Guide for Authors

All journal information and instructions compiled in one document (PDF) in just one mouse-click Author information pack

INTRODUCTION
• Submission checklist
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
• Ethics in publishing
• Declaration of interest
• Submission declaration and verification
• Authorship
• Reporting clinical trials (CONSORT)
• Reporting guidelines
• Systematic reviews and meta-analyses
• Registration of clinical trials (ICMJE)
• Copyright
• Role of the funding source
• Open access
• Submission
PREPARATION
• Article structure
• Essential title page information
• Keywords
• Abbreviations
• Units
• Materials/proprietary drugs
• Statistics
• Artwork
• References
• Supplementary material
• AudioSlides
• Additional information
• Short reports
• Reviews and editorials
• Coup d'oeil
• Jugaar (Innovation)
• Letters, book reviews and forthcoming events
AFTER ACCEPTANCE
• Proofs
• Offprints
AUTHOR INQUIRIES



The European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery publishes original articles, editorials, reviews and short reports. All manuscripts are peer-reviewed. We urge authors to submit their manuscript in the correct format if they wish to avoid rejection.

Submission checklist

You can use this list to carry out a final check of your submission before you send it to the journal for review. Please check the relevant section in this Guide for Authors for more details.

Ensure that the following items are present:

One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
• E-mail address
• Full postal address

All necessary files have been uploaded:
Manuscript:
• Include keywords
• All figures (include relevant captions)
• All tables (including titles, description, footnotes)
• Ensure all figure and table citations in the text match the files provided
• Indicate clearly if color should be used for any figures in print
Graphical Abstracts / Highlights files (where applicable)
Supplemental files (where applicable)

Further considerations
• Manuscript has been 'spell checked' and 'grammar checked'
• All references mentioned in the Reference List are cited in the text, and vice versa
• Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Internet)
• Relevant declarations of interest have been made
• Journal policies detailed in this guide have been reviewed
• Referee suggestions and contact details provided, based on journal requirements

For further information, visit our Support Center.

Ethics in publishing

Please see our information pages on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication.

Work on human beings that is submitted to European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery should comply with the principles laid down in the Declaration of Helsinki (Recommendations guiding physicians in biomedical research involving human subjects. Adopted by the 18th World Medical Assembly, Helsinki, Finland, June 1964, amended by the 29th World Medical Assembly, Tokyo, Japan, October 1975, the 35th World Medical Assembly, Venice, Italy, October 1983, and the 41st World Medical Assembly, Hong Kong, September 1989). The manuscript should contain a statement that the work has been approved by the appropriate ethical committees related to the institution(s) in which it was performed and that subjects gave informed consent to the work. Studies involving experiments with animals must state that their care was in accordance with institution guidelines. Patients (and volunteers) names, initials, and hospital numbers should not be used.

Declaration of interest

All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. If there are no conflicts of interest then please state this: 'Conflicts of interest: none'. More information.

Conflict of interest statement
At the end of the text, under a subheading 'Conflict of interest statement', all authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organisations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding.

If you have published similar work before, then please tell us and send us copies of previous publications so that we may assess the degree of overlap.

Submission declaration and verification

Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' section of our ethics policy for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service CrossCheck.

Authorship

All authors should have made substantial contributions to all of the following: (1) the conception and design of the study, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data, (2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content, (3) final approval of the version to be submitted.

Acknowledgements
All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship as defined above should be listed in an acknowledgements section. Examples of those who might be acknowledged include a person who provided purely technical help, writing assistance, or a department chair who provided only general support. Authors should disclose whether they had any writing assistance and identify the entity that paid for this assistance.

Please note:
Authorship must be finalized in advance of manuscript submission and acceptance. Please ensure that authorship is correct at the point of submission as this may not be updated later.

Reporting clinical trials (CONSORT)

All randomised controlled trials submitted for publication in the European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery should include a completed Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) flow chart. Please refer to the CONSORT statement website at http://www.consort-statement.org for more information. European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery has adopted the proposal from the ICMJE which require, as a condition of consideration for publication of clinical trials, registration in a public trials registry. Trials must register at or before the onset of patient enrolment. The clinical trial registration number (ISRCTN) should be included at the end of the abstract of the article. For this purpose, a clinical trial is defined as any research project that prospectively assigns human subjects to intervention or comparison groups to study the cause-and-effect relationship between a medical intervention and a health outcome. Studies designed for other purposes, such as to study pharmacokinetics or major toxicity (e.g. phase I trials) would be exempt. Further information can be found at http://www.icmje.org

Reporting guidelines

The Editors of the EJVES are keen to help authors write their manuscripts in a manner that is likely to make them more scientifically robust. To that end, we have prepared guidance on how to prepare a manuscript which involves; (1) randomised trials, (2) systematic reviews and meta-analyses, (3) observational studies and (4) studies involving animals. Guidance for the preparation of these papers can be found here.

Systematic reviews and meta-analyses

Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials of studies that evaluate health care interventions and of observational studies submitted to the European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery must follow the recommendations of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) statement. See http://www.prisma-statement.org or BMJ 2009;339:b2535. Reports should include a flow diagram of study inclusion and exclusion and the abstract headings (Objectives, Data Sources, Review Methods, Results, Conclusions) as described in the PRISMA guidelines.Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of diagnostic research should include a methodological assessment, guided by e.g. the QUADAS-2 tool, an instrument specifically developed for quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies. Ann Intern Med 2011;155:29-36.

Registration of clinical trials (ICMJE)

We subscribe to the `Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals, published by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, available from http://www.icmje.org.

Article transfer service
This journal is part of our Article Transfer Service. This means that if the Editor feels your article is more suitable in one of our other participating journals, then you may be asked to consider transferring the article to one of those. If you agree, your article will be transferred automatically on your behalf with no need to reformat. Please note that your article will be reviewed again by the new journal. More information.

Copyright

Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (see more information on this). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.

Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations. If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases.

For open access articles: Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an 'Exclusive License Agreement' (more information). Permitted third party reuse of open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license.

Author rights
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. More information.

Elsevier supports responsible sharing
Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.

Role of the funding source

You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.

All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship as defined above should be listed in an acknowledgements section.

Funding body agreements and policies
Elsevier has established a number of agreements with funding bodies which allow authors to comply with their funder's open access policies. Some funding bodies will reimburse the author for the Open Access Publication Fee. Details of existing agreements are available online.
After acceptance, open access papers will be published under a noncommercial license. For authors requiring a commercial CC BY license, you can apply after your manuscript is accepted for publication.

Open access

This journal offers authors a choice in publishing their research:

Open access
• Articles are freely available to both subscribers and the wider public with permitted reuse.
• An open access publication fee is payable by authors or on their behalf, e.g. by their research funder or institution.
Subscription
• Articles are made available to subscribers as well as developing countries and patient groups through our universal access programs.
• No open access publication fee payable by authors.

Regardless of how you choose to publish your article, the journal will apply the same peer review criteria and acceptance standards.

For open access articles, permitted third party (re)use is defined by the following Creative Commons user licenses:

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND)
For non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.

The open access publication fee for this journal is USD 3300, excluding taxes. Learn more about Elsevier's pricing policy: https://www.elsevier.com/openaccesspricing.

Green open access
Authors can share their research in a variety of different ways and Elsevier has a number of green open access options available. We recommend authors see our green open access page for further information. Authors can also self-archive their manuscripts immediately and enable public access from their institution's repository after an embargo period. This is the version that has been accepted for publication and which typically includes author-incorporated changes suggested during submission, peer review and in editor-author communications. Embargo period: For subscription articles, an appropriate amount of time is needed for journals to deliver value to subscribing customers before an article becomes freely available to the public. This is the embargo period and it begins from the date the article is formally published online in its final and fully citable form.

This journal has an embargo period of 12 months.

Language (usage and editing services)
Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop.

Submission

Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files (e.g., Word, LaTeX) are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.

Submit your article
Please submit your article via http://www.ees.elsevier.com/ejves/.

Use of word processing software
It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier). Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork.
To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.

Article structure

Length
Articles should be as brief as possible, a maximum of 4000 words including references, and we will shorten lengthy manuscripts. The discussion should be clear, concise, and limited to matters arising directly from the results. Papers should include a maximum of 7 figures/illustrated images/tables.

Each of the following sections should begin on a new page, with all pages numbered serially:
•Title page
•Abstract and 3-6 key words
•Main text in the format of Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results and Discussion
•Acknowledgements
•References
•Tables
•Legends for illustrations.

Use automatic page numbering but avoid other kinds of automatic formatting such as footnotes, endnotes, headers and footers.

Put the text, references, tables and legends for figures in one file, and each figure in a separate file.

Word count
Please indicate the word count on the front page of your manuscript.

Subdivision - unnumbered sections
Divide your article into clearly defined sections. Each subsection is given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line. Subsections should be used as much as possible when cross-referencing text: refer to the subsection by heading as opposed to simply 'the text'.

Use the standard format (Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion).<\p>

What this paper adds (original research articles and reviews only)
Please provide a brief statement (maximum 100 words) to answer the question "What does this study/review add to the existing literature and how will it influence future clinical practice". At the discretion of the editors, this statement may be placed at the beginning of the published article.

Essential title page information

Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
Author names and affiliations. Please clearly indicate the given name(s) and family name(s) of each author and check that all names are accurately spelled. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that the e-mail address is given and that contact details are kept up to date by the corresponding author.
Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.

The title page should additionally include:
•The category for which the manuscript is being submitted (original article, leading article, review, case report, technique, or lesson of the month).
•A short title of not more than 50 characters (running head).

The abstract should not exceed 300 words and should conform to the following format:
•Objectives
•Design
•Materials
•Methods
•Results
•Conclusions

Graphical abstract
Although a graphical abstract is optional, its use is encouraged as it draws more attention to the online article. The graphical abstract should summarize the contents of the article in a concise, pictorial form designed to capture the attention of a wide readership. Graphical abstracts should be submitted as a separate file in the online submission system. Image size: Please provide an image with a minimum of 531 × 1328 pixels (h × w) or proportionally more. The image should be readable at a size of 5 × 13 cm using a regular screen resolution of 96 dpi. Preferred file types: TIFF, EPS, PDF or MS Office files. You can view Example Graphical Abstracts on our information site.
Authors can make use of Elsevier's Illustration and Enhancement service to ensure the best presentation of their images and in accordance with all technical requirements: Illustration Service.

Keywords

Three to six keywords or short phrases that will assist indexers in cross-referencing the article should be included. Terms from the medical subject headings (MeSH) list of Index Medicus should be used (see http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov).

Abbreviations

Authors should limit the use of abbreviations. Terms which are mentioned frequently may be abbreviated but only if this does not detract from reader comprehension. Abbreviations for SI units and statistical terms are those in Baron DN (ed): Units, Symbols and Abbreviations: A Guide for Biological and Medical Editors and Authors 4th ed. London, Royal Society of Medicine, 1994.

Acknowledgements
Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.).

The acknowledgements page should specify:
•Contributions that need acknowledging but do not justify authorship, e.g. technical help
•Sources of financial and material support.

Formatting of funding sources
List funding sources in this standard way to facilitate compliance to funder's requirements:

Funding: This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health [grant numbers xxxx, yyyy]; the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, WA [grant number zzzz]; and the United States Institutes of Peace [grant number aaaa].

It is not necessary to include detailed descriptions on the program or type of grants and awards. When funding is from a block grant or other resources available to a university, college, or other research institution, submit the name of the institute or organization that provided the funding.

If no funding has been provided for the research, please include the following sentence:

This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Units

The decimal point and not a comma should be used, e.g. 6.89 not 6,89. A space rather than a comma should follow thousands and multiples thereof, e.g. 10 000 not 10,000.

Measurements of length, height, weight and volume should be reported in metric units (metre, kilogram, litre) or their decimal multiples. Temperatures should be given in degrees Celsius and blood pressure in millimetres of mercury. All other measurements, including laboratory measurements, should be reported in the metric system in terms of the International System of Units (SI).

Materials/proprietary drugs

When quoting specific materials or proprietary drugs, authors must state in parentheses the name and address of the manufacturer. Generic names should be used whenever possible.

Statistics

Authors are responsible for the accuracy of all statistical calculations. Detailed guidance on the handling of statistical material can be found at http://cdn.elsevier.com/promis_misc/ejvesstat.pdf

Artwork

Permissions
All authors wishing to use illustrations already published must first obtain the permission of the author and publisher and/or copyright holders and give precise reference to the original work. Permission to reproduce illustrations should always be obtained before submission and details included with the captions.

Electronic artwork
General points
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.
• Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
• Provide captions to illustrations separately.
• Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the published version.
• Submit each illustration as a separate file.
A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available.
You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
Formats
If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format.
Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.
Please do not:
• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
• Supply files that are too low in resolution;
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

Color artwork
Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF) or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color online (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) in addition to color reproduction in print. Further information on the preparation of electronic artwork.

Illustration services
Elsevier's WebShop offers Illustration Services to authors preparing to submit a manuscript but concerned about the quality of the images accompanying their article. Elsevier's expert illustrators can produce scientific, technical and medical-style images, as well as a full range of charts, tables and graphs. Image 'polishing' is also available, where our illustrators take your image(s) and improve them to a professional standard. Please visit the website to find out more.

Figure captions
Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.

Tables should be kept as simple as possible and wherever possible a graphical presentation used instead.

References

Please ensure that you include all relevant references to previous articles in the European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery.

Reference links
Increased discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, CrossRef and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the DOI is encouraged.

A DOI can be used to cite and link to electronic articles where an article is in-press and full citation details are not yet known, but the article is available online. A DOI is guaranteed never to change, so you can use it as a permanent link to any electronic article. An example of a citation using DOI for an article not yet in an issue is: VanDecar J.C., Russo R.M., James D.E., Ambeh W.B., Franke M. (2003). Aseismic continuation of the Lesser Antilles slab beneath northeastern Venezuela. Journal of Geophysical Research, http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2001JB000884i. Please note the format of such citations should be in the same style as all other references in the paper.

Web references
As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.

Reference management software
Most Elsevier journals have their reference template available in many of the most popular reference management software products. These include all products that support Citation Style Language styles, such as Mendeley and Zotero, as well as EndNote. Using the word processor plug-ins from these products, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article, after which citations and bibliographies will be automatically formatted in the journal's style. If no template is yet available for this journal, please follow the format of the sample references and citations as shown in this Guide.

Users of Mendeley Desktop can easily install the reference style for this journal by clicking the following link:
http://open.mendeley.com/use-citation-style/european-journal-of-vascular-and-endovascular-surgery
When preparing your manuscript, you will then be able to select this style using the Mendeley plug-ins for Microsoft Word or LibreOffice.

Reference style
References should be typed with double spacing and cited in the Vancouver style. Unpublished communications should be cited in the text, in parentheses.

In the text, references should be numbered consecutively by superscript: 1,2 or 1-3. References should be listed in numerical order at the end of the article. The sequence for a journal article is: author(s), title of paper, journal name (abbreviated as in Index Medicus or written in full if no abbreviation quoted), year of publication, volume number, first and last pages. If there are more than six authors list only the first six followed by 'et al.' Journal titles should be abbreviated according to Index Medicus (see http://www.nlm.nih.gov/tsd/serials/lji.html). The sequence for a book is: author(s), editor(s) or compiler(s), title and edition number, place of publication and publisher's name, year of publication, first and last pages (if relevant).

Examples:
1. Bunt TJ. Synthetic vascular graft infection. J Vasc Surg 1983; 94:1-9.
2. Roos DB. Transaxillary first rib resection for thoracic outlet syndrome. In: Bergan JJ, Yao JST eds. Operative Techniques in Vascular Surgery. New York: Grune and Stratton, 1980: 125-129.

Journal abbreviations source
Journal names should be abbreviated according to the List of Title Word Abbreviations.

Supplementary material

Supplementary material can support and enhance your scientific research. Supplementary files offer the author additional possibilities to publish supporting applications, high-resolution images, background datasets, sound clips and more. Please note that such items are published online exactly as they are submitted; there is no typesetting involved (supplementary data supplied as an Excel file or as a PowerPoint slide will appear as such online). Please submit the material together with the article and supply a concise and descriptive caption for each file. If you wish to make any changes to supplementary data during any stage of the process, then please make sure to provide an updated file, and do not annotate any corrections on a previous version. Please also make sure to switch off the 'Track Changes' option in any Microsoft Office files as these will appear in the published supplementary file(s). For more detailed instructions please visit our artwork instruction pages.

AudioSlides

The journal encourages authors to create an AudioSlides presentation with their published article. AudioSlides are brief, webinar-style presentations that are shown next to the online article on ScienceDirect. This gives authors the opportunity to summarize their research in their own words and to help readers understand what the paper is about. More information and examples are available. Authors of this journal will automatically receive an invitation e-mail to create an AudioSlides presentation after acceptance of their paper.

Additional information

Design
Authors should set out clearly the objectives of the study and state whether the study was retrospective or prospective. Randomised trials must include the items included in the CONSORT statement (see 'Randomised Controlled Trials', above).

Presentation
Wherever possible a graphical presentation should be used to illustrate the main findings of a study. Base the graph on data points unless the sample sizes are very large. When plotting life tables always indicate the numbers of individuals at risk at the various times of follow-up. Avoid the use of 'error bars' showing 1 standard deviation or standard error.

The use of a mean and standard deviation (SD) to describe a distribution is only appropriate when the distribution is known to be normal. For non-parametric data, the median is a better measure of the centre of the distribution and the range or interquartile range (IQR), a better measure of spread. Avoid spurious precision; percentages should generally be given as integers.

Analysis
There should be a clear description of which methods were used, and any analyses not in common usage should be supported by references. In general, 'non-parametric' analyses should be used, e.g. the Mann-Whitney test for comparing two groups and the Wilcoxon test for comparing the changes to a group.

Strive to limit the number of statistical tests performed, especially on subgroups. If you cannot avoid multiple comparisons, then use an appropriate adjustment to avoid a 'type 1' (false-positive) error. Results of statistical tests should be reported by stating the value of the test statistic (t), the number of degrees of freedom (df) and the P value to two decimal places, e.g. t = 1.34, 16 df, P = 0.20.

Where possible, the results of the primary analysis should be reported using confidence intervals instead of, or in addition to, P values. Do not use statistical tests to compare the baseline characteristics of study groups, but rather use adjusted analyses to investigate the effect of such imbalances.

When reporting results involving small cohorts (<100 cases), avoid using decimal points (i.e. round up to nearest number) and report P-values with a maximum of three decimal places (e.g. 45 mm, P = 0.012). Proportions involving small cohorts should be reported as ratios (e.g. 2/15).

Interpretation
Statistical significance should not be confused with clinical relevance. Use confidence intervals to assess clinical relevance, especially when interpreting a 'negative' finding. Do not place undue emphasis on secondary analyses, especially when they were suggested by an inspection of the data.

Short reports

Short reports / case reports should now be submitted to EJVES Short Reports - this is a new open access journal launched by the ESVS as a companion to EJVES and is dedicated to publishing short reports, technical notes and videos of surgical techniques. The journal will be submitted to PubMed Central for indexing. Authors are expected to pay a fee for publication, which is $500 / €400 and ESVS members can take up a 20% discount and pay only €320. You can submit articles to EJVES Short Reports here: http://ees.elsevier.com/ejvssr.

The print edition of the EJVES will only ever consider publishing a case report if there is a valuable educational message. Such reports may describe a rare or novel pathology (that has not been published before) or present an important technical innovation or modification (that has not been published before). Other potentially acceptable contents might include innovative technical instructions for particularly important established surgical or interventional approaches ('technical notes') and evidence-based guidance on important and specific clinical questions ('best evidence topics' in the form of systematic mini-reviews) both of which should be aimed at sharing renowned expertise in a particular field with the community.

Submitted short reports must contain a clear and convincing educational message and, upon submission, authors will be asked to declare exactly what new or innovative learning points are covered and why they merit publication. The assigned Associate Editor will then decide whether the manuscript is relevant enough to undergo external peer review or whether it should be rejected as it does not meet inclusion criteria or submitted to EJVES Short Reports where there is the space to publish short reports. The rejection rate for EJVES itself is expected to be extremely high due to a lack of space for these papers and the decision on whether to accept or reject a manuscript is final. Accordingly, please read the following instructions carefully before submitting your paper in order to avoid disappointment.

Short (case) reports should not exceed 750 words (excluding the abstract which should be < 100 words) and should be constructed according to the criteria described below:
• Please use double line spacing with automated line and page numbering, but avoid other kinds of automatic formatting.
• Front page with exact word counts of the structured abstract (maximum 100) and the text (maximum 750, excluding legends and references). Every submission should include an answer to the following question before the abstract: What unique educational message is provided and why is it relevant?Title page with authors’ (maximum 4) information and 3-6 keywords.
• Structured abstract (maximum 100 words) using the following headings:
Novel pathologies or technical innovations: Introduction – report – conclusion;
Technical notes: Introduction – technical summary – conclusion;
Best evidence topics: Clinical question – search method – results – conclusion.
• Paper including structured text body, references (maximum 5), tables (maximum 2) and legends for figures (maximum 2). The main text should follow the following format:
Novel pathologies or technical innovations: Introduction – Report – Discussion – Conclusion;
Technical notes: Introduction – Surgical Technique – Discussion (highlighting advantages, important considerations, pitfalls and limitations) – Conclusion;
Best evidence topics: Introduction – Clinical scenario and clinical question (which must be specific and answerable) – Search method – Results – Discussion (including limitations of the EBM query) – Conclusion.
• Figures, each in a separate file.

Each manuscript will undergo preliminary assessment by an Associate Editor. If it is not felt to be innovative enough, it will be rejected. Otherwise it will go out to peer review. For 'best evidence topics', a running list of potentially interesting clinical questions is being held at the editorial office for your consideration, and consultation with the editorial office prior to production of the paper is advised.

Reviews and editorials

We encourage the submission of reviews and editorials. The maximum word count for reviews is 5,000 words including references and for editorials 1,000 words including references. Priority will be given to editorials addressing a current problem, systematic reviews and meta-analyses. We advise potential authors seeking advice on the suitability of topics to email the editorial office at ejves@elsevier.com

Coup d'oeil

EJVES has introduced a new type of article, called 'coup d'oeil'. This takes the form of a single interesting and informative image. A brief title should be supplied along with text describing the image using no more than 100 words. Two authors maximum and no references. Any image being considered for coup d'oeil should be submitted via the EJVES EES electronic submission website. Please note that any submission not complying with these criteria will be rejected.

Jugaar (Innovation)

The article should present a technical innovation, a novel procedure or a novel technical modification to or as part of a procedure. Please limit the word count to 300 words and two high quality images. There should be a maximum of 2 authors. No references are required. The article should be structured as: Introduction, Technique, Conclusion (an abstract is not required).

Letters, book reviews and forthcoming events

We welcome letters commenting on articles in the Journal and notification of forthcoming events, maximum 300 words including references. Email your letter or details of forthcoming events as an attached Word file to the editorial office at ejves@elsevier.com.

Proofs

One set of page proofs (as PDF files) will be sent by e-mail to the corresponding author (if we do not have an e-mail address then paper proofs will be sent by post) or, a link will be provided in the e-mail so that authors can download the files themselves. Elsevier now provides authors with PDF proofs which can be annotated; for this you will need to download the free Adobe Reader, version 9 (or higher). Instructions on how to annotate PDF files will accompany the proofs (also given online). The exact system requirements are given at the Adobe site.
If you do not wish to use the PDF annotations function, you may list the corrections (including replies to the Query Form) and return them to Elsevier in an e-mail. Please list your corrections quoting line number. If, for any reason, this is not possible, then mark the corrections and any other comments (including replies to the Query Form) on a printout of your proof and scan the pages and return via e-mail. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication: please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.

Offprints

The corresponding author will, at no cost, receive a customized Share Link providing 50 days free access to the final published version of the article on ScienceDirect. The Share Link can be used for sharing the article via any communication channel, including email and social media. For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's Webshop. Corresponding authors who have published their article open access do not receive a Share Link as their final published version of the article is available open access on ScienceDirect and can be shared through the article DOI link.



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