponsor
All financial and material support for the research and work will be requested to be clearly and completely identified as part of the submission process. The specific role of the funding organization or sponsor in each of the following should be specified: ''design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; and preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.'' The corresponding author is responsible for acknowledging this on the authorship form at the time of submission.

Data Access and Responsibility
For all reports (regardless of funding source) containing original data, at least one named author (e.g., the principal investigator) who is independent of any commercial funder should indicate that she or he ''had full access to all the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.'' This exact statement will be requested as part of the submission process. Modified statements or generic statements indicating that all authors had such access are not acceptable.

For authors reporting molecular results derived using high throughput technologies we support the use of minimum reporting standards. For example, for microarrays we support the use of the MIAME 2.0 standards, for deep sequencing we support MIN-Seq and for realtime PCR we support the MICQ guidelines. Details of these are available at http://miqe.gene-quantification.info/. We require that datasets derived from these experiments and used for reports within EU Open Science are deposited on line at the appropriate repositories, such as ArrayExpress (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/arrayexpress/) or GEO, NCBI (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/).

Duplicate/Previous Publication or Submission
Duplicate/previous publication or submission manuscripts are considered with the understanding that they have not been published previously in print or electronic format and are not under consideration by another publication or electronic medium. Copies of related or possibly duplicative materials (ie, those containing substantially similar content or using the same or similar data) that have been previously published or are under consideration elsewhere must be provided at the time of manuscript submission. Publication of the work at a scientific meeting, in abstract form or on a preprint server that does not conflict with submission to EU Open Science is allowed but should be disclosed at submission.

Ethical Approval of Studies and Informed Consent
For human or animal experimental investigations, formal review and approval, or review and waiver, by an appropriate institutional review board or ethics committee is required and should be described in the Methods section. For those investigators who do not have formal ethics review committees, the principles outlined in the Declaration of Helsinki should be followed. For investigations of human subjects, state in the Methods section the manner in which informed consent was obtained from the study participants (ie, oral or written).

Personal Communications and Unpublished Data
A signed statement of permission should be included from each individual identified as a source of information in a personal communication or as a source for unpublished data, and the date of communication and whether the communication was written or oral should be specified.

Previous Presentation or Release of Information
A complete report following presentation at a meeting or publication of preliminary findings elsewhere (eg, an abstract) is eligible for consideration for publication.

Unauthorized Use
Published manuscripts become the permanent property of the EAU and may not be published elsewhere in whole or in part without written permission. Unauthorized use of the EU Open Science name, logo, or any content for commercial purposes or to promote commercial goods and services (in any format, including print, video, audio, and digital) is not permitted by the EAU.

Editorial Review and Publication
Authors will be sent notifications of the receipt of manuscripts and editorial decisions by e-mail. During the review process, authors can check the status of their submitted manuscript via the online manuscript submission and review system.

Editorial and Peer Review
All submitted manuscripts are reviewed initially by the EU Open Science Editor-in-Chiefs and Associate Editors.

Manuscripts are evaluated according to the following criteria: material is original and timely, writing is clear, study methods are appropriate, data are valid, conclusions are reasonable and supported by the data, information is important, and the topic has general interest for urologists. From these basic criteria, the editors decide whether a manuscript reaches a priority score to justify peer review. Manuscripts with insufficient priority for publication are rejected promptly. Manuscripts which have not been straight rejected are sent to expert consultants for peer review. Although rare, it is possible for an exceptional manuscript to be accepted upon submission.

Reviewers are matched to the paper according to their expertise. Our reviewer database is constantly being updated to ensure the reviewer profile matches that of the topic being discussed in the manuscript. We welcome suggestions for reviewers from the author though these recommendations may or may not be considered.

Manuscripts considered to be of interest by the editors will be peer reviewed by internationally recognized experts on the subject. Each manuscript is sent to 3–8 reviewers. Most papers are also peer reviewed by a statistical editor. A copy of the study protocol may be requested during the review process.

Data Sharing Policy

1. Researchers need to include a data sharing statement:
a. Data are freely available at a data archive (include web address)
b. Data are available for bona fide researchers who request it from the authors
c. Data are not available to other researchers
2. Option c (data not available to other researchers) is not available for human clinical trials (experimental treatment) without prior agreement of the editors.
3. If data are not available to other researchers, then authors need to give a reason:
a. Publicly available data
b. Vulnerable population
c. Registry or institutional database of patients providing routinely collected data
d. Other
4. Preparation of this paper did not involve analysis of data.

Ethical Considerations and Registration of Clinical Trials

Trial registration: As a member of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE), EU Open Science requires, as a condition of consideration for publication, registration of all trials in a public trials registry that is acceptable to the ICMJE and that requires the minimum registration data set as described by the ICMJE.

Acceptable trial registries include the following: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov, http://isrctn.org, http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/index.asp, http://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr.

For this purpose, a clinical trial is any study that prospectively assigns human subjects to intervention or comparison groups to evaluate the cause-and-effect relationship between a medical/surgical intervention and a health outcome. All clinical trials, regardless of when they were completed, and secondary analyses of original clinical trials must be registered before submission of a manuscript based on the trial. For clinical trials starting patient enrollment after July 2005, trials must be registered before onset of enrollment. Trial registry name, registration identification number, and the URL for the registry should be included at the end of abstract.

All randomized controlled trials require proof of protocol. Authors are expected to provide relevant protocol information upon request. Authors who would not able to provide this information should contact the Editorial Office upon submission.

CONSORT Flow Diagram and Checklist: Manuscripts reporting the results of randomized controlled trials should include the CONSORT flow diagram showing the progress of patients throughout the trial. The CONSORT checklist also should be completed and submitted with the manuscript and can be found on http://www.consort-statement.org/consort-statement/checklist.

Biomarkers: EU Open Science encourages manuscripts reporting biomarkers and biological markers to adhere to the REMARK reporting criteria. Please refer to REMARK guidelines.

Reporting of Research Using Animals

EU Open Science asks authors to refer to the ARRIVE guidelines when reporting research were animals were involved. Access the ARRIVE guidelines here.

Statistical Analysis, Reporting and Interpretation

On the grounds that the conclusions of many papers depend critically on the statistical analysis, and that it has been amply demonstrated that statistical deficiencies are common in the medical literature, EU Open Science pays particular attention to statistical aspects of submitted papers. Authors are advised to check our statistical guidelines Guidelines for Reporting of Figures and Tables for Clinical Research in Urology and should note that most papers are peer reviewed by a professional statistician, often a member of the editorial board.

Submission of statistical code
There is a strong consensus amongst statisticians that fully annotated and high quality programming code is essential for implementing accurate and reproducible statistical analyses. But it is also widely accepted that for many papers published in the biomedical literature, such code is either poor quality or even missing altogether. Calls for the publication of statistical code, as well as raw data, alongside research results are based on the rationale that such publication clearly aids attempts at replication, a key criterion of science. But it has also been argued that publication of code and data would also improve the scientific process: where researchers know that their code and data will be reviewed by their peers, they are more likely to write better code and make sure that their data are clean and accurate.

EU Open Science has therefore implemented the following policies:

  • All authors are asked to submit statistical analysis code at the time that their research paper is accepted for publication
  • Authors have three choices:
    a. State that no or only trivial code was used in the analyses
    b. Decline to provide code
    c. Submit their analytic code
  • The authors' choice is published alongside author contributions, funding and so on
  • If authors decide to submit code, it is entirely up to them what code they submit. For instance, they may decide to submit only the code used for a subset of key analyses, or a more complete set of code, including code used to clean the data set and prepare it for analysis
  • We do not expect that preparing code for archiving should take more than a few minutes, in terms of choosing the subset of programming files to submit and perhaps writing a brief "README.TXT" document explaining features such as user-written macros
  • Code submitted by authors is archived by the journal, to be released on reasonable request by any interested party

Reviewer Reports

Essentially, reviewers are asked to evaluate whether the manuscript:

  • Is original
  • Is methodologically sound
  • Follows appropriate ethical guidelines
  • Has results that are clearly presented and support the conclusions
  • Correctly references previous relevant work
  • Is aimed at the journal's target readership

Reviewers are not expected to correct or copyedit manuscripts. Language correction is not part of the peer-review process.

The reviewers are not blinded to the names of the authors or the institution from which the manuscripts have been submitted.

Please refer to the Structured Review Template or the Reviewer Guidelines.

Final Editorial Decision
The final decision to accept, revise, or reject a manuscript is made by the Editor-in-Chief after carefully considering the opinion of the Associate Editor(s) handling that particular manuscript. The decision is sent to the author along with any recommendations made by the reviewers and editors.

Publication
Prior to submitting a manuscript to European Urology, authors must ensure that each requirement listed below is met. Manuscripts that do not meet these requirements will be returned to the author without review.

Copyright

Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an 'Exclusive License Agreement' (see more information on this). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.

Permitted third party reuse of open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license, and is only applicable for non-commercial purposes. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations. See http://www.elsevier.com/permissions.

If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included in the article, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article.

Author rights
More information.

Elsevier supports responsible sharing
Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.

Editing
Accepted manuscripts are edited in accordance with the journal in-house style which is based on American Medical Association (AMA) style. Authors are expected to be responsible for all statements made in their work, including changes made during editing and production that are authorized by the corresponding author.

Corrections
Requests to publish corrections should be sent to the editorial office. Corrections are reviewed by editors and authors, published promptly, and linked online to the original article.

Offprints
Offprints may be ordered when the edited typescript is sent for approval to the corresponding author. Additional copies (minimum 100) can be ordered at prices quoted on the order form that will be sent with the acknowledgment letter.

Cover Letter

Although cover letters are not mandatory for submission, authors wishing to include a cover letter with their manuscript are welcome to submit a letter either as a separate file or as part of the manuscript file. Please note that manuscript files containing a cover letter will be available for reviewers to view if the manuscript is sent for peer review. If the authors prefer to submit a letter for the Editor(s) consideration only, please include the text of the letter in the "enter comments" step of the electronic submission process.

Article Types

Original Articles

These manuscripts typically report on basic and translational research, epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, medical or surgical treatment, and minimally invasive therapy related to urologic diseases.

Each manuscript should clearly state an objective or hypothesis; the design and methods (including the study setting and dates, patients or participants with inclusion and exclusion criteria and/or participation or response rates, or data sources, and how these were selected for the study); the essential features of any interventions; the main outcome measures; the main results of the study; a discussion section placing the results in context with the published literature and addressing study limitations; and the conclusions. Data included in research reports should be as timely and current as possible.

We encourage authors to report outcomes and complications in a structured manner. We advise the use of peer reviewed documents to guide this such as Mitropoulous et al, Reporting and Grading of Complications After Urologic Surgical Procedures: An ad hoc EAU Guidelines Panel Assessment and Recommendations or other recognized reporting structures.

Text
The text of the manuscript should be divided as follows: Introduction; Material (Patients) and Methods; Results; Discussion; Conclusions.

Take Home Message
Two or three sentences (no more than 40 words) summarizing the main message expressed in the article must be uploaded as a separate file.

Format

The format of the original article should be as follows:

Provide a structured abstract no longer than 300 words with the following sections: Background; Objective; Design, Setting, and Participants; Intervention (include if there are any); Outcome Measurements and Statistical Analysis; Results and Limitation; Conclusions and Patient Summary (The Patient Summary is an obligatory section of the manuscript. Submissions not including the patient summary will be returned to the corresponding author).

Original Articles must be no longer than 3000 words (300 abstract + 2700 body not including the reference list, tables, figures or legend). References are limited to 30. Please limit tables and figures to 6. Additional tables, figures or appendices may be submitted as supplementary material but will be published online only.

For brevity, parts of the abstract may be written as phrases rather than complete sentences. Each section should include the following content (see abstract structure details below).

Downloads: Original Article Abstract

  • Background: The abstract should begin with a sentence or two explaining the clinical (or other) importance of the study question.
  • Objective: State the precise objective or study question addressed in the manuscript (e.g., ''To determine whether …''). If more than one objective is addressed, the main objective should be indicated and only key secondary objectives stated.
  • Design, Setting, and Participants: Describe the basic design of the study. State the years of the study and the duration of follow-up. Describe the study setting to assist readers to determine the applicability of the report to other circumstances, for example, general community, a primary care or referral center, private or institutional practice, or ambulatory or hospitalized care. State the clinical disorders, important eligibility criteria, and key sociodemographic features of patients. The numbers of participants and how they were selected should be provided. In follow-up studies, the proportion of participants who completed the study must be indicated. In intervention studies, the number of patients withdrawn because of adverse effects should be given. For selection procedures, these terms should be used, if appropriate: random sample (where random refers to a formal, randomized selection in which all eligible individuals have a fixed and usually equal chance of selection); population-based sample; referred sample; consecutive sample; volunteer sample; convenience sample.
  • Intervention(s): The essential features of any interventions (surgical or medical) should be described. The nonproprietary drug or device names should be used unless the specific trade name is essential to the study.
  • Outcome Measurements and Statistical Analysis: Indicate the primary and secondary study outcome measurement(s) and the main statistical analysis.
  • Results and Limitations: The main outcomes of the study should be reported and quantified. Complications or sequelae of the interventions used must be detailed. Particular attention must be paid to estimates of treatment effect and confidence intervals and not just to p-values. All randomized controlled trials should include the results of intention-to-treat analysis, and all surveys should include response rates. Limitations of the study should be acknowledged.
  • Conclusions: Provide only conclusions of the study directly supported by the results, along with implications for clinical practice, avoiding speculation and overgeneralization. Indicate whether additional studies are required before the results should be used in usual clinical settings. Give equal emphasis to positive and negative findings of equal scientific merit.
  • Patient summary: Please include at the end of the abstract 2–3 short sentences in plain English to describe your findings to a non-medical audience. For example: " In this report we looked at the outcomes from invasive bladder cancer in a large European population. We found that outcomes varied with patient age and treating centre. We conclude that the best outcomes are seen in younger patients treated at high volume hospitals. You will also be asked to include this summary in the "Additional Information" section of the submission process.

Please note that if your study is animal based, the patient summary should state how you anticipate the results of your study would affect a patient population.

Review Articles

EU Open Science aims to publish reviews that are clearly structured, reproducible and free from bias. As such, we encourage systematic reviews (with/without meta-analyses as appropriate). These are reviews that systematically find, select, critique, and synthesize evidence relevant to well defined questions about diagnosis, therapy, and prognosis. Manuscripts reporting systematic review and meta-analysis should comply with the PRISMA statement. Such review articles may be solicited by the editorial board.

If you are interested in submitted a review article, please use the following form to send an outline and structured abstract with the following information to the Editorial Office:

1. Title and author list
2. Systematic review search criteria and the preliminary results of this search (including an estimate of how many manuscripts will be included for analysis)
3. Primary and secondary outcomes that will be reported (including likely number of persons used to report these data)
4. Null hypothesis and likely conclusions

The format of the review article should be as follows:

Abstract: Provide a structured abstract no longer than 300 words with the following sections: Context, Objective, Evidence Acquisition, Evidence Synthesis, Conclusion and Patient Summary.

Review Articles must be no longer than 4000 words (300 abstract + 3700 body not including the reference list, tables, figures or legend). References are limited to 50. Please limit tables and figures to 6. Additional tables, figures or appendices may be submitted as supplementary material but will be published online only.

Downloads: Review Article Abstract Example

Context: Include one or two sentences describing the clinical question or issue and its importance in clinical practice or public health.

Objective: State the precise primary objective of the review. Indicate whether the review emphasizes factors such as cause, diagnosis, prognosis, therapy, or prevention and include information about the specific population, intervention, exposure, and tests or outcomes that are being reviewed.

Evidence Acquisition: Describe the data sources used, including the search strategies, years searched, and other sources of material, such as subsequent reference searches of retrieved articles. Methods used for quality assessment and inclusion of identified articles should be explained.

Evidence Synthesis: The major findings of the review of the clinical issue or topic should be addressed in an evidence-based, objective, and balanced fashion, with the highest quality evidence available receiving the greatest emphasis.

Conclusions: The conclusions should clearly answer the questions posed if applicable, be based on available evidence, and emphasize how clinicians should apply current knowledge.

Patient Summary: Please include at the end of the abstract 2–3 short sentences in plain English to describe your findings to a non-medical audience. For example: ''In this report we looked at the outcomes from invasive bladder cancer in a large European population. We found that outcomes varied with patient age and treating centre. We conclude that the best outcomes are seen in younger patients treated at high volume hospitals.'' You will also be asked to include this summary in the ''Additional Information'' section of the submission process.

Text
The text of the manuscript should be divided as follows: Introduction, Evidence Acquisition, Evidence Synthesis, Conclusions.

Example of Review Article: Repeat Transurethral Resection in Non–muscle-invasive Bladder Cancer: A Systematic Review

Take Home Message
Two or three sentences (no more than 40 words) summarizing the main message expressed in the article must be uploaded as a separate file.

Trial Protocol

EU Open Science welcomes submission and publishes trial protocols. All trials should be registered with the appropriate database, and details available on line. The protocol should include a structured abstract detailing:

  1. Introduction and Hypotheses
  2. Design: Including phase of trial, eligibility, ineligibility criteria, randomization, recruitment and centre details. This should include timescales
  3. Protocol Overview: Details of arms, interventions, measurements, safety criteria and reporting
  4. Statistical Analysis: Detail of a proposed analytical design and outcomes/endpoints
  5. Summary: Explain what this trial aims to deliver

The word count is 10,000 but can be extended at the approval of the editorial office.

Guideline Update

EU Open Science aims to publish and highlight with this article type significant changes made to any of the EAU Guidelines. The EAU guideline office is responsible to identify the specific guideline where significant changes are done in an updated version relative to the previous version. Authorship of the EAU Guideline update articles is provided by the specific guideline panel.

The article should be structures as follows:

  • Publication history
  • Summary of changes. Included here are all sections with significant changes and brief explanation for the rationale and or data leading to changes
  • References leading to the changes

Maximum word count is 2000, including the abstract but not including the references, tables, figures, or legends. The number of references should be limited to 20. Both limits can be extended if needed at the approval of the editorial office. No APC will be charged for these articles.

Surgery in Motion: Open Science

Authors are welcome to submit manuscripts describing particular surgical techniques. In addition to describing the technique in detail, early results and complications should be reported as well. Mandatory requirements include a minimum number of three patients who have undergone the procedure in discussion. As this is an illustrative and demonstrative section of the journal, preference will be given to manuscripts which include illustrative images and sketches. Authors are encouraged to include professional sketches describing the key steps of the surgical procedures. If you need assistance finding an artist, please contact the Editorial Office at euros@europeanurology.com. Examples of suitable sketches can be found here.

The same preference is given towards videos which include high quality, well edited clips and images. EU Open Science will not provide editing services but suggests authors in need of assistance to contact MediAVentures http://www.mediaventures.be/.

In order to be considered eligible for the Surgery in Motion: Open Science section, each manuscript must be accompanied by an explanatory video which includes narration of the surgical procedure. Please ensure you upload the video files in mp4 format no bigger than 150MB with the manuscript files in the submission system. When uploading, the video file is to be listed under the "video" description tag. If the system will not accept your file or you have any questions or concerns, please contact the Editorial Office at euros@europeanurology.com.

A second option is to send your video (max 150 MB) via WeTransfer. If you are not familiar with this service, please visit https://www.wetransfer.com.

The format of these manuscripts should follow the guidelines for original articles with the exception of the abstract.

Abstract
Provide a structured abstract no longer than 300 words with the following sections: Background; Objective; Design, Setting, and Participants; Surgical Procedure; Measurements; Results and Limitations; Conclusions and Patient Summary. For brevity, parts of the abstract may be written as phrases rather than complete sentences.

  • Background: The abstract should begin with a sentence or two explaining the importance of and the need for the described surgical procedure
  • Objective: State the precise objective addressed in the manuscript (e.g., ''To show the efficacy and safety of …'')
  • Design, Setting, and Participants: Describe the basic design of the study. State the years of the study and the duration of follow-up. Describe the study setting to assist readers to determine the applicability of the report to other circumstances, for example, office-based/private urologists vs. hospital/academic urologists. State the number, clinical characteristics, and important inclusion/ exclusion criteria of patients
  • Surgical Procedure: The essential features of the operation should be described. The nonproprietary device names should be used unless the specific trade name is essential to the study
  • Measurements: Indicate the primary and secondary study outcome measurement(s)
  • Results and Limitations: The main outcomes of the study should be reported and quantified
  • Complications or sequelae of the procedure used must be detailed. Limitations of the study must be acknowledged
  • Conclusions: Provide only conclusions of the study directly supported by the results, along with implications for clinical practice, avoiding speculation and overgeneralization. Indicate whether additional study is required before the information should be used in usual clinical settings
  • Patient Summary: Please include at the end of the abstract 2–3 short sentences in plain English to describe your findings to a non-medical audience. For example: "In this report we looked at the outcomes from invasive bladder cancer in a large European population. We found that outcomes varied with patient age and treating centre. We conclude that the best outcomes are seen in younger patients treated at high volume hospitals."
  • You will also be asked to include this summary in the "Additional Information" section of the submission process
  • Give equal emphasis to positive and negative findings of equal scientific merit
  • Examples of how a Surgery in Motion abstract should be structure

Downloads: Surgery in Motion Abstract Example and Surgery in Motion Video Guideline .Surgery in Motion Video Guideline (30 KB).

Case Report

This section is dedicated to publishing promising studies which have only preliminary results at this stage.

We ask that your Case Report reports on no more than 10 patients and include illustrative images.

The Case Report should be as follows: an unstructured abstract of no more than 200 words, the case report, the discussion and a maximum of 10 references. The text must be accompanied by 4–6 figures or photos. The 1500 word count limit includes the abstract and the body but not the figures, tables, legends or references.

Please also include a CME question with 4 multiple choice answers. The question will be published at the end of the article and made available on our dedicated CME website. The questions and answers will not be published in the same issue but will be available on http://www.eu-acme.org/europeanurology/.

Platinum Opinion Editorials
These may be submitted or invited by the editorial board. Platinum Opinion Editorials are stand alone opinion pieces that discuss an important and contemporary element of urological care. They should highlight current problems with urological care and identify potential solutions. We kindly ask that the number of authors be limited to no more than 3. We will allow supplementary material to be submitted and reviewed, however, this material will be available online only if accepted.

The format of the Platinum Opinion Editorial has no abstract. The main report is unstructured and should lead the reader from the concept through completion and a conclusion of the work. The manuscript count is limited to 1000 words (excluding references and legends), 2 figures or tables and 10 references. Supplementary online content is welcomed for this work and is likely to be necessary.

Platinum Opinion Editorials require a 2 or 3 sentence take home message (no more than 40 words) summarizing the main message expressed in the article. It must be uploaded as a separate file.

Example of a Platinum Opinion Editorial: Do Not Learn a Technique, Learn the Biology Underlying the Disease: Techniques Evolve, Biology Prevails .

Letter to the Editor

Letters to the Editor are considered for publication (subject to editing and abridgment) provided they do not contain material that has been submitted or published elsewhere. They must be submitted online via EM at https://www.editorialmanager.com/euros.

Please note that EU Open Science considers two different types of Letters to the Editor:

1) Letters to the Editor about a recent journal article

Letters referring to a recent journal article must be received within three months of its publication. For example, a letter referring to an article published in the January issue must be submitted online no later than March 31st. Letters submitted after the allowed time will not be considered. The text, not including references, must not exceed 500 words. A maximum of three authors and five references are allowed. Neither tables nor figures are allowed.

2) Research Letters

Original research that is of interest but does not fulfill all the requirements needed for publication as a full-length manuscript can be submitted as a letter to the editor. There is no limit to the number of authors.

The text, not including references, tables, figures or legends must not exceed 500 words. No more than five references and either one table or one figure are allowed.

Brief Correspondence

These manuscripts report novel, exciting urological research. The focus may be basic, translation or clinical and can include all aspects of urological care. The format is shorter than Original Articles, so articles best suited are those with concise presentation. These articles are not suited to pilot or incomplete studies with insufficient material for a full manuscript. Articles for this section may be directly submitted or invited by the editorial team, following a previously submitted Original Article.

The format of the manuscript is of an unstructured abstract (up to 200 words) that should introduce and briefly summarize the work and also include a patient summary (2–3 short sentences in plain English to describe your findings to a non-medical audience. For example: ''In this report we looked at the outcomes from invasive bladder cancer in a large European population. We found that outcomes varied with patient age and treating centre. We conclude that the best outcomes are seen in younger patients treated at high volume hospitals.'').

The main report is also unstructured but should lead the reader from the concept through completion and a conclusion of the work. The manuscript count is limited to 1000 words (excluding abstract, references and legends), 2 figures or tables and 10 references. Supplementary online content is welcomed for this work and is likely to be necessary.

Brief Correspondence also require a 2 or 3 sentence take home message (no more than 40 words) summarizing the main message expressed in the article. It must be uploaded as a separate file.

Manuscript Preparation and Submission Requirements

Reporting Guidelines
EU Open Science follows the EQUATOR network resource centre guidance on good research reporting (http://www.equator-network.org/). Click here for a list of useful reporting guideline websites which EU Open Science recommends.

Manuscript Submission
Manuscripts should be written in English. Authors are free to choose between British English and American English in terms of spelling and grammar as long as the language style is consistent throughout the text.

Manuscripts should be submitted through the web site of our online submission system Editorial Manager at https://www.editorialmanager.com/euros in Word or LaTeX formats for text and EPS or TIFF for illustrations. Authors may also check the status of submitted articles at this site. At the time of submission, complete contact information (postal/mail address, e-mail address, telephone and fax numbers) for the corresponding author is required. First and last names, e-mail addresses, and institutional affiliations of all co-authors are also required. Manuscripts submitted through the online system should not also be submitted by mail or e-mail. Once the manuscript is submitted online, the corresponding author will receive a manuscript number and will be able to follow the status of the manuscript through the online system.

Manuscript Components
Include a title page, abstract, text, references, and as appropriate, figure legends, tables, and figures, take home message (for original and review articles) and authorship form (the authorship form can be downloaded here). Start each of these sections on a new page, numbered consecutively, beginning with the title page. Please check the instructions per article type listed above.

Manuscript File Formats
For submission and review, acceptable manuscript file formats include Word, EPS, Text, Postscript, or RTF format. Use 12-point font size, double-space text, and leave right margins unjustified with margins of at least 2.5 cm. Each page should be numbered in the upper right corner, beginning on p. 2. Add continuous line numbering.

Title Page
The title page should include a word count for the text and abstract separately. Authors full names, highest academic degrees, and affiliations should also be included (see list below). If an author's affiliation has changed since the work was done, the new affiliation also should be listed. For indexing purposes, 3–10 keywords should be supplied in alphabetical order (see example below).

  • Title
  • Authors (first name and initials followed by surname, e.g., Juan X. Alvarez)
  • Affiliations (if multiple affiliations are listed, indicate with lowercase letter footnotes following the respective authors names)
  • Contact information for corresponding author, including full mailing address, telephone number, fax number, and e-mail address
  • For indexing purposes, 3–10 keywords should be supplied (in alphabetical order) as follows: Keywords Benign prostatic hyperplasia; Doxazosin; Lower urinary tract symptoms
  • Word count of text: include the abstract but not the references in this count
  • Word count of the abstract (please remember Abstracts cannot exceed 300 words)
  • Abstracts: Include a structured abstract of no more than 300 words for original, review and surgery in motion articles. (See instructions above for preparing structured abstracts.) Abstracts are not required for editorials. No information should be reported in the abstract that does not appear in the text of the manuscript

Headings

Do not use automatically generated numbering or bulleting systems or hidden text (e.g., for headings, references, footnotes, lists).

Units of Measurement

Units of measurements must conform to the Systeme International (SI): year(s), yr; month(s), mo; days, d; hours, h; minutes, min; seconds, s; grams, g; liters, l; meters, m; sample size, n; degrees of freedom, df; standard error of the mean, SE; standard deviation, SD; probability, p.

Numerals and Abbreviations

Use numerals for all values greater than ten and those followed by a unit; otherwise, spell out (e.g., 18 patients, 0.8 g/ml, 47%, 37°C, six cases). Spell out numbers at the beginning of a sentence. Abbreviations must be defined at first use in each of the following: text, tables, and figure legends.

Tables

Tables for publication should highlight the most significant data. Tables should be provided as editable Word files and should fit on A4 or letter-sized paper in a font no smaller than 10 point. The column structure should be simple for clarity, and internal gridlines should be hidden. Please make sure that there are not too many columns or rows, that each contains important data for the report and not too many characters. Authors should ensure tables are presented in a format suitable for publication.

Larger or more complex tables can be made available online as supplemental material.

It is impossible to further stipulate exact table size or content, but consider using supplementary online-only tables for large datasets or those that may be unsuitable/too large for publication on one journal page.

References

References should follow AMA format, and they should be listed in the order in which they are cited in the text. List all authors for publications with up to six authors. For publications with more than six authors, list the first three authors followed by et al.

Example:

[4] Rassweiler JJ, Knoll T, Khrmann KU, et al. Shock wave technology and application: an update. Eur Urol 2011;59:784–96.

Data references
This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. This identifier will not appear in your published article.

An example of how such a reference should look:

[5] Oguro M, Imahiro S, Saito S, Nakashizuka T. Mortality data for Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions, Mendeley Data, v1; 2015. https://doi.org/10.17632/xwj98nb39r.1.

EU-ACME articles

Three articles per issue are selected by the Editors-in-Chief as EU-ACME articles. These articles are highlighted as such in the table of contents and on the first page of the article. Upon request, authors must provide six EU-ACME questions based on the information provided in the article with the submission. Four possible answers must be provided for each question, with only one of them being correct. The correct answer should be explained in text limited to 50 words; up to three references are allowed to support this explanation. (Specifically dedicated instructions for authors for these questions and answers will be provided.) The questions and answers will not be published in the journal but will be available on the website http://www.eu-acme.org/europeanurology.