European Psychiatry is the official journal of the European Psychiatric Association (EPA). European Psychiatry publishes 8 issues per year with articles on original research on pre-clinical and clinical scientific fields investigating the aetiology, pathophysiology and treatment of major psychiatric disorders. European Psychiatry accepts publications originating from any part of the world based only on their scientific merit. European Psychiatry does not have publication fees. All articles are published in English. The quality of the language is of paramount importance as it influences how the manuscript is received by Editors, reviewers and readers. For authors who are not English speakers and may not be experienced in scientific writing in English we strongly recommend the use of appropriate language services. The authors may consider any option available to them including the language services provided by Elsevier. More information can be found at http://webshop.elsevier.com/languageservices/ Please note that the use of language services is at the author's cost and does not guarantee that the manuscript will be reviewed or accepted.
Types of article
Types of accepted articles and their specifications are given below. Word count for the main manuscript includes only the main body of text (i.e., not tables, figures, abstracts or references). All pages should be numbered. Manuscripts should be double-spaced. All abbreviations (other than those for units of measure) should be spelled out the first time they are used anywhere in the manuscript. Idiosyncratic abbreviations should not be used.
European Psychiatry publishes Original research (abstract no longer than 250 words, structured as follows: Background, Methods, Results, Conclusions; the text should not exceed 3500 words, with the following structure: Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion. Figures and tables should be limited to 5 each; references to 75.
Reviews, Meta-analyses: abstract no longer than 250 words, structured as follows: Background, Methods, Results, Conclusions; the text should not exceed 5000 words, with the following structure: Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion. There is no limit to figures and tables; references will not exceed 200.
Commentaries refer specifically to an article published by the journal. They cannot exceed 750 words, with no more than five references and one table or figure. The title should be "Commentary on", followed by the title of the article to which it refers. Commentaries will not be subject to peer review in order to enable the free exchange of ideas. Authors will be expected to uphold standards of civility and professionalism in presenting their comments, particularly if critical.
Editorials may only be authored by the Editors or by authors invited by the Editors or proposed by the EPA board. No unsolicited editorial will be accepted. An editorial cannot exceed 1500 words, with no more than 10 references and one table or figure. Editorials will not be subject to peer review. Authors will be expected to uphold standards of civility and professionalism in presenting their views. Editorials are required to cover topics on mental health policy and related topics, in accordance with the aim of the European Psychiatric Association.
Viewpoint articles may be submitted by any author. These may address important topics in psychiatry, public health or health policy, research, ethics, or health law. Viewpoints are not required to be linked to a specific article in European Psychiatry. Viewpoints cannot exceed 1500 words and 10 references, and may include no more than one figure or one table. Viewpoints should be tightly focused on the topic they cover, and scholarly; in other words, viewpoints cannot rely on personal or idiosyncratic views unsupported by evidence. Viewpoints will be subjected to editorial review to ensure they meet these basic criteria, followed by peer-review.
EPA position papers may only be submitted by authors on the EPA board or by authors commissioned by the EPA board, and address any topic in psychiatry, public health or health policy, research, ethics, or health law that is important to the mission of the EPA. EPA position papers cannot exceed 3500 words and should include an unstructured abstract that cannot exceed 250 words. Figures and tables should be limited to five each; references to 75. Position papers should be tightly focused on the topic they cover, and scholarly. Position papers will be reviewed internally by the EPA board. Authorship will be decided by the EPA board.
European Psychiatry no longer accepts case reports or case series and no longer routinely considers manuscripts on the psychometric properties, standardisation, translation or transcultural validation of psychiatric questionnaires, instruments or cognitive tests.
Letters to the Editor (by invitation only): no abstract, text limited to 500 words; no tables or figures; up to 10 references.
You can use this list to carry out a final check of your submission before you send it to the journal for review. Please check the relevant section in this Guide for Authors for more details.
One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
• E-mail address
• Full postal address
• Include keywords
• All figures (include relevant captions)
• All tables (including titles, description, footnotes)
• Ensure all figure and table citations in the text match the files provided
• Indicate clearly if color should be used for any figures in print
Graphical Abstracts / Highlights files (where applicable)
Supplemental files (where applicable)
• Manuscript has been 'spell checked' and 'grammar checked'
• All references mentioned in the Reference List are cited in the text, and vice versa
• Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Internet)
• A competing interests statement is provided, even if the authors have no competing interests to declare
• Journal policies detailed in this guide have been reviewed
• Referee suggestions and contact details provided, based on journal requirements
Please see our information pages on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication.
Studies in humans and animals
If the work involves the use of human subjects, the author should ensure that the work described has been carried out in accordance with The Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association (Declaration of Helsinki) for experiments involving humans. The manuscript should be in line with the Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals and aim for the inclusion of representative human populations (sex, age and ethnicity) as per those recommendations. The terms sex and gender should be used correctly.
All animal experiments should comply with the ARRIVE guidelines and should be carried out in accordance with the U.K. Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act, 1986 and associated guidelines, EU Directive 2010/63/EU for animal experiments, or the National Institutes of Health guide for the care and use of Laboratory animals (NIH Publications No. 8023, revised 1978) and the authors should clearly indicate in the manuscript that such guidelines have been followed. The sex of animals must be indicated, and where appropriate, the influence (or association) of sex on the results of the study.Declaration of interest
All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential competing interests include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. Authors must disclose any interests in two places: 1. A summary declaration of interest statement in the title page file (if double-blind) or the manuscript file (if single-blind). If there are no interests to declare then please state this: 'Declarations of interest: none'. This summary statement will be ultimately published if the article is accepted. 2. Detailed disclosures as part of a separate Declaration of Interest form, which forms part of the journal's official records. It is important for potential interests to be declared in both places and that the information matches. More information.
Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract, a published lecture or academic thesis, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder.
Inclusive language acknowledges diversity, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and promotes equal opportunities. Articles should make no assumptions about the beliefs or commitments of any reader, should contain nothing which might imply that one individual is superior to another on the grounds of race, sex, culture or any other characteristic, and should use inclusive language throughout. Authors should ensure that writing is free from bias, for instance by using 'he or she', 'his/her' instead of 'he' or 'his', and by making use of job titles that are free of stereotyping (e.g. 'chairperson' instead of 'chairman' and 'flight attendant' instead of 'stewardess').
Changes to authorship
Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the journal Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed.
Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted. While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the Editor will result in a corrigendum.
Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (see more information on this). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.
Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations. If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases.For gold open access articles: Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an 'Exclusive License Agreement' (more information). Permitted third party reuse of gold open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license.
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. More information.
Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.
Role of the funding source
You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.
Elsevier has established a number of agreements with funding bodies which allow authors to comply with their funder's open access policies. Some funding bodies will reimburse the author for the gold open access publication fee. Details of existing agreements are available online.
• Articles are made available to subscribers as well as developing countries and patient groups through our universal access programs.
• No open access publication fee payable by authors.
• The Author is entitled to post the accepted manuscript in their institution's repository and make this public after an embargo period (known as green Open Access). The published journal article cannot be shared publicly, for example on ResearchGate or Academia.edu, to ensure the sustainability of peer-reviewed research in journal publications. The embargo period for this journal can be found below.
Gold open access
• Articles are freely available to both subscribers and the wider public with permitted reuse.
• A gold open access publication fee is payable by authors or on their behalf, e.g. by their research funder or institution.
Regardless of how you choose to publish your article, the journal will apply the same peer review criteria and acceptance standards.For gold open access articles, permitted third party (re)use is defined by the following Creative Commons user licenses:
Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY)
Lets others distribute and copy the article, create extracts, abstracts, and other revised versions, adaptations or derivative works of or from an article (such as a translation), include in a collective work (such as an anthology), text or data mine the article, even for commercial purposes, as long as they credit the author(s), do not represent the author as endorsing their adaptation of the article, and do not modify the article in such a way as to damage the author's honor or reputation.
The open access fee for this journal is $3 000, excluding taxes. Learn more about Elsevier's pricing policy
This journal has an embargo period of 12 months.
Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop.
Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files (e.g., Word, LaTeX) are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.
Please submit your article via http://ees.elsevier.com/eurpsy/.
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Please submit the names and institutional e-mail addresses of several potential referees. For more details, visit our Support site. Note that the editor retains the sole right to decide whether or not the suggested reviewers are used.
Use of word processing software
It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier). Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork.
To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.
Subdivision - numbered sections
Divide your article into clearly defined and numbered sections. Subsections should be numbered 1.1 (then 1.1.1, 1.1.2, ...), 1.2, etc. (the abstract is not included in section numbering). Use this numbering also for internal cross-referencing: do not just refer to 'the text'. Any subsection may be given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line.
State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results.
It is recommended that the Introduction not exceed 1000 words. European Psychiatry is not a specialist journal. Therefore, in your introduction ensure that you provide sufficient information for an interested general reader to appreciate the context and importance of your work and the hypotheses tested. If abbreviations are used in the Introduction these should be spelled in full first.
Material and methods
Provide sufficient details to allow the work to be reproduced by an independent researcher. Methods that are already published should be summarized, and indicated by a reference. If quoting directly from a previously published method, use quotation marks and also cite the source. Any modifications to existing methods should also be described.
Please consult the journal’s policy on data reporting, before you proceed. In general, this section should provide sufficient information to allow the independent reproduction of the methods used. Subheadings are strongly encouraged to improve readability. Subheadings should not be numbered.
Provide sufficient details to allow the work to be reproduced by an independent researcher. Methods that are already published should be summarized, and indicated by a reference. If quoting directly from a previously published method, use quotation marks and also cite the source. Any modifications to existing methods should also be described.
For well-established techniques, provide a brief description only, supported by appropriate references. For new techniques, provide key information in the main text and additional details, if necessary, as supplemental online material. For manuscripts that include multiple different techniques consider providing a brief description of each technique in the main text and details as supplemental online material. You should provide the name and location of the manufacturer for named equipment and instruments. Drug should be identified by their pharmaceutical names. Trade names should be used only when directly relevant.
A Theory section should extend, not repeat, the background to the article already dealt with in the Introduction and lay the foundation for further work. In contrast, a Calculation section represents a practical development from a theoretical basis.
Standard deviations, rather than standard errors of the mean, are required. All significant and important non-significant results must include the test value, degree(s) of freedom, and probability. For manuscripts that report on randomized clinical trials, you are required to provide all CONSORT material. The CONSORT statement, checklist, and flow diagram can be found at http://www.consort-statement.org.
Results should be clear and concise.
Please consult the journal’s policy on data reporting, before you proceed. In general, the results section should present the data as text, tables and figures. The same information should not be presented in more than one format. For example, information presented as tables should not be described in the text. Subheadings are strongly encouraged to improve readability. Subheadings should not be numbered.
This should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. A combined Results and Discussion section is often appropriate. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature.
It is recommended that you begin the Discussion with a paragraph or less summarizing the key findings of the article. The Discussion should not repeat the results. The Discussion should focus on providing an objective interpretation of the results and on explaining how they inform the field. The Discussion should include appropriate details on the methodological or other limitations of the study. The last two paragraphs of the Discussion should provide a concluding summary and should discuss specific directions for future research.
The main conclusions of the study may be presented in a short Conclusions section, which may stand alone or form a subsection of a Discussion or Results and Discussion section.
If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq. (A.1), Eq. (A.2), etc.; in a subsequent appendix, Eq. (B.1) and so on. Similarly for tables and figures: Table A.1; Fig. A.1, etc.
• Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
• Author names and affiliations. Please clearly indicate the given name(s) and family name(s) of each author and check that all names are accurately spelled. You can add your name between parentheses in your own script behind the English transliteration. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
• Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. This responsibility includes answering any future queries about Methodology and Materials. Ensure that the e-mail address is given and that contact details are kept up to date by the corresponding author.
• Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.
Cover letter: This must include a statement that (a) the manuscript contains original work that has not been published or is under consideration elsewhere; (b) all authors have seen and approved the submitted version of the article; (c) explains the novelty and importance of the data. For papers that include previously published data please consult the editorial policy on prior publication. Title page: The title page should show the title of the paper first. The title should be brief and informative. Whenever possible the title should encapsulate the key message of the article. Then, the full names (including middle initials) of the authors should be given followed by their affiliations. For affiliations please state department, institution, town and country. If authors are affiliated with multiple institutions, each affiliation should be numbered. This number should appear as superscript next to the last name of the affiliated author. Please consult the editorial policy on the eligibility criteria for authorship. Finally, the name, postal address, email and telephone number (with country and area code) of the corresponding author should be stated. There can be only one corresponding author.
A concise and factual abstract is required. The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results and major conclusions. An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. For this reason, References should be avoided, but if essential, then cite the author(s) and year(s). Also, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself.
Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 6 keywords, using American spelling and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, 'and', 'of'). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.
Three to six keywords should be chosen carefully, as they are used for indexing purposes. Whenever possible avoid duplicating words already in the title.
Define abbreviations that are not standard in this field in a footnote to be placed on the first page of the article. Such abbreviations that are unavoidable in the abstract must be defined at their first mention there, as well as in the footnote. Ensure consistency of abbreviations throughout the article.
Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.).
It is not necessary to include detailed descriptions on the program or type of grants and awards. When funding is from a block grant or other resources available to a university, college, or other research institution, submit the name of the institute or organization that provided the funding.If no funding has been provided for the research, please include the following sentence:
This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.Units
Follow internationally accepted rules and conventions: use the international system of units (SI). If other units are mentioned, please give their equivalent in SI.
Special Style Considerations
Gene symbols should be differentiated by species. Symbols for human genes should be all uppercase. Symbols for other species should be lowercase using only an initial capital. Protein products, regardless of species, are not italicized and use all uppercase letters. Approved human gene symbols are available from HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee (HGNC) at http://www.genenames.org/.
Please submit math equations as editable text and not as images. Present simple formulae in line with normal text where possible and use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line for small fractional terms, e.g., X/Y. In principle, variables are to be presented in italics. Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp. Number consecutively any equations that have to be displayed separately from the text (if referred to explicitly in the text).
Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article. Many word processors can build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Otherwise, please indicate the position of footnotes in the text and list the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article. Do not include footnotes in the Reference list.
Figures should be cited in the text and numbered consecutively (i.e., 1, 2, 3) in the order they appear. The preferred file format for figures and graphics is EPS, TIFF, or PDF. Please upload high quality versions of each figure separately (i.e., two figures should be uploaded separately as Figure 1 and Figure 2). Parts/panels in composite figures should be labeled with capital letters (A, B, C). Each figure should be consistent in color, size, and font, and be designed proportionally so that each item within it is to scale (particularly numbers, letters, and symbols) so it can later be sized as needed without loss of legibility or quality. Figure titles and legends should be included as text in the manuscript file and not in the figure file itself. Complete instructions for electronic artwork preparation and submission can be found at https://www.elsevier.com/artwork.
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.
• Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
• Provide captions to illustrations separately.
• Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the published version.
• Submit each illustration as a separate file.
A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available.
You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format.
Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.
Please do not:
• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
• Supply files that are too low in resolution;
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.
Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF), or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color online (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. For color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article. Please indicate your preference for color: in print or online only. Further information on the preparation of electronic artwork.
Elsevier's WebShop offers Illustration Services to authors preparing to submit a manuscript but concerned about the quality of the images accompanying their article. Elsevier's expert illustrators can produce scientific, technical and medical-style images, as well as a full range of charts, tables and graphs. Image 'polishing' is also available, where our illustrators take your image(s) and improve them to a professional standard. Please visit the website to find out more.
Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.
Please submit tables as editable text and not as images. Tables can be placed either next to the relevant text in the article, or on separate page(s) at the end. Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text and place any table notes below the table body. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in them do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article. Please avoid using vertical rules and shading in table cells.
Tables should be cited in the text and numbered consecutively (i.e., 1, 2, 3) in the order they appear. Tables should include brief descriptive title. Abbreviations should be spelled in full in footnotes. Table footnotes should use superscript lowercase letters and not symbols. Tables should be included on the same file as the main manuscript.
References are in Vancouver format (International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals. Fifth Edition. N Engl J Med 1997;336:309-16). In the text, references should appear as numbers between brackets based on the order of citation. At the end of the manuscript, they should be listed in numerical order corresponding to the order of citation in the text. Authors are responsible for the accuracy of their references. All references should be cited in the text by number between brackets based on the order they appear in the text. They should be listed at the end of the main text using the same numbering. All references cited in the text should be listed and all listed references should appear next to the corresponding text. References in tables and figures should also be numbered. List all authors. The names of the journals should be abbreviated according to those used in the latest edition of Index Medicus. The volume, issue and first and last pages should be included. Abstracts should be marked as such. Papers that have been submitted or accepted but are not available online should not be cited. Papers in preparation should not be cited. Examples:
Journal article, published in print:
Schneider C, Corrigall R, Hayes D, Kyriakopoulos M, Frangou S. Systematic review of the efficacy and tolerability of clozapine in the treatment of youth with early onset schizophrenia. Eur Psychiatry. 2014;29(1):1-10.
Journal article, published online only (either in press or in electronic only journal):
Schneider C, Corrigall R, Hayes D, Kyriakopoulos M, Frangou S. Systematic review of the efficacy and tolerability of clozapine in the treatment of youth with early onset schizophrenia. Eur Psychiatry https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eurpsy.2013.08.001.
American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM5), 5th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press. 2013.
Smith AB. In: Jones AB, editor. Principles of Science, 2nd ed. New York: Elsevier. 2014; 111-171.
Citation in text
Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.
Increased discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, CrossRef and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the DOI is highly encouraged.
A DOI is guaranteed never to change, so you can use it as a permanent link to any electronic article. An example of a citation using DOI for an article not yet in an issue is: VanDecar J.C., Russo R.M., James D.E., Ambeh W.B., Franke M. (2003). Aseismic continuation of the Lesser Antilles slab beneath northeastern Venezuela. Journal of Geophysical Research, https://doi.org/10.1029/2001JB000884. Please note the format of such citations should be in the same style as all other references in the paper.Web references
As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.
This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in your published article.
Please ensure that the words 'this issue' are added to any references in the list (and any citations in the text) to other articles in the same Special Issue.
Reference management software
Most Elsevier journals have their reference template available in many of the most popular reference management software products. These include all products that support Citation Style Language styles, such as Mendeley. Using citation plug-ins from these products, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article, after which citations and bibliographies will be automatically formatted in the journal's style. If no template is yet available for this journal, please follow the format of the sample references and citations as shown in this Guide. If you use reference management software, please ensure that you remove all field codes before submitting the electronic manuscript. More information on how to remove field codes from different reference management software.
Users of Mendeley Desktop can easily install the reference style for this journal by clicking the following link:
When preparing your manuscript, you will then be able to select this style using the Mendeley plug-ins for Microsoft Word or LibreOffice.
Text: Indicate references by number(s) in square brackets in line with the text. The actual authors can be referred to, but the reference number(s) must always be given.
List: Number the references (numbers in square brackets) in the list in the order in which they appear in the text.
Reference to a journal publication:
 Van der Geer J, Hanraads JAJ, Lupton RA. The art of writing a scientific article. J Sci Commun 2010;163:51–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.Sc.2010.00372.
Reference to a journal publication with an article number:
 Van der Geer J, Hanraads JAJ, Lupton RA. The art of writing a scientific article. Heliyon. 2018;19:e00205. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2018.e00205
Reference to a book:
 Strunk Jr W, White EB. The elements of style. 4th ed. New York: Longman; 2000.
Reference to a chapter in an edited book:
 Mettam GR, Adams LB. How to prepare an electronic version of your article. In: Jones BS, Smith RZ, editors. Introduction to the electronic age, New York: E-Publishing Inc; 2009, p. 281–304.
Reference to a website:
 Cancer Research UK. Cancer statistics reports for the UK, http://www.cancerresearchuk.org/aboutcancer/statistics/cancerstatsreport/; 2003 [accessed 13 March 2003].
Reference to a dataset:
[dataset]  Oguro M, Imahiro S, Saito S, Nakashizuka T. Mortality data for Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions, Mendeley Data, v1; 2015. https://doi.org/10.17632/xwj98nb39r.1.
Note shortened form for last page number. e.g., 51–9, and that for more than 6 authors the first 6 should be listed followed by 'et al.' For further details you are referred to 'Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts submitted to Biomedical Journals' (J Am Med Assoc 1997;277:927–34) (see also Samples of Formatted References).
Journal abbreviations source
Journal names should be abbreviated according to the List of Title Word Abbreviations.
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